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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine February 1983"

February 
USA $2.95 (UK JC2.00) 






A WAYNE GREEN PUBLICATION 



the magazine for TRS-80' users 



Micros: The New Supertoys 



Educating Your Child 

Six Simple Programs 
Told Out of School 

A Kid Wrote This? 

Young Programmers 
Show Their Stuff i 




ii 



Also Inside: 

)ur 11/16 
Beydnd^asic Programming 
Poetry in Motion • 
Son of Pilot 
The Model 16 Reviewed 




1 li 
1 ' 


1.7 




1 
1 


02 

1 

i 



- TRS40 IS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACK. A DIVISION OF TANOV CORP 



More and more hardware and communications services are allowing speeds up to 1200 baud. Soon, some may be going 
faster ttian ttiot. Today's terminal software simply can't keep up. But now there is an alternative. Micro-Systems Software in- 
troduces Microferm, ttie high speed terminal, 

Model III MicroTerm will communicate, without insertion of null characters, ot 4800 baud. Guaranteed. No cop-outs, 
no guestion. MicroTerm is so fast that you can exit from the terminal to the main menu, adjust video width, open the buffer, 
turn on the printer, or any one of dozens of other functions, and return to the terminal model without missing a thing! 

MicroTerm continues to input from the RS232, even while at the main menu. This is the only terminal capable of such 
an astounding feat. MicroTerm offers you most of the features that "Brand X" smart terminals have, plus it gives you: • Ultra high 
baud rote operation (up to 9600 in certain cases). • Input while at menu. • Easy to use translation tables. • Easy to use phone 
number listings. • Maximum auto dial support — most major brands. • Direct file transfer companion program included at no 
exta cost (compatible with DFT). • DOS commands from menu without exiting program. • Over 34K of capture buffer {in a 48K 
TRS-80). • Con be set to outomotically dial telephone and transmit buffer at preset time without any operator intervention. 

And many, many more great features, MicroTerm is so fast you must see it to believe it, The various menus are displayed 
so fast, they seem to jump out atyou. Status of various functions con be displayed and altered in split seconds. 

For the computerist who wants the ultimate, state-of-the-art terminal software, there Is no other choice. 
■ MicroTerm retails for $79.95, but registered DOSPLUS owners can purchase it for only $59.95. $20.00 off the retail price! 
MicroTerm comes complete with the terminal program, the direct file transfer program, some standard translation tables, and 
documentation. 

Don't delay, order yours today! Specify when ordering: Mode! I or III and whether you want ft on 40 or 80 track media. 
Requires a 16K TRS-80 with one disk drive. We recommend 4BK for serious communications work, MicroTerm will be available 
beginning June 30, 1982. 





MICRO-SYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE, INC, 

^'4301-18Oak circle 
Boca Raton, FL 33431 
Telephone: (305) 983<3390 ^3W 







We're Expanding Your 

TRS-80* Model III 

With Reliable Hard-Line Thinking 

Let's cut through all the "compu-babble" about hard-disk systems with some hard-line 
thinking. 

You want a hard-disk system for your TRS-80* Model III for some fairly basic reasons: 

• More storage capacity than your present 
system 

• Faster retrieval and storage of information 
•Accurate processing with reliable hardware and 

software 
PERCOM DATA was pioneering critical, reliable data separation functions for micro 
systems long before many of today's companies even began. PERCOM DATA'S solid 
industry reputation is your promise of hard-disk performance, from a drive with speci- 
fications equal to or superior to your own system. 

PERCOM DATA 5'A inch PHD's'" are your easy, hard-line answer. These units are 
available in 5. 10. 15 and 30 megabyte models. The First Drive unit has a micro- 
processor-based drive controller, permitting you to add up to 3 more hard-disk PHD's. 
And PHD series prices begin at under $2500. 

So. if you're ready to expand your TRS-80 Model 111, do it with PERCOM DATA'S PHD. 
Our hard-line thinking of more than half a decade means you get a reliable, high-quality 
PERCOM DATA peripheral, backed by the PERCOM DATA Performance Promise. 

Take a hard-line of your own today! Call one of our Sales Consultants for more 
information and specifications or for the name of your close-by PERCOM DATA Dealer. 

PERCOM DATA'S Hard-Line Hotline is 1-800-527-1222 



IPERQOM OATA 



CORPORATION 

Expanding Your Peripheral Vision 



DRIVES 



NETWORKS 



SOFTWARE 



11220 Pagemill Road Dallas, Texas 75243 (214) 340-7081 
1-800-527-1222 



TflS-flO is a regisiered iratJemark ol Tandy fladio Shack Corporation 



Features 



38. The Nexl Step 

A new column on combining Basic 
and macliine language. 
Hardin Brothers 

40. Suite 16 

A new column on the Model II 

and 11/16. 

Dan Keen and Dave Dischert 

166. States and Capitals 

Quick. What's the capital of Ohio? If 
you guessed Cleveland or Toledo, 
you'd better use this states program 
to refresh your nnemory. 
Dennis Weide 




February, 1983 
Issue #37 



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'TRS-80, Scrlpsit and TRSDOS are trade- 
marks ol Tandy Corp. 



Cover by William Glese 



178. Spelling Challenger 

With these three word games, your 
kids can learn their spelling words 
while having a good time. 
Larry Krengel 



184. Math Fun 

i_i=t-| Your children will have so much fun 
playing with your micro tfiat they 
won't even notice they're learning 
addition and subtraction. 
David Haan 



208. Michael's Game 

Youngsters don't have to grow up 
afraid of micros. Start them off early 
with this game program that 
teaches letters and numbers. 
Nancy Modney 



212. Refrigerator Controller 

Got an old refrigerator hanging 
around? This unit will let you control 
its lighting and temperature for all 
sorts of science projects. 
Doug Biedenweg 



237. Horse Race II 

This revision of a previously pub- 
lished program makes it a more 
useful educational tool. 
Danley Christensen 



270. Twinkle, Twinkle, LitUe Star 

With a little help from you and some 
imaginative graphics, the TRS-80 be- 
comes a poet. 
Bill Grout 



In our January issue, we published 
a program by Bruce Tonkin called 
The Creator. It has since come to our 
attention that Software Technology 
for Computers (PO Box 428, Bel- 
mont, MA 02178) markets a pro- 
gram generator that is also called 
The Creator, and holds a trademark 
to that name. These programs are in 
no way related, and should not be 
confused with one another. 

We regret any inconveniences we 
might have caused STC or our 
readers. 



Young 

Programmer's 

Awards 



84. Introducing the Young 
Programmers' Awards 

We've known for some time kids make 
up a significant portion of our readers, 
but we weren't ready for this! 



^6 WOGR^^ 

£ BOmicro "^ 

WINNERS 

Contest 



85. Quest for the Key of Nightshade 

\-"-J An adventure written in Assembly 
language. 
David Schmidt (Grand Prize) 

96. Project Deep Dive 

j;^^| Guide your sub through a winding tun- 
nel while trying to avoid mines and 
torpedo launchers. 
MIchaelJohn Lake (First Place, 14-18} 

104. Music Compo.ser 

Store up to 200 notes on your Color 
Computer and save the music 
you've created on tape. 
Carl Huben (First Place, 11-13) 

108. Super Draw 

n^3 Make your CRT a sketch pad, save 
your drawings, and recall them at a 
later date. 

Terry Myerson (First Place, 
10 and under) 

116. TRS-Turtle 

l-iT-J Now bring this famous teaching tool 
into your Tandy machine. 
Larry Brackney (Second Place, 14-18) 

124. The Lair of Kraken 

Travel through an underwater pal- 
ace battling the abominable Kraken. 
Beth Norman (Second Place, 11-13) 



4 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



132. Byle Cycles 

A joystick game a la the light cycle 
races in IRON. 
Nathan Miller (Second Place, 
10 and under) 

134. Boxer 

Uin Test your pugilistic skill in this nif- 

|HLui»n| ■" 1- =1 

ty game involving you against the 
computer. 
Lloyd Kupchanko 
(Third Place. 14-18) 



149. Foreign Flag Quiz 

P=D Test your knowledge of 
world draperies. 
Jennifer Neidenbach 
(Third Place, 11-13) 



152. CASS-80 

Cny Have your own cassette-based bul- 
letin-board system. 
Scott Steele (Third Place, 11-13) 

160. Math Countdown 

p^ A computer class programming as- 
signment turns Into a valuable learn- 
ing tool. 

Adam Wells (Third Place, 
10 and under) 



244. The Art of Encoding and Decoding 

Use your computer to translate your 
messages into an indecipherable 
mess; then with this program, you 
can translate them back again. 
Karl Andreassen 




Articles 



198. The Intersoft C Compiler 

This version of the C language incor- 
porates some of the ideas of Pascal 
and Assembly and provides some 
features borrowed from UNIX. 
Rowland Archer 



218. Son of Pilot 

If you've wanted to use Pilot, but It 
did not work on your system, try this 
altered version. 
Randy Hawkins 

224. Cassette index 

If you want to save time when 
loading programs, try this index for 
the Color Computer. 
Andrew Sensicie 

228. The Model 16 

An in-depth review of Tandy's 16-bit 

machine. 

Jim Hawkes 



252. LP VII Screen Printout 

Reproduce the video display on 

paper. 

Serge Calmettes 

254. Fun for the Younger Set 

Introduce your 5-year-old to the 
TRS-80 with these math and word 
programs. 
Safi Bahcall 

256. C-i)riverj;em 

Adjust the color and alignment of 
your color monitor with this Color 
Computer program. 
James A. Sanford 

260. APL Primer— Part III 

This month's installment contains a 
bonanza of functions. To name a 
few: logical operators, shaping, in- 
dexing, and reduction. 
Margaret M. Grothman 



280. Mod II Random Access 

You can benefit from this author's 
migraine headaches caused by 
Model II mishandling of disk data. 
Terry Kepner 

282. Drop Your Color Computer into 
Disk Drive 

Discover life in the fast data lane by 
putting the pedal to the metal oxide. 
Robert Nicholas and Philip Martel 



296. Screen Format Program Generator 

1 ;^^ Save yourself the trouble of figuring 
screen locations, field prompts, and 
input fields and let your computer do 
the work for you. 
Joel Belcher 

310. Peek Pong 

If you thought fast-paced games 
couldn't be written in Basic, Peek 
Pong should surprise you. 
Charles Gulick 



314. Color Lit'j 

Watch communities of organisms 
develop with the Game of Life for the 
Color Computer. 
Larry F. Perry 

328. The Input Specifier 

A subroutine allowing editing of in- 
put and saving your programs from 
crashing. 
G. Schweizer 

332. Color Computer Merpe 

Concatenate your programs on 

tape. 

John Heusinkveld 

334. Transmuter 

Merge Transmuter with another pro- 
gram and you can relabel any and all 
program variables. 
Jon Mark O'Connor 



Departments 



8. 



Remarks 

The 16-bit fad. 
Wayne Green 



10. Proof Notes 

Piracy becomes a political issue. 

12. To Copy or Not to Copy 

A reader offers a helping hand and 
raises a commotion. 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 5 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT 

Mall Smilh 

GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra V^fetheibee 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 

Jeff DeTray 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Roger Murphy 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

603-92'I-9'171 

Palricia Ferranle 

BULK & NEW/SST AND SALES MANAGER 

Gtnnie Boudrleau 

ADVERTISING. 603.92'1-7138 

Advertisrng Manager: David Schissler 

Sales: Penny Broohs. Mary Harwell 

Ad Coordinator: Belly Buller 

New England 

Advertising Representatives: 

Jotin A. Garland. Frank Surace. 

Garland Associates, Inc.. Box 314 SHS. 

Duxbury. MA 02332 617-934-6464 



PRODUCTION 

Manager: Nancy Salmon 

Assistanl: Micfiael Murphy 

Frances Benton. Mike Ford. 

Phil Geraci. Donna Hariwell. 

Kim Nadeau. Lynn Parsons, 

DIanne Ritson. Deborah Slone, 

Theresa Verville. Laura Woerner, 

Karen Wo2mak; 

Ad Coordinators; David W07mak. 

Mary Seaver. Assistant: Paula Ramsey; 

Advertising Production: Jane Preston, 

Fiona Davies. Bruce Hcdm, Scoll Philbrick 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Thomas Villeneuve. Sandra Dukette, 

Laurie Jennison. Irene Vail, 

Robert M. Villeneuve 

TYPESETTING 

Sara Bedetl, Marie Barker, Melody Bedell 

Micttele DesRochers. Jennifer Fay. 

Lynn Haines. Linda Locke. 

Nancy Newman. Debbie Nutting. 

Karen Stewart. Susan Vi/eller 

DESIGN 

Joyce Piliarella, Susan Donolioe. 

Denzel Oyer, Howard Happ, 

Laurie MacMillan. Oion Owens. 

Susan Stevens. Donna Wohllartii 

PROMOTION COORDINATOR 

Christine DesTremps 



The lefl bracket. [, replaces the up arrow 
used by Radio Shack to indicate exponen- 
tiation on our printouts. When entering 
programs published in 80 Micro, you 
Should make this change. 

80 formats its program listings to run 
64-characters wide, the way they look on 
your video screen. This accounts for the 
occasional wrap-around you will notice in 
our program listings. Don't let it throw 
you, particularly when entering assembly 
listings. 

Article submissions from our readers 
are welcomed and encouraged. Inquiries 
should be addressed to: Submissions 
Editor. 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NH 
03458. Include an SASE for a copy of our 
writers' guidelines. Payment for accepted 
articles is made at a rate of approximately 
$50 per printed page; all rights are pur- 
chased. Authors of reviews should con- 
tact the Review Editor, 80 Pine Street. 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 



18. Input 

The new exciting PC-2. Better than 
On Break GOTO. Okidata 83A prob- 
lems. The meaning of baud. 

28. Aid 

Engineering software. Last One 
questions. Interfacing problems 
Down Under. Model III Cassbox? 
Scientific reconstruction of auto 
accidents. 

30. Debug 

Bugs in Casino Draw Poker, tvlodel 
III Graftrax. Digital Doodles. Tee for 
Six. Tax Estimator. 

32. Anniversary Correction 

Directory Information, Please cor- 
rection. Here are the listings. 
Charles P. Knight 

37. Commander 80 

Structured programming blues. 
Jake Commander 

46. Reviews 

Quality instructional lessons with 
Author I. Create compiled Basic pro- 
grams with The Basic Answer. 
Graphics-enhanced Basic. Apple 
Crunch, a computer crime novel. The 
Echo General Purpose Speech Syn- 
thesizer. DBASIC works with FLEX. 
Doughflo. Ultra-Term. Mikeegraphic 
Graphic System. Microbuffer and 
MXPLUS make your Epson perform 
like never before. 

71. Review Digest 

El Diablero— An Adventure Game. 
Telewriter, the disk version. Out- 
house. Fan for the Color Computer. 
Roman Checkers, Tandy's Othello. 



72. Calendar 




80. The Gamer's Cafe 

Wherein a sprite named Mercedes 
Silver helps Max and Rodney win 
back the van from Nurse Lovelace. 
Rodney Gambicus 



342. News 

Tandy's program to help indepen- 
dent software writers. Isaac Asimov 
speaks in Brooklyn. Will rent-a-com- 
puter be a new trend? Pilot service 
center in Dallas may be start of 
something big. Custer's Revenge 
stirs national outrage. 




364. Copernica Mathematica 

Aerobic mathematics. 
Bruce Powel Douglass 

374. MONEY DOS 

First came the hotline, now the bul- 
letin board. 
J.M. Keynes 

380. Fun House 

Dice games called Show Up, Drop 
Dead, and Martinetti. 
Richard Ramella 

387. Index to Advertisers 



406. Feedback Loop 

80 to 35 tracks. Model 1 service 
manual. Expanding RAM. How to 
become an independent service per- 
son. Color Computer light pen. Ex- 
ternal Model 111 double-headed 
drives. Programming in English. 
Computer insurance. 
Terry Kepner 

416. Reload 80 

The finer points of tape loading. 
Art Huston 

420. New Products 

Personal Speech system. CP/M Soft- 
ware Index. 96K for Model I. Printer 
Optimizer. The Amazing Ben. Model 
II Locker. Micromouse. Softrol re- 
corder switch. Zaxxon for Color 
Computer. Food co-op software. 
Bumperware 1.0. 



6 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



THE 
SWITC H 

SWITCH T05 '^8 "DOUBLE DENSITY 

IKDmiblerS/S 




FEATURES 

• 5- and 8-inch* disk drives 

• Single- & double-density 

• Any size and density in any mix 

• Read Model I, II* and III disks 

• 5- or 8-mch* system disk 

• Single & double sided disk drives 

• DOS+ 3.3.9 included, with Disk 
BASIC. 

• 6 month warranty 

• Up to 3.75 megabytes online 

• Easy installation - plug-in & run 

• Analog phase lock loop data 
separation 

• Precision write precompensation 

• Regulated power supply 

• Guaranteed operation at 4MHz 

• All contacts gold plated 

• Solder masked & silk screened 

• Runs under DOS+ 3.3.9, TRSDOS 
2.3, NEWDOS 2.1, NEWDOS/80 
1.0, LDOS, NEWDOS/80 2.0, 
and ULTRADOS 

• Reads 40- and 35-track disks on 
80-track drives 

• FD1791 controller -I- your FD1771 

• Fits Model I expansion interfaces 

• Fits LNW expansion interfaces 

• Track configurations to 80-tracks 

• 5 inch disk storage increased to: 

161,280 bytes - 35-track SS/DD 
322,560 bytes - 35-track DS/DD 
184,320 bytes - 40-track SS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 40-track DS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 80-track SS/DD 
737,280 bytes - 80-track DS/DD 

• 8 inch disk storage increased to: 



591,360 bytes - 77-track SS/DD 
1,182,720 bytes - 77-track DS/DD 
SS: single-sided DS: double-sided 
SD: single-density DD: double-density 

COMPLETE - The LNDoubler 5/8, 
switches your Model I or LNW-80 
into the most versatile computer you 
can own. The LNDoubler's switch 
allows you to boot from 5- or 8-inch 
system disks, and it's accessible from 
outside the interface. The LNDoubler 
5/8 comes with a double-density disk 
operating system (DOS+ 3.3.9), 
complete with BASIC and utility 
programs . . . ready to run your 
software NOW! 

VERSATILE - Whether you want 
single-sided, double-sided, single- or 
double -density, 5- or 8-inch operation, 
complete versatility is here today! 
Any combination of 5- and 8-inch disk 
storage is possible with the 
LNDoubler 5/8. Each of your present 
40-track, single-sided 5-inch drives 
will store up to 184,320 bytes 
(formatted storage) - that's an 80 % 
increase in storage capacity for only 
half the cost of just one disk drive. 
With three 8-inch double-density, 
double-sided drives your Model I will 
have 3.75 Megabytes of online storage 
- that's more storage than a Model II 
or Model III! 

ADVANCED - The LNDoubler 5/8 
is the most technically advanced, 
tested and reliable double- density 



board you can buy. The LNDoubler 
5/8 has more features, more options 
and more software support than any 
other product of its kind. 

EASY TO INSTALL - The 

LNDoubler 5/8 is easy to install. 
There are no traces to cut, no wiring 
to do, just a screwdriver and a few 
minutes of your time is all that is 
required. The instructions are fully 
illustrated for all interfaces. In 
minutes you will be 'up-and-running', 
and enjoying your computer as never 
before. 

COMPARE - Compare features, 
compare quality, compare value, and 
make the SWITCH today! 
Immediate delivery from stock - at 
your dealer NOW for only 



219.95 



DEALERS - You too can 
make The Switch, 




USff^RESEARCH CORPORA TION 



2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 (714)544-5744 (714)641-8850 

*8" drive Operalion requires specild cable, 8" double- tie tisily requires :).o5MHz CPU spted-up mudificuliou or LNW-SD^fMHit compuier. THS-80 is a irndcmark cif Tandy Ciirpijroiicin. 



^3^ 



REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



If you don't think that all eyes in the 
microcomputer industry — including 
those peering through the murk from 
the Tandy Towers in Fort Worth — are 
watching IBM, you're dreaming. As 
soon as news that the IBM Personal 
Computer was going to be using the 
8088 chip (a news flash that preceded 
the unveiling of the computer by several 
months, despite the usual IBM efforts 
at tight security) reached central Texas, 
there was no further question about 
delaying a 16-bit computer. 

Since the enthusiasm for Tandy stock 
seems to be lightly connected by inves- 
tors to the perceived prospects of the 
TRS-80 computers, there seems to be a 
natural Tandy tendency to enhance this 
perception as much as possible. 

Could this single-minded concentra- 
tion on appearances have influenced the 
technical design of the Model 16? It 
does strike some people as curious that 
this system was rushed into production 
before the 16-bit software support was 
even a glimmer in the father's eye. 

When one looks over the 16-bit pro- 
cessors on the market at present, the 
68000 chip selected by Radio Shack 
does at first look like the best way to go. 
It is in many ways like the 6800 chip in 
that it works more in terms of a 32-bit 
system, but does it in 16-bit segments, 
just as the 8-bit chips address a 16-bit 
memory in two steps. 

But why, you might ask, if what we 
really seem to be needing is a 32-bit 
system, are we horsing around with 
16-bit chips? Indeed, I asked just this 
question to a designer of computers. It 
was then I discovered that the serious 
designers of desktop computers have 
dismissed the 16-bit chips as a tempo- 
rary fad, one that will probably lead a 
good many of the software people 
astray for a few months until they real- 
ize that most businesses really need a 
32-bit oriented system, at which time 
they will throw out all of their half-fin- 
ished programs and conversions to sit 
down and start anew. 

For those of you who are not fast 
with your binary numbers, an 8-bit 
binary number can address 256 loca- 
tions. Sixteen bits allows you to address 
65,536 locations. This is simplified to 
64K in the ads. Since most business uses 
of a computer require a lot more ad- 
dressable locations than that — say, for 
allowing the computer to sort names 
and addresses into zip-code order with- 
out taking months to do it---the more 

8 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Another worry 
about the 
Model 16? 



internal memory the computer owner 
can afford, the faster the system can do 
these number-crunching operations. 
But there is no use buying more internal 
memory (RAM) if the computer CPU 
can't quickly address it. 

A practical limit might have been 24 
bits, since this would allow the com- 
puter to directly address 16 megabytes 
of storage. Even with the still dropping 
cost of RAM memories, it is going to be 
a while before we even approach that 
limitation. We are seeing some one- 
megabyte RAM desktop computers 
(which actually take only 20 bits to ad- 
dress), and, with the growth of 16-bit 
systems that can address a 32-bit bus, 
I'm sure we'll soon be seeing systems 
with two megabytes of RAM. . . and so 
on. That still puts 16 MB a long, long 
way off. Maybe a couple of years. 

A 32-bit oriented microprocessor 
chip is capable of substantially increas- 
ing the throughput of a computer as 
compared with the 16-bit-oriented 
units. It could be a factor of four times. 
Now, for the average small office where 
99 percent of the time the computer is 
sitting around waiting for the operator, 
this may not be an important develop- 
ment. . .at least for the moment. But 
let's remember one of the basics of 
computers, Green's Axiom 107, that 
the more you use a computer, the more 
you find for it to do. 

We're just starting to be serious 
about asking that all of our desktop 
computer systems be able to work with 
virtually any number of other com- 
puters in a network. . . or to host other 
smaller computers. The coming prolif- 
eration of incredibly inexpensive home 
computers, any of which can be pressed 
into service as a satellite computer for a 
small business network or even a home 
network, has to be dealt with. 

One thing we know for sure, there is a 
raft of Japanese technicians and engi- 
neers (many of them graduates of their 
ham radio exposure in high school) 
working enthusiastically to develop 



LCD flat screens for the low-end com- 
puters. These will be along the lines of 
the pocket LCD screens on the new 
television sets. The $100 ($79.95 at 
Lechmere's) home computer, complete 
with 64x 16 screen, is coming. . .soon. 
Once we have that, we won't even 
have to buy a $69.95 black and white 
TV set to use for a monitor! But with or 
without the LCD screen, you know as 
well as I that home computerists will be 
running wires around their homes so 
they can have a remote computer/ter- 
minal in the kitchen, by the phone, in 
the living room, in the bedroom . . . hell, 
perhaps in the bathroom for those used 
to taking in a book to read. 

In the office, the el cheapo comput- 
er/terminals will be networked to the 
host system, allowing every worker in 
the business to access data, swap mes- 
sages, keep notes, and so on ... all with- 
out upsetting their word processing or 
data entry via more traditional comput- 
ers or terminals. 

Such networking calls for some 
power in the host system, particularly as 
the users get involved with ever more 
applications. I think that this demand 
will put on the pressure for the desktop 
computer industry to move on to the 
32-bit processors ... and quickly. 

But what about the software, you ex- 
claim? In this case, the news is cheering. 
From what I've been able to learn, the 
Intel 80286 chip will run all of that nice 
8080 stuff from 1976, the Z80 stuff 
from 1977-82, the 8086 stuff from this 
year. . .and so on. It will also want to 
have a bunch of new, higher throughput 
oriented programs written to really take 
advantage of the new 32-bit power. But 
at least it won't leave us high and dry as 
did the Radio Shack Model II and their 
CoCo. 

Since Radio Shack seems to be com- 
mitted to supporting the business 
market via a higher end system, I'm 
sure that somewhere in the bowels of 
one of the Tandy Towers, a dedicated 
team of engineers is working day and 
night to come up with a 32-bit computer 
with which to dazzle us . . . and the 
financial press. Surely they won't wait 
for IBM to put on the pressure again. 

Will we see this by Comdex time this 
fall? Probably not. But then, consider- 
ing the pace of the industry, can they 
afford to wait until their traditional 
August new product showing time for 
something as key to their future as this? ■ 



META TECHNOLOGIESsssffi^ 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 l\^ 

FOR ORDERS ONLY CALL 1-800-321-3552 ^« 

IN OHIO and all other inquiries call (216) 289-7500 .-13 



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IN OHIO 
AND ALL OTHER INQUiniES 

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PRICES liy EFFECT 

THRU 

February 28. 1983 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice 

8302 



WE ACCEPT 

•VISA 

•MASTER CHARGE 

•CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

•C.O.D. 



'Add S3.00 for shipping 

& handling. 
'S2.00 EXTRA for U.S. 

Mail delivery. 

55.00 EXTRA for C.O.D 
' Ohio residents add 6.5% 

sales tax. 



i^See List ol Adveriisers on Page 387 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 9 



PROOF NOTES 

The editors look at the issues 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Eric Maloney 

SENIOR EDITOR (EDITORIAL) 

Michael E. Nadeau 

SENIOR EDITOR (PRODUCTION) 

Lynn Rognsvoog 

■ NEWS EDITOR 

John P. Mello Jr. 

REVIEW EDITOR 

Janet Fiderio 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 

Eric Grevstad 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Deborah Sargent 

Mary E. Ruth 

Stephen F. Tomajczyk 

Lynne Patnode 

TECHNICAL CONSULTANT 

Jake Commander 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

G. Michael Vose 

Art Huston 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahern, Bob Dukette, 

Sue Hays, Laura Landy, 

Anne Vadeboncoeur 

PROOFREADERS 

Peter Bjornsen, 

Harold Bjornsen, 

Vinoy Laughner, Louis Marini 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Carole Macioci, Nancy Noyd 



Subscriptions: 

Problems with Subscriptions: Send a 
description of the problem and your current 
and/ or most recent address to: 80 Micro, 
Subscription Department, P.O. Box 981, 
harmingdale, NY 11737. 
Change of Address: Send old label or copy 
of old address and new address to: 80 
Micro, P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale, NY 
11737. Please give eight weeks advance 
notice. 

Microfilm: This publication is available in 
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ternational. United States address: 300 
North Zeeb Road, Dept. P-R., Ann Arbor, 
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Row, Dept. P.R., London, WClR4e,J, 
England. 

Dealers: Contact Ginnie Boudrieau, Bulk 
Sales Manager, 80 Micro, Pine St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. (800) 343-0728. 



10 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



AS we sifted through the mail con- 
cerning "To Copy or Not to 
Copy" {see p. 12), one point became 
clear: Software piracy has become a 
political issue. 

True, some people are out there du- 
plicating software to avoid the expense 
of buying it; and some are selling pi- 
rated software to make a dishonest 
buck. But an increasing number of con- 
sumers are copying disks and tapes as a 
form of retaliation. They're sticking it 
to an industry that they feel has been 
shafting them for too long. 

They are, in essence, waging guerrilla 
warfare. 

Of course, many software manufac- 
turers conduct themselves in a responsi- 
ble and professional manner. And as 
the industry matures, more and more 
companies are realizing the importance 
of being responsive to their custom- 
ers' needs. 

But we are still seeing myriad ques- 
tionable business practices. Companies 
that advertise in computer magazines 
one month are nowhere to be found the 
next. Basement outfits with suddenly 
successful products find themselves un- 
able to properly fill orders. Poor man- 
agement, shifts in personnel, and chang- 
ing product lines lead to inadequate 
after-sale support. Promises made in 
magazine ads turn out to be misleading 
or fraudulent. 

It is in this atmosphere of confusion 
that software manufacturers are com- 
plaining about software piracy. Is it any 
wonder that consumers are less than 
sympathetic? That they are refusing in 
increasing numbers to buy protected 
software? And that they are breaking 
such software with so much zeal? 

Unfortunately, manufacturers have 
tended to look at the piracy problem 
strictly in economic terms. As they see 
it, the consumer is trying to rob them of 
their rightful riches. So they've re- 
sponded by pulling out the heavy artil- 
lery: law suits, fancier protection 
schemes, bloated user's manuals, and 
owner's registration numbers. Entire 
packaging and marketing plans are be- 
ing influenced by efforts to stop unau- 
thorized software duplication. 

Such strategies are narrow-minded 
and shortsighted. They are doing 
nothing but encouraging further re- 
sistance. They are doomed to failure. 



Piracy 

has become 

political issue 



If manufacturers want to curb soft- 
ware piracy, they're going to have to 
take a much bigger step. They are going 
to have to improve their responsiveness 
to their customers' needs. They are go- 
ing to have to provide ample proof that 
the loyalty and respect they demand of 
the consumer is reciprocated. Only then 
will the consumer feel any responsibihty 
to protect the manufacturers' proprie- 
tary interests. 

Unfortunately, the better companies 
must share the anger fostered by others. 
But they are also in the best position to 
do something about it. Perhaps the time 
has come for them to take the lead in 
guiding and policing the software indus- 
try. Perhaps they need to develop a code 
of ethics and take steps to enforce it. 

As long as there are people who want 
to make a quick buck from the labors of 
others, software piracy will be a prob- 
lem. But that problem could be curbed 
considerably if the software industry 
made a concerted effort to regain the re- 
spect of the consumer. Otherwise, we 
can expect the insurgency to continue 
for some time to come. 






In our response to "To Copy or Not 
to Copy," we asked readers to advise us 
on whether we should publish the name 
of the person offering the key to back- 
ing up Super Utility Plus. The response 
was an overwhelming "Yes." Neverthe- 
less, we have decided to withhold 
the name. 

We agree with many of the comments 
made. Most readers would like to back 
up Super Utility Plus, and other soft- 
ware, only to guard their own interests. 
But we do not want to declare open sea- 
son on the manufacturers of protected 
software. To do so, we feel, would only 
aggravate an already-volatile situation. 

On the other hand, we understand 
our role as a primary source of informa- 
tion on the TRS-80 microcomputers. 

conlmues on p. 29 




META TECHNOLOGIESssaS 

26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid Ohio 44132 l^? 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-3552 TO ORDER ^S 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) .13 



cmorketing 



ITM 



A Few Words About 

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by SofT rends, Inc. 

1. TRUSTWORTHY. A bad diskette or an undependable machine can ruin your 
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Up to 3 times as many.* 

3. THOUGHTFUL The NEW AIDS-III never treats you harshly. If one keystroke 
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PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 

FEBRUARY 28. 1983 

Prices. Specificaiions. 

and Offerings sub|eci lo 

change wiihoui notice 

S302 



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•C.O.D. 



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■ See Lis! oI Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 11 



INPUT 



In the November 1982 issue we pub- 
lished a letter from a reader who offered 
information on copying Super Utility 
Plus should Powersoft Inc. ever be un- 
able to provide back-ups. We withheld 
the name of the author, and requested 
your reactions to both the letter and the 
whole subject of protected software. 
We also contacted eight manufacturers 
for their views, but only Apparat Inc. 
responded. Read on for some represen- 
tative viewpoints. For 80 Micro '5 views 
on the subject, see Proof Notes on p. 10. 

What's the Big Deal? 

Why the agony on releasing the key 
to Super Utility? 

The utility itself is designed to break 
others' protection, and with a modest 
amount of perseverance it can be 
broken, too. What seems odd is that 
you think what is sauce for the goose is 
not sauce for the gander. 

Please release the name. 

Theodore C. Hossfeld 

President 

Consted Productions 

P.O. Box 285 

Tiburon, CA 94920 

Truth in Advertising 

Nobody wants to buy protected pro- 
grams. You know it, I know it, and the 
vendors know it. That's why, in spite of 
repeated requests, practically none of 
the people who sell protected programs 
will even mention this fact in their ads. 
But this matters so much to the buyer, 
and that's who you should be looking 
out for — the tens of thousands of peo- 
ple who pay for all the software and, di- 
rectly or indirectly, all the issues of your 
magazine. 

Why does the consumer always come 
last? You should require that any ad for 
protected software include that fact, 
right next to the price. And your soft- 
ware reviews should always address this 
question. When the buyer is at last given 
an honest choice between protected 
program A, and its unprotected com- 
petitor B, we will see the protection 
mania disappear, to everyone's benefit. 

Here is an open question to Acorn, 
Med Systems, SubLogic, Adventure In- 
ternational, Powersoft, and all the 
other vendors who silently sell protected 
programs: You cannot pretend that 

12 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




your customers don't care about back- 
ing up the software they buy from you. 
So why don't you mention such a sim- 
ple, well-defined, deliberate aspect of 
your programs in those big, fancy ads? 
You are purposely deceiving the very 
people who are supporting you. This 
leaves you in a poor position to com- 
plain about "software morality." You 
have a huge market; don't try to ignore 
and even subvert one of the main rea- 
sons it exists— software freedom and 
accessibility. 

Roxton Baker 

Box 8272 

APO San Francisco, CA 96555 

Software Collection 

I collect records. Starting in the early 
50s, I would tape my LPs and play the 
tapes. Today, I have wonderful, per- 
fect-condition records and have up- 
graded my taped copies as tape quaHty 
improved. I have and will continue to 
handle software similarly, working 
only with copies of my purchased 
originals. 

Any software that is not compatible 
with this approach is dead on the mar- 
ket as far as I'm concerned. 1 hope 
most users will adopt this philosophy. 
As a minimum, there ought to be a re- 
quirement that any locked software be 
advertised and labeled conspicuously 
as such. 

Edward O. Noble 

P.O. Box 759 

Mesilla Park, NM 88047 



Apparat's Answer 

Apparat, like other software devel- 
opers, is very concerned about piracy. 
In the case of the NEWDOS80 operat- 
ing system, Apparat has found many 
illegaJ copies on the market. In the 
past, Apparat has taken some steps 
against software pirates, and will take 
much more severe steps in the months 
to come. 

Apparat has never made software 
that could not be copied by the con- 
sumer, and probably never will. Our 
feeling is that the customer paid for the 
right to reproduce the software for his 
own personal use at the time of pur- 
chase. By limiting the number of 
copies, or preventing copying entirely, 
you may very well be limiting your cus- 
tomer base. Also, nothing can be 
locked that cannot be unlocked. And 
locked software can provoke many 
typically honest people into becoming 
backyard pirates. 

Apparat sees only two ways to pre- 
vent, or hinder, the software piracy 
business. The first is the standard: reg- 
istration numbers and no service if you 
cannot provide us with a verifiable 
number. The second is the hardware 
lock for software, similar to that used 
by Simutek in their Copyart word pro- 
cessor. The hardware lock can be du- 
plicated also, but not easily, and most 
software pirates neither have the brains 
nor the inchnation to unlock the secrets 
hardware can hide. 

Jason Robert C. Matthews 

Manager, Software R&D 

Apparat, Inc. 

4401 So. Tamarac Parkway 

Denver, CO 80237 

Routine Copies 

For several years I have been quietly 
cracking the protection codes on 
games. As I have gained more experi- 
ence, it has become quite routine for 
me to unlock the protected disks as 
soon as I get them, make a copy, and 
place the original on a shelf far from 
harm. Software piracy is disagreeable, 
but the thought of having a locked disk 
is equally distasteful. I would be afraid 
to use it, for fear that I would destroy it 
and never be able to use it again. 

In the November 1982 issue of 80 
Micro, on page 443, the ad for Sales 
Data Inc. states that they wiU sell the 



If you can beat these prices, 
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TRS-80 GAMES 

All games are iJisk versions. Casseiie versions 
may not De availaDie. 



TEMPLE OF APSHAI 31.35 

HEILFIRE WARRIOR 31.35 

STAR WARRIOR 31,35 

RESCUE AT Rie£L 23.36 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE AND CHOMP 23.36 

INVADERS FROM SPACE 16.00 

PIN6ALL 16,50 

MISSILE ATTACK 17.95 

STAR FIGHTER 24.95 

Z-CHESS III 23.61 

ADVENTUfiE NO. 1. 2. & 3 34,95 

ADVENTURE NO. 4. 5. & 6 34,95 

ADVENTURE HO. 7. 8. & 9 34.95 

DUELN-DROIDS 16.50 

STARFLEET ORION 21.95 

INVASION ORION 19.95 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON 23.36 

MONTY PLAYS MONOPOLY 31,95 

SARGON II 27.25 

BLACKJACK MASTER 27.95 

ROBOT ATTACK 15,95 

GALAXY INVASION 15.95 

SUPER NOVA 15,95 

TUESDAY MORNING QUARTERBACK 25,95 

LUNEfi LANDER 23,36 

THE MEAN CHECKER MACHINE 21.95 

SPACE ROCKS 18.95 

PIGSKIN 16.50 

ZOSSED IfJ SPACE 18,95 

ARCAOE-SO 21,95 

SPACE INTRUDERS 19.95 

MORTON'S FORK 23,61 

SCARFMAN 17.95 

SPECIALS 

SPECIAL N0.1 

TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES. BOX OF 

VERBATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE... 

44.50 

SPECIAL N0.3 

NEWDOS/eO 2.0, BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS. 
PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 149.00 

SPECIAL N0.4 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER. BOX OF VER- 
BATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 

179.00 

SPECIAL N0.5 

MICROSOFT BASIC OECOOED AND OTHER 
MYSTERIES, BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS, PLASTIC 
LIBRARY CASE , 49 95 

DOUBLE DENSITY SPECIAL 
PERCOW DOUBLER II. NEWDOS/SO, BOX OF VGR- 



MOOEL III DISK DRIVE KITS 

CONTROLLER KIT INCLUDES AU, BOARDS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED. INTERNAL CONTROLLER. 
MOUNTING BRACKETS, SWlTCHftJG POWER SUPPLY. AND INSTALWTIOH INSTRUCTIONS. 
HANDLES 4 DRIVES 259,00 

KIT 13: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TM)00-1 
SINGLEDSIDED, 40 TRACK DRIVES ,638,00 
KIT #4: CONTROLLER K.T ANO 2 TM1002 
0OU8LE-SI0ED. 40 TRACK DRIVES ,779 00 



Kir 11: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TMlOO-3 
SINGLEDSIDED. 80 TRACK 0FtlVES..748D0 
KIT »2: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TM100-4 
DOUBIE-SIOED. 80 TRACK DRIVES .979 00 



8ATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 

279 00 

COMMUNICATION SPECIAL 

MOD l&H 

MOVATIDN MODEM. OMNITERM TERMINAL 

SOFTWARE. 

ACOUSTIC SPECIAL (CAT) 219.00 

DIRECT CONNECT SPECIAL (O-CAT)..,. 239,00 
SERIAL CABLE 25.00 

DISK LIBRARY SPECIAL 

RACET DISKCAT CATALOGING PROGRAM. FLIP 
SORT (50 DISK CAPACITY). 50 STICK-ON DISK 
LABELS 59.95 

BOOKS 

BASIC SETTER S FASTER DEMO DISK.. .18.00 

THE CUSTOM TRS-BO 24.95 

MICROSOFT BASIC FASTER & BETT£R,„24,95 

CUSTOM I/O MACHINE LANGUAGE 24,95 

TRS-80 DISK a MYSTERIES 16,95 

MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED 24,95 

DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21,95 

Single sided, cerliljed Double Dcnsily 40 Tracks, 
with Hub-Ring, Box ol 10, Guaranleed one year. 

SCOTCH 3M 

S.S.O.DEN -lO TRK 23.50 

O.S.O.OEN 40 TRK 36.50 

VERBATIM 

MD 525-01. 10. IS 26.50 

DISKETTES STORAGE 

'JV,- PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

8' PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3.50 

PROTECTOR 5Vi- 21.95 

PROTECTOR 8- . . . 24 95 

TRS-80 HARDWARE 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERCOM DOUBLER it W/ DOS 3,4,,, , 159 00 
TANOON 80 TRK DISK DRIVE W/ P S S-^!) DO 
TANDON 40 TRK DISK DRIVE W/ P,S. 289 GO 

LNW DOUBLER W/ DOSPLUS 3.3 13800 

LNW DOUBLER 5/8 W/ DOSPLUS 3.4. .181.00 



ISOLATORS 



ISO-l 3-SOCKET 49.95 

iSO-2 6-SDCKEr .'. 49.95 



MODEMS 



NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC 140.00 

NOVATION O-CAT DIRECT CONNECT, ,.,156.00 
NOVATION AOrO-CAI AUTO ANSWER..219.O0 

NOVATION DCAI (1200 BAUD) 619.00 

HAYES SMART MODEM (300 BAUD).. .227.00 
HAYES SMART MODEM (1200 BAUD) 540.00 
SIGNALMAN MODEM W/ RS-232C 85.00 

SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABELS 

1.000 3'/: >: 13/16 8 49 



3.000 VA x 15/16 14.95 

5.000 3'/! X 15/16,.,. 19.95 

FAN FOLD PAPER 

(Prices F.O.B. S.P.) 

9Vtx 11 181b WHITE 3,000 CI 29,00 

14 7/8 X 11 1816 WHITE 3.000 CI 39.00 



lb order or for 
information call 

lnNew\t)rk: 
(212)509-1923 

In Lx)s Angeles: 
(213)706-0333 

In Dallas: 
(214)744-4251 

BylVlodem: 
(213)883-8976^ 




IPUTER 
PRODUCTS 



31245 LA 8AYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 

»'473 



We guarantee evervliiinri we $eii lor 30 days — no returns alter 30 days Deteciivc software wiii be replaced irce. Dui ati oilier software returns are sutiteci to 15% resiochmg lee and musi be accompanied by RMA slip. No 
reiuins on game soUwate. unless defeciive. We accept VISA and MasterCard on an orders: COD ocdeis. up to S300 Shipping ctiarges. S3 loi all prepaid orders, actual shipping cliarges lor non- prepaids: S3 <or COD orders 
under 25lt»s. (S6 loi over) plus a S4 surcMrge: add 15% to' foreign. FPO and APO orders. Calil. add 6% sates tax. in L A County add 6'/?%. Puces quoted are Im stock on twnd and are subjeci to cliange wilhoul nolks. 

CP/M IS a reg. irademarh ol Dvgiial Reseatcti 'Requires Z-SO Soltcaid. (Reg. irademark at Micro Pro Inieinational Corp. JTcademarK ol Practical F^nphetals. Inc "Tfademark ol Sottware Oimensnis. Inc. 



INPUT 



software to allow unlimited back-ups 
of Scripsit and VisiCalc on the Model 
III. Since Scripsit for the Model III 
comes on a protected disk, you are 
clearly willing to allow mention and 
sales of protection-unlocking pro- 
grams in your magazine. I, for one, am 
grateful for both of those policies. 

Paul Jaeger 

61 Jane St. 

New York, NY 10014 



Excess Aggravation 

1 have only purchased one protected 
software package. I agree with the let- 
ter writer about the aggravation, so I 
have promised myself never to buy an- 
other product that has this type of 
protection. 

I fully support Logical Systems with 
LDOS and ABC Sales with Lazy Writ- 
er. These products are sold with serial 
numbers and full support for future 
upgrades. By providing technical sup- 
port only to registered owners, they 
keep down the pirates and allow honest 
buyers unlimited back-up copies. The 
people making the most fuss over this 
are the same ones that only want to sell 
software for the money, with no regard 
for the customer after the sale. 

If companies sold software at rea- 
sonable prices, there would also be less 
pirating. Why does the same package 
cost more for the Model II and III than 
it does for the Model I? Is this honest 
pricing policy? 

If the author of the letter can save 
even one other person from getting in- 
to trouble with no back-up, he should 
tell others. If the goal of 80 Micro is to 
provide information to help its readers 
(why else do we buy it?), then it also 
should not hold back information to 
please its advertisers. 

Jeffrey Sherman 

20 Riviera Drive 

Somerville, NJ 08876 

Reject Those Ads 

As a responsible, consumer-oriented 
publishing company, you and your fel- 
low magazine publishers can solve the 
protected software problem by refus- 
ing to accept ads from companies with 
protected software, unless you receive 
with such ad an unlock routine and 
permission to pubhsh same in the event 
of the demise of the company or its in- 
ability to furnish service to owners of 

14 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



the software. 

Spencer Trimble 

229 Lipona Road South 

Tallahassee, FL 32304 

Preserving the Free Market 

Super Utility Plus is without a doubt 
one of the finest utility programs ever 
written for the TRS-80; however, it 
suffers from a serious flaw. In an at- 
tempt to protect the program from un- 
authorized duplication, it is distributed 
on a protected disk. This may provide 
protection from pirates, but it serious- 



"Maybe software 

manufacturers should look 

to their retail prices. *' 



ly limits the usefulness of the program 
to the people who have paid for it. 

In this format a disk failure can 
force a user to pay a fee, not to men- 
tion lost work time, to obtain a new 
copy of the program. Every time the 
disk makes a revolution, magnetic 
coating wears off the disk. No matter 
how careful the user, or reliable the 
system, any disk will eventually wear 
out. We should not be forced into be- 
ing dependent on any manufacturer 
for back-ups of programs that have 
been legally obtained. We find it dis- 
turbing that the program brags about 
its ability to duplicate protected disks 
while the author has ensured his own 
work would remain uncopied. 

TRS-80 users are notorious for the 
use of oddball hardware configura- 
tions and patchwork systems. Users 
who have modified their systems usual- 
ly work out patches to programs to ac- 
commodate their hardware. With a 
protected disk, this becomes an impos- 
sible task. The educational value of 
getting inside a top-notch utihty hke 
SU + cannot be overestimated. 

We don't believe back-up protected 
disks serve the best interest of users or 
pubHshers and are against their use. 
This does not mean we are against au- 
thors receiving just compensation for 
their work. A minority of users and 
crooked publishers are causing the le- 
gitimate publishers to use protected 
media. If the majority of users will re- 
fuse to deal with pirates, and that in- 
cludes users who swap back-ups of 



copyrighted programs, publishers 
won't feel they need to use protection 
schemes. As a user and publisher we 
would rather see the free market 
continue. 

The alternatives are government in- 
volvement or hardware protection 
schemes. If either of these becomes 
necessary, you can expect software 
costs to skyrocket, as well as creativity 
to be stifled. With unprotected soft- 
ware a program can reach the market 
with an investment of a few thousand 
dollars. If users force publishers to use 
hardware protection schemes, pro- 
grams that don't have mass-market ap- 
peal will never see the light of day. All 
computer users have a vested interest in 
seeing the free market continue. 

, Jean Marie Witt 

President 

WittSoft 

1302 41st St. 

Orlando, FL 32805 

WittSoft has recently introduced Su- 
per Duper, a program that can create 
copies of Super Utility Plus. —Eds. 

The Price Problem 

To copy in order to resell or other- 
wise pass on is, of course, a violation 
of the law. Having been so victim- 
ized, I can understand the author's 
point of view. 

However, when we purchase a pro- 
gram that may be used at several sta- 
tions in the building, it's a nuisance to 
be forced to make a several -hundred - 
yard round trip to pick up a disk from 
another room, use it for five minutes, 
and then return it. My vote is to release 
the name and address, hoping — how- 
ever vainly — that resale will not occur. 
Maybe software manufacturers should 
look to their retail prices. We can af- 
ford a $40 program, but to spend $120 
to have it available at three separate 
stations is an expense I can't justify. 
No one photocopies a $6 book, but a 
$60 one might not De so immune. 

The Rev. George T Cook 

50 Anchor Ave. 

P.O. Box 98 

Oceanside, NY 11572 

Piracy PoUcy 

We agree with the statement that 
software should not be copy-protect- 
ed. Staten Island Labs has some soft- 
ware like this, and it is very aggravat- 







f 



MODEL I 



MODEL III 




MOD III 

version 




v_^ 






TIME w/6^Exp. Int 







^ 



qJ9 
The complete package 



Wouldn't it be nice if your computer 
could always boot up with the right time 
and date and then stay accurate. New- 
clock-80 will enhance your Model I or III 
system with powerful clock/calendar/timer 
functions. 



Using LSI (large scale integration) and 
custom circuits, Newclock-80 provides 
MO/DATE/YR, HR:MN:SECplus 
AM/PM and day of week and even takes 
care of leap years! It continues to keep time 
and date with quartz accuracy when the 
computer is turned off or experiences a 
power failure. A single battery lasts over 2 
years. 

Compatibility: Newclock-80 is 
compatible with any operating system, 
including DOSPLUS, NEWDOS, LDOS. 
With its fully decoded circuitry it will work 
with any other hardware you may own. 
Bus expanders are available. 



Installation is very simple, no tools, no 
disassembly, no soldering. Just plug it in, 
that's all. There is no power supply or 
messy cable. Newclock-80 plugs into the 
rear of the keyboard © or side of the Exp. 
Int. @ . Model III Newclock fits the 50 pin 
card edge (underneath) Q 

The Software: Newclock-80 is as easy to 
use as it is to install. -"SET", a Basic 
program, is used only once to set the time 
and date and select 12 or 24 hour format. 
-"TIMESTR", also in Basic, patches your 
computer "TIMES" function to read 
Newclock-80. It also adds "TIMES" to 
keyboard-only systems, a short routine is 
simply "poked" into low memory. 

Newclock-80 uses 12 ports (176 to 188) : 
6 for the time, 6 for the date. The data is 
conveniently stored in decimal form, no 
conversion is needed . You can read or 
modify any digit using simple Basic "INP" 
and "OUT" statements. 



No risk trial. Order your Newclock-80 
today, see how easy it is to install and 
operate then decide within 30 days if you 
want to keep it. If for any reason you are 
not delighted with its quality and 
performance, you may return it for a 
prompt and courteous refund. 

Your unit will come complete with 
software on tape, detailed instructions, 
handy reference card, and a 90 day 
warranty. Specify Model 1 or 111. Software is 
also available on disk: add $5. 
Lithium battery (not included) available 
from RADIO-SHACK {*23- 162) or add 
$1.50 to your order. 
Thanks to outstanding engineering and 
efficient manufacturing, ALPHA Products 
is once again able to offer a great product at 
a surprising price. Order your Newclock-80 
at no obligation today. 

ToU Free Order Line 

aOO'221'0916 

OntanOnly. NV< rnfoca»f2T2JZ9e.5916. Hours: 9-5 E.S.T. 



J^ ALPHA [Pim^msSf 



79-04 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 



y' 17 



(212) 296-5916 



ADD S2.50 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 

WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD. CHECKS, M 0, 

COD. ADD S3.00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADO SALES TAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO, APO. ADD 10%. 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. 




INPUT 



ing not to have back-ups. We prefer 
the policies of certain software com- 
panies, such as Logical Systems Inc. 
and Prosoft, that support only regis- 
tered owners of their programs. 

Our policy toward copy-protected 
software is to attempt to break the lock 
and pirate it, not because we want the 
programs, but because we are against 
the policy of copy protection. 

Philip Herbst 

Senior Partner 

Staten Island Labs 

140 Castleton Avenue 

Staten Island, NY 10301 



Low Life 

I am strongly opposed to pirated 
software! Those computerists who pi- 
rate software are the lowest form of 
animal Hfe on the planet. However, I 
feel that any company selling software 
on protected disks is only one step 
above the pirate. 

For the most part, purchasers of 
original software have little knowledge 
of how a computer works. These peo- 
ple pay good money to software sup- 
pHers for programs that will in some 
way save time, reduce mistakes, or in- 
crease productivity. Waiting for a 
company to send a replacement disk is 
at best an inconvenience and may spell 
disaster for a person or company that 
has come to rely on the program. 

The pirate, on the other hand, is as 



cunning as a fox and patient as a saint. 
He views a protected program as a 
challenge. The better the protection 
scheme, the sweeter the taste of victory 
when it is broken— ^and there is no pro- 
tection scheme available that cannot be 
broken! When the program is rendered 
defenseless, the pirate will move on to 
another challenge. For this reason, it is 
not in the best interest for software 
suppliers to protect their software and 
it is not in the best interest of users to 
purchase protected software. 

James S. Schaefer 
33 Jackson Road 
Berlin, NJ 08009 



Pathos in Advertising 

First let me say that I feel the recent 
letter on copying locked software 
should have been printed as you did, 
without the author's name. The issue is 
whether as users we have rights to the 
software we purchase as opposed to 
the rights of the authors of the 
software. 

As both an end user and a program- 
mer, I have a tremendous amount of 
compassion for both sides of the ques- 
tion. My personal solution to the prob- 
lem is to enclose a picture of my httle 
boy with every program sold. I will 
also enclose a note begging people not 
to make ilhcit copies of the program or 
I will not be able to feed my little boy. 

At prices that are competitive, I have 



TRS-80 MODEL r^ 
GQLDPLUG-8Q 

Eliminate disk re-boots and data 
loss due to poor contact problems 
at card edge connectors. The 
GOLD PLUG - 80 solders to the 
board card edge. Use your ex- 
isting cables. 
CPU/keyboard to 

expansion interface $18.95 

Expansion interface to disk, prin- 
ter, RS232, screen printer 

(specify) $9.95 ea 

Full set, six connectors. . . $54.95 



EAP COMPANY 

P.O.Box 14, Keller, TX 76248 

(817)498-4242 

*TRS-80isa trademark of 

Tandy Corp. 



Sh 



OtVf) 




^Dx 



'^'EMU 



Encloses LNW & MDX I & II 

P.C. Boards, plus 

Cabling, A/C Cords, etc. 

Sliver-gray Fiberglass 

$32.50 plus $2.50 shipping 
N.Y.S. residents add 7% tax 

SYRACUSE R&D CENTER 

Box 125, Dewitt, N.Y. 13214 
"Soecializing in Electronic Packaaina" 



to sell many programs to recover devel- 
opment time. I also need a good product 
that I can stand behind and support. 
You are important to me as a customer, 
so I won't lock your software. Your suc- 
cess in using my product directly relates 
to my success. 

One last comment is directed to the 
morally concerned at 80 Micro. You 
had to be kidding when you said some 
of the editorial staff who are of "con- 
servative inclinations felt that to publish 
(the letter) would be to condone and 
promote an illegal {and perhaps immor- 
al) act." A fascinating viewpoint when 
your magazine carries advertising for 
companies that promote programs that 
unlock other software. Your moral con- 
siderations are inconsistent and 
hypocritical to say the least. I applaud 
the side of the editorial staff that won 
and published the letter. 

Gary A. Shade 

3847 Galesburg Court 

Arlington Hts., IL 60004 

Positive Piracy 

I have some pirated programs, but I 
also purchase software regularly, often 
after using a pirated copy. 1 probably 
would not have purchased some of the 
programs if I hadn't had an opportuni- 
ty to try the pirated copies. In those 
cases, pirating was a form of advertis- 
ing. In other cases, 1 have to say, "I'm 
glad I didn't pay money for this!" 

I doubt that authors will stop writing 
software because of piracy; a good au- 
thor will keep writing and keep selling 
because his next program will be better 
than his last. While piracy undoubted- 
ly takes its toll in uncollected royalties, 
the prolific author can even benefit 
from having his programs widely circu- 
lated as more people are introduced to 
his work. 

Protecting a disk or tape ought to be 
an author's prerogative. However, as a 
purchaser, I should be told in advertis- 
ing whether a program can be backed 
up, as this is sometimes a factor in 
making the decision to buy a particular 
program. There is software I haven't 
purchased simply because I knew it 
was protected and I wanted to be able 
to back it up. In this case, protecting a 
disk kept an author from getting his 
royalty. 

Tom Kilbride 

4117 Lyle 

Waco, TX 76710 



16 • 50 Micro, February 1983 



^^^''^^r^ 



REAIR GUARD 

Deadly waves ot enemy Cylmg [fall 
aiiackycur Ileal lromin« teat Vouate 
tne Moine'inio's sofe delenaet You 
nave unhtniiea tiicDDwei Dui ine 
Cybotgs aie swili nimQie aiiackeis 
Yout aDililies ate lesieo natd in ihis 
game o' iignietiing lau action anij 
lively sou nil iiocn Adveniute intet- 
nahonai Puce B 




STRIKE FORCE 



As Ihe ptitnaiy delBndet o! a wotid ol 
cilies undet deadly alien 31 lack, yout 
weaponry is inc lalesi 'apiO lite 
tnissiies long range tanat and 
incenoiaty siar sneils Ycut latce 
iieid can absofD only a iimied numbet 
a itnpacis A compien gafne oi 
sitalcgy skill and relleies <ioni 
MeiDoutne Mouse P'ice A 



PAHSiiK 



TiappM al an enetny building sile 
yout laie setms certain Your laser is 
empty ano evil Mzots ate closing in 
You'll nave id climb laddets and inmk 
on; sieo afiead oi ttie vaiious 
nunslets A challenging game tot 
agile minds Ftom Fanlaslic Soltware 
win voce {Disk nas ia>g«t vocabuia>» 
Puce B 



SEA DRAGON 

Yout submaiine. tne U S S Sea 
Dtagon. oenetrales a mined enemy 
channel Aimed with missiles and 
lotpedos. you engage ihe enemy while 
navigaling unknown waiets Succeed 
o( ccime 10 a sally end minis game 29 
screens ol fioriiontaliy scrolling sea- 
scrapB ana sound itom Adveniute 
inieinaiionai Pttce B 



Air photos an actual TRS-80 seraans. 



SAVE 

10,15,20% 




THE 

ALPHA 

JOYSTICK 

ONLY ^30-&5 



"II </ou purchase Alpha 's 
Joystick you get the ex- 
quisite pleasure ol enjoy- 
ing (action games) to the 
limit ol arcade-style 
realism." 

-80 Microcomputing 

80 Reviews. Jan '82 

FEEL THE 
POWER... 

• Feaiuiei ine litnoui Alan Joystick 

• wo'nt with ill Model 1 01 III syslenit 

• CotnpitiDle wiin any Olliei icceisoiies 

• Saves yoiit Veyboatd Item ibuse 

. EipDiimeni in BASIC (JieA = IHP|Ol 
-F Coitipieie leady lopiuqinanouse 
r Mudeii piugiinioKB at in 

• Mooellll pluqi inlaSOflin I/O bus 

Piice inctudes Joystick . Aipm 1 met lace 

• Insltuctiont -r Denio Piogiam listing 
Please ipecily Model lot 111 

M DAY MONEV BACK GUARANTEE 



THE BEST FOR LESS 

As you can see. all the best games Irom the lop 
producers are joystick compatible. These 
games are tun without the joystick but we hope 
that you are one ol the many thousands who 
enjoy the advantage of real joystick action. 

Now you can deduct up to 20% on the price of 
games: buy any 2 games deduct 10%. buy any 3 
games deduct 15%, buy any 4 games deduct 
20% from game prices. 

- TOP TEIM — 

1. SCARFMAN All timg larorite 

2. PANIK ' Hemaikabla Voices 

3. PENETRATOR Ba^offlvJBws 

4. ARMORED PATROL Supst 30 grapNtcs 

5. CATERPILLAR Good lenmuon 

6. CRA2Y PAINTER unique gamtr concept 

7. DEFENSE COMIMAND . Tough sUuggIt 

8. STELLAR ESCORT Fast arid cnalletismp 

9. ROBOT ATTACK With voice 
10. SEA DRAGON Amazing Seascape" 




6 ^' 



SUPER NOVA 

Asteroms lloat 'Vnmously abound We 
screen YOU must oestioy ine 
asleioids oelote tbey desttoy you' iBig 
asteroids oreak inio iitlie ones) Yout 
ship will respond 10 thrust lotaie 
nypetspace and iiie walcn out lot 
mai sauce' wiin me lasec As 

IGviewed in May i9B1 Byte Magazine 

Price A 




STELLAR ESCORT 

The latest supet action game Irom Big 
Five As me Federation's lop space 
lighiet you've t>een chosen 10 escort 
what IS possibly the most impotlam 
shipment in Feietaiion nislofy Ti^e 
enemy will send many squad' ons ot 
then best hgniers 10 intercept With 
sound Disk vetsion lias voices 
Price A 

ROBOT ATTACK 

Talks without t voice synlhesizer 
iniough tne cassette pari Wilh |us1 a 
hand laser m a remote space station 
you encounlei armed robots Some 
marcn towards you more wan aiouno 
cotnets Carelui the walls are 
eiecltitied Zapasmany tocotsasyou 
date belote escaping to a new section 
Mdie toDotsawaiiyou P'ice A 

LUNAR LANDER 

As a vast panoramic moonscape 
scrolls by. select one ol many landing 
sights The more peiilwis the spot. Ihe 
more points scored ii you land 
sately You control LEM mam engines 
and side ihrustets One ol Ihe oesi 
uses ol Tns*ao grapnics we nave ever 

seen Fiom Adventute Inlernational 
With sound Price A 




I^Ll~l 




>I> >I- 'I- t- 'I- d- ■!• H- ■!• ■» 

t*oe oe*ft 




y-''-'-"-... 



OUTHOUSE 

You are ine mighty protector ol tnis 
small ibul important) wooden situc 
lute Poi teasons unknown a Oizane 
gang ot miscieants wish to vandalize 
icol and otherwise desttoy I'le little 
'nail moon liouse vour paliot call 
has laseis and smati bombs 10 deat 
with mis lettor Fiom SSM wiin 
sound P'ice A 



GALAXY INVASION LASER DEFENSE 



The sound ot Ihe ktaion is calling you' 
invaders nave been spotted waiping 
lowatd Earth You snitt right and lell 
as you tire yout lasets A lew oieak 
tnrmaiion and tly sitaight at yOu' You 
place yout iingei on me Ine button 
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tluge boulders careen olt the walls 
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Price A 



A teaiisliC tank battle simulation 
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An aicade tavorile' Stop these mulli- 
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INPUT 



The Too New PC-2 

1 look forward every month to receiv- 
ing each new issue of 80 Micro. I am 
hoping for more PC-2 coverage. I re- 
alize PC-2 is new, just like the Color 
Computer was last year, so maybe I 
need to be patient. I hope this informa- 
tion arrives sooner, not later. 

Doyle R. Painter, Jr. 

311 Furys Ferry Road 

Martinez, GA 30907 

Unfortunately, we have received only 
a couple of articles about the exciting 
new Pocket Computer. Author Tim 
Daniel will reveal many of (he secrets of 
the PC-2 in a future issue. Anybody out 
there care to help? — Eds. 



Find the Line 

On Break GOTO — now, there's a 
good idea (80 Micro, November 1982, 
p. 390). Everybody who has used a 
TRS-80 has wanted this function. How- 
ever, there may be a better way. The 
method used by SFC Donais intercepts 
the break vector at 16396, directs con- 
trol to the sergeant's patch, which rec- 
tifies the stack and returns control to the 
Basic command processor with HL 
poindng to the first line of the program. 

Basic then takes over, and, with a 
couple of tests, directs program flow to 
an appropriate Break-handling line of 
Basic. Wouldn't it be better to return 
control to Basic at the appropriate line? 
All we need to do this is the address of 
the beginning of that line. 

As it happens, there is a ROM call 
that finds the beginning of a specified 
line, at 1B2CH. This is a fairly straight- 
forward call. The DE register is loaded 
with the number of the line being 
sought, the call is made, and, on return, 
BC contains the address of the first byte 
in the line. If the line doesn't exist, con- 
trol passes to the Basic error handling 
routine. The procedure would be: 

• Call IB8FH to rectify the stack. 

• Load DE with the line number 
sought. 

• Call the line finder at 1B2CH. 

• Decrement BC to point zero before 
the line. 

• Transfer this address to HL. 

• Jump to the command processor at 
IDIEH. 




Program Listing 1 is the assembler 
code for the routine, which takes 15 
bytes. Listing 2 is a rewrite of the ser- 
geant's Basic program, altered to use 
the new routine. By POKEing a dif- 



7FF1 


CD8F1B 


7FF4 


113601 


7FF7 


CD2C1B 


7FFA 


OB 


7FFB 


C5 


7PFC 


El 


7FFD 


C31E1D 



CALL 


1B8FH 


LD 


DE,310 


CALL 


1B2CH 


DEC 


BC 


PUSH 


BC 


POP 


HL 


JP 


IDIEH 


END 




Program 


Listing 1 



RECTIFY STACK 
TARGET LINE # 
FIND LINE 
POINT TO ZERO 

; TRANS FR TO HL 
;T0 BASIC 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
285 
290 
300 
310 
320 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
570 



REM 
REM 



*=*=*=*=* 



ON BREAK GOTO ...DEMONSTRATION *=*=*=*= 



IF PEEK(16396)=195 GOTO 320: "PATCH INSTALLED ? 
REM *=*RESET MEMORY-SIZE *=*= 

ADDR = PEEK(16561)+PEEK(16562)*256 - 15 

POKE 16562, ADDR / 256 

POKE 16561, ADDR - PEEK(16562) * 256 

CLEAR 
REM *=*= ENTER CODE PATCH *=*- 

POKE 16553,255: 'ROM DATA-READ FIX 

START = PEEK(16561) + PEEK C 16562 ) *256+l 

FOR ADDR = START TO START +14 
READ CODE 
POKE ADDR, CODE 

NEXT ADDR 
REM *=*= RESET VECTOR BACKWARDS FOR NO BOMB *=* 

POKE 16398, START / 256 

POKE 16397, START - PEEK(16398) * 256 

POKE 16396,195: ' JP TO PATCH 



GOTO 320 
REM 

REM *=*=* 
PRINT; 



INITIALIZE BASIC VARIABLES & CONSTANTS *=*=* 
PRINT "—USER ABORT--" :GOTO 380 
CLEAR 50 
REM 

REM *=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*==*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=* 
REM =*=*= NORMAL PROGRAM EXECUTION RESUMES HERE *=*=* 
REM 

PRINT "MEMORY =" MEM, "INPUT = "A$, "COUNT = "X 
PRINT, "TO EXIT TEST & RESTORE TRS-80, ENTER SPACES." 
INPUT"HOM MANY SUBROUTINES TO STACK " ;A$ 
IF A$="" GOTO 500 
X=VAL ( A5 ) 
GOSUB 440 
PRINT, "MEMORY = ";MEM 

X - X - 1 
IF X>0 GOTO 430 ELSE 400 
REM 
REM *=* = *=* =*=*=* = *=*=*=:* = * = *=* = *=*=* = *=* = * = * = * = *=4^=* 

REM ==* RESTORE MEMORY SIZE & BREAK VECTOR =*=*=*= 

X=PEEK(16561)+PEEK(16562) * 256 + 15 

POKE 16396,201 

POKE 16562, X / 256 

POKE 16561 ,X - PEEK( 16562) * 256 
REM BASIC POINTERS ARE OKAY, STRING BUFFER INCREASED BY 15 
REM 
DATA 205,143,27,17,54,1,205,44,27,11,197,225,195,30,29 



Program Listing 2 



18 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



NONA/ MODEL I AND MODEL III • 



Now Model III users can take advantage of the ALPHA I/O system too. Our new 
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GREEN SCREEN 

W/ARMIIMG 

IBM and all the piggies ati: using green sceen moniiuis 

IIS advantages are now widely advertised We leei tnai every 

TRS-80 user snouid enjoy ihe Oenehts il provides Bui 

WARNING: at' Green Screens are not created equal Here is 

whai welound' 

•Several are just a (tat piece ol standard colored Lucite The. 

green tmt was no! made (or this purpose and is judged by 

many to De too dark. Increasing tne origniness coi'iiol wiii 

result in a <u;2y display 

«Some are simpiy a piece of thin plastic iiim taped onto a 

cardboard irame The color is sansfacioty out me woQDiy iiim 

gives It a poor appearance 

•One optical tiller" ism (act plain acry/ic sneeiing 

■False claim A (ew pretend to ■reduce glare In lact their 

Hat and shiny surfaces (Qoih film ano Lucile type) ADD thei' 

own reliecttons to Ihe screen 

•A few laughs One ad clams to reduce screen comrasi' 

Sorry genileman Out it s just tne opposite One ol the Green 

Screen s major benefits is to increase tne conirasi between 

the lext and tne background 

•Drawbacks: Most are using adhesive sinos lo tasien tr.eir 

screen to the monitor This method makes it awkward to 

remove (or necessary periodical cleaning An (eicept outsi 

are Hal Light pens will not work reiiahly Because o( ihe big 

gap deiween the screen ann me lube 

Many companies have been manutactunng video (liters lor 

years We are not tne first (some itiink they are). Dul we have 

done our homework and we ihink we rnanulactute the best 

Green Screen Here is why 

■II (lis rignt onto the picture tupe iihe a skin oecause it is ine 

only CURVED screen MOLDED exactly 10 the picture luoe 

curvature It IS Cut precisely to cover |he eiposed area ol tne 

aiciure lube The dt is sucn thai the static eiecmcily is 

suMicieni to keep il in place' We also include some mvisiD'e 

reusable tape tc a more secure (astening 

■Tne liliet maienal inat we use is ]ust ngnt not too dark nor 

too hghi Tne result is a realty eye pieasmg display 

We are so sure thai you will never take your Green screen oil 

Ihat we oiler an unconditional money-back guaranty try ou' 

Green Screen lor 14 Pays II (o' any reason you are not 

delighied with it. return it (or a prompt reiund 

A lasl word: We think thai companies, tike ours, who are 

selling mainly by mail should "lis! Iheir sireet address»nave a 

pnone number llor quesiions and orders )>acceo I COOs. not 

every one likes tc send checks to a PO bowotler ihe 

convenience o( charging iheir ourchase to major crepit cards 

Howcome we are me only green screen people doing it' 

Order your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today SiZ 60 



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79-04JamacaAve.,Woodhaven,N.Y. 11421 S into and ord^T — (212)296 



^il.'S 



INPUT 



ferent line number into START + 4 
(LSB) and START +5 (MSB), the rou- 
tine can be made to seek any line num- 
ber existing in the Basic program. 

By setting the variable Break to a 
value dependent on the portion of the 
program being executed, and directing 
the Break -handling routine to a line 
containing an ON BREAK GOTO 
NNN,NNN,NNN statement, a press of 
the break key can be made to have dif- 
ferent responses depending on where 
the program was when the key was 
pressed. 

/. Stewart Schneider 

2813 Louisa St. 

P.O. Box 365 

Catlettsburg,KY 41129 

Adapting to the Future 

Sure, computers can help our educa- 
tional system, which is in terrible shape, 
but Wayne Green is a dreamer. The idea 
behind a proper liberal arts course is not 
to teach students to appreciate trees, al- 
though there is nothing wrong with 
that. The idea is to help these students 
develop thought processes and problem- 
solving abihties. This way, when Mr. 
Green's technical students find that 
their field has turned over so fast that 
the techniques they learned only two 
years ago in his industrial park are 
already outdated, they will have the 
ability to adapt to changes in 
technology that were unforeseen. 

James Magiiano 

462 West 6 Ave. 

Roselle, NJ 07203 

Bugs in the Board 

In your August 1982 issue of 80 Mi- 
cro, Dennis Kitsz published a PC card 
layout for the Radio Shack Color Com- 
puter. As an avid user of the 6809-based 
machine interested in generating my 
own specialized PROM boards, 1 had a 
prototype board made. Lo and behold, 
it didn't work. After many hours of 
debugging, the corrections for the 
published layout are as follows: 

• The edge connector is not to the 
proper scale (0.100") and could short 
out one's Color Computer if any fur- 
ther reductions are made, or if the total 
edge connector size is not correct. 

• The traces as published are too fine 
for easy photocopying. My board had 
several micro-cracks in the traces which 
had to be found with an ohm meter. 

20 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



• The 74LS138 (p. 348) is in 
backwards. 

• A hole should have been provided for 
the cartridge interrupt self-start func- 
tion (edge connector pins 7-8). 

And now for the most serious bugs 
(see Fig. 1): 

1 . The trace to the edge connector pin 
37 should be cut (see Fig. 2). 

2. Cut the trace from the edge connector 
pin 20. Pin 20 is mistakenly connected 
to pin 19 in the drawing; this shorts AO 
to Al whereby the CoCo will not work. 

3 . Add a jumper from the plate-through 
hole below where the trace was cut in 
2 above to (2K ROM C, 4K ROM D) 
pin 7. 

4. The plate-through hole under (2K 
ROM A, 4K ROM C) does not connect 
to the IC socket pin 15. A short piece of 



wire soldered in the hole will make this 

connection. 

5. With the component side up, on the 

edge connector, on the right side, solder 

a small jumper from the next to the last 

terminal to the hole above it and to the 

right. 

With the above corrections made, 1 
have successfully made the prototype 
board work with both 2716s and 2732s, 
fully populated. The lesson I learned 
was not to believe all that is published. 
We are designing our own Color Com- 
puter board with plans to hold four 
2716s, four 2732s, two 2764s or one 
27128. 

G. WJ.K., Jr. 

The Irishman's Software 

P.O. Box 119 

Churchville, NY 14428 




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INPUT 



Kitsz Comments 

I'm sorry G. W.J.K., Jr. met with so 
much difficulty. I did double-check the 
published material against my own: see 
the Updates in this month's "Applica- 
tions" for an offer to readers. 

As for G.W.J.K.'s comments: My 
film negatives are to the proper scale of 
0. 1 inch, derived from 2x originals. The 
size error, as well as the ink dots, 
scratches, and blurring, was introduced 
during the production of the magazine, 
something beyond my control. The 
traces, however, photocopy just fine on 
my machine; such detail was required 
for the board to fit in Radio Shack's 
plastic case. I did reverse the 74LS138 in 
redrawing the parts overlay from my 
pencil copy. 

G.W.J.K.'s five board corrections 
will work. I would like to offer an 
apology and an explanation to readers 
who may have been frustrated by my er- 
rors. The electronic design, two wire- 
wrap versions, four sets of original PC 
artwork and three prototypes were done 
and updated. The final prototype was 
made for me by the company who in- 
tended to sell the ROM board. I was 
told they had the board working; how- 
ever, I failed to ask if they had made 
final corrections, and I further neglect- 
ed to examine the prototype when I 
received it. My last set of artwork, 



which still contained errors, was sent in 
for publication. That company went 
out of business last month. 

I, too, have learned a lesson from this 
experience, and it has made me layout- 
shy. Although this is the first PC layout 
with flaws that has appeared in print, it 
is the last PC layout I will produce for 
publication. Future articles will contain 
only the schematics; however, PC 
boards will still be available for 
each project, and I will give a source 
for them. 

Dennis Kitsz 

Green Mountain Micro 

Roxbury, VT 05669 

Secret Slip 

I enjoyed James T. Demberger's "I 
Have a Secret" program {80 Micro, Oc- 
tober 1982, p. 296). My complaint with 
the article is that Mr. Demberger im- 
plies that an exclusive OR (XOR) logic 
function could not be constructed with- 
in Level 11 Basic without the use of ma- 
chine code. This is absolutely false! 
Level II Basic contains three logical op- 
erators: NOT, AND, and OR. With 
combinations of these three operators, 
any logic function can be simulated. 

The XOR logic function can be sim- 
ulated by taking two inputs and AND- 
ing them with each other's inverse, then 



10 CLS: PRINT " TRUTH TABLE" 

20 FOR A=0 TO 1 

30 FOR B=0 TO 1 

40 REM : :: : C= A XOR B 

50 C= (A AND (NOT B) ) OR ((NOT A) AND B) 

60 PRINT A;"XOR";B;"=";C 

70 NEXT B,A 

80 END 

Program Listing 3 



10 CLS: PRINT 

20 A$="CIPHERKEY" 

30 B$="MESSAGE !" 

40 FOR 1=1 TO 9 

50 A= ASC(MID${A$,I,1)) 

60 B= ASC(MID$(B$,I,1} ) 

70 REM : : C= A XOR B :: D= A XOR C :: NOTE : B^D 

80 C= (A AND (NOT B) ) OR ((NOT A) AND B) 'CIPHER 

90 D= (A AND (NOT C) ) OR ((NOT A) AND C) 'DECIPHER 

100 PRINT A;"XOR";B;"=";C; " " ,A; "XOR" ;C; "=" ;D 

110 NEXT I: PRINT 

120 END 

Program Listing 4 



ORing the result. To test the XOR func- 
tion, type and run Program Listing 3 or 
4. Listing 3 displays the XOR truth 
table and Listing 4 is a short crypto 
cipher /decipher algorithm. 

William T. Faulkner 

5350 N. Lover Lane Road 

Milwaukee, Wl 53225 

Printer Problem 

I would like to share with 80 Micro 
readers a problem I've encountered 
with the Model III and the Okidata 
Microline 83A printer. In Basic, a line 
feed is often done by using the 
LPRINT"" statement; however, this 
will not work with the Okidata 83A be- 
cause of an apparent error in its ROM. 
A technician at Okidata indicated that 
the company was aware of the problem 
and that a new ROM would be issued 
sometime in the future. 

When using LDOS 5.1.2, NEW- 
DOS80, TRSDOS 1.3, or Level II, a 
line feed can be issued by using 
LPRINT or LPRINT"", but neither 
statement will work when using 
DOSPLUS 3.4 or MULTIDOS 1 . 1 with 
the Okidata 83A. 

While most of our software was easi- 
ly adapted to conform to the statement 
that the printer would accept under 
LDOS, Newscript 7.0 refused to eject 
the page or to issue line feeds between 
paragraphs. The people at ProSoft 
stated that they had not been aware of 
this difficulty; because the program had 
performed well with a Microline 80, it 
was assumed that it would work with 
the 83A. While ProSoft was willing to 
find a fix for the problem, I was unwill- 
ing to wait and found that Newscript 
will run under LDOS or DOSPLUS if 
the following statement is appended to 
line 7340 of the Script module: 

:LF$ = CHRS(10) 

Although not an official fix from Pro- 
Soft, this has enabled us to use the word 
processor without difficulties. 

Any prospective buyer of the 
Microline 83A, which I still consider an 
excellent printer, should be aware of the 
line feed idiosyncracy and its possible 
incompatibility with two of the major 
operating systems. 

Ernest Stefanik 

Fax Plus Computing 

373 Wilson St. 

Derry, PA 15627 



22 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Convert to CP/M 
and Save. 

Unprecedented Sale for Model III Owners. Call for Details, 



The Trouble with TRS-DOS. 

Although TRS-pOS is an excellent operating system, it 
has one major disadvantage. When compared with CFVM. 
TRS-DOS locks you into a limited and possibly dead-end 
course. When you are ready to upgrade to a new computer, 
it is likely that none of your present software will run on 
the new machine. All of the time and money you have 
invested in TRS-DOS software will be lost. 

CP/M for the TRS-80. 

Converting to CP/M offers the TRS-80 owner many advan- 
tages. The TRS-80 immediately becomes capable of run- 
ning twice the software of any other computer on the 
market. Perhaps more importantly. CP/M permits soft- 
ware portability. Unlike TRS-DOS programs, CP/M pro- 
grams can be directly transferred to your next computer. 
The savings in time and software costs can be ouite sig- 
nificant. CP/M conversion can easily pay for itself with the 
money saved on one or two software purchases. The sooner 
you convert to CP/M, the more you stand to save. 

CP/M Acquires Unprecedented Support. 

Over the past year, a number of powerful competitors 
have introduced new microcomputers. Most people will 
instantly recognize the names ()f Xerox, IBM. Hewlett- 
Packard. Digital Equipment and Zenith. The Japanese 
companies, Sony. NEC, Sanyo, Toshiba and Sharp, are 
equally well-known. Together, these companies have com- 
mitted over a billion dollars to compete effectively in the 
micro market. TRS-80 owners should be aware that every 
one of these companies has chosen CP/M for their stan- 
dard operating system. Over the next few years, these 
companies will sell millions of CP/M computers. Consid- 
ering these facts, it is clear that CP/M is the operating 
system of the future. 

Apple and Commodore Offer CP/M. 

In a recent press conference, the .Apple Computer 
Company stated, "The largest installed base CIVM system 
in the world today is the Apple 11 with the 7,S0 card from 
Microsoft!' In a recent full page ad in the Wall Street 
Journal. Apple announced CP/M for the Apple III. 
Commodore, refusing to be left behind, has recently 
announced their "Emulator" series of computers that sup- 
port CP/M. There are even rumors that the new Tandy 16 
will support a version of CP/M. 



Plan Ahead. 

The Omikron "Mapper" offers the ideal step to upgrading 
to a newer, more powerful computer. With the "Mapper, 
your TRS-80 can run both CP/M programs and TRS-DOS. 
With CP/M, you can build a software library that's fully 
compatible with the newest CP/M business computers. 
All of the time and money you spend on selecting, pur- 
chasing, and learning CP/IVl software can be considered 
an investment in the future. In addition, your old TRS-80 
can gain a new lease on life as a fully compatible back-up 
unit. Consider all these points carefully. The Omikron 
"Works" package offers the best solution for protecting 
your investment in the TRS-80. By choosing the "Works? 
you can purchase a "Mapper" and also receive over $1,000 
worth of top-quality CP/M software. Value, Utility, per- 
formance — Omikron offers you more than ever before. 



COUGAR . . . Omikron's Users Group. 

CP/M has always been the standard for business and pro- 
fessional use. This market has always demanded high 
quality and high performance. The high prices for CP/M 
programs reflect the additional effort required to develop 
top-quality software products. To help our customers afford 
CP/M software. Omikron has formed Cougar, our official 
users group. Through Cougar, Omikron can purchase 
software products in large volume. This allows us to offer 
our customers some of the best CP/M software in the 
industry at greatly reduced prices. 



Omikron Puts It All Together. 

Omikron has sold more CP/M conversions than all of our 
competitors combined. Omikron was the first in the mar- 
ket with a CP/M conversion. Omikron has continued to 
lead the market for one simple reason — our total commit- 
ment to our customers. Only Omikron offers a "Works" 
type introductory package. Only Omikron has a "Cougar" 
type users group for long-term savings. Our hardware has 
always been designed with reliability first. Our software 
is well designed, complete, and bug free. Our technical 
hot line assists those with problems. Finally, our exchange 
policy has enabled our customers to upgrade to our new 
designs for much less than the cost to new customers. 
When you buy from Omikron, you buy from a company 
with a proven record of dedication and success. 



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INPUT 



What Model 11? 

I recently subscribed to your maga- 
zine and found it very entertaining. A 
better name for your publication, 
however, might be 80 Micro for the 
Model I & 111. What I would like to see 
in your magazine, as you may have 
guessed, is more on the Model II. 

Wayne C. Bucklaew 

700 Etheridge Road 

Chesapeake, VA 23320 

Starting in March 1983, we will pub- 
lish Model 11 versions of many of the 
Model 1/fll programs (hat appear in 
each issue. The conversions are being 
made by our technical staff and a cadre 
of 80 Micro authors who specialize in 
Model II software. In addition, we 
remain vigilant in our efforts to ob- 
tain high-quality articles on the 
Model II.— Eds. 

Controversial Definition 

As a senior Telecommunications 
Analyst, I could not believe Jay Chid- 
sey's definition of baud {80 Micro, Oc- 
tober 1982, p. 96). It does not mean 
"bits of audio data." Emile Baudot's 
name is the source of the term; he creat- 
ed a five-level code for data transmis- 
sion many years ago, after Samuel 
Morse created the Morse code. 

The correct definition of baud is: 
"The number of signal level changes 
per second regardless of the informa- 
tion content of those signals." A mo- 
dem (MOdulator/DEModulator) 
clocks at a certain speed; that is, the 
timing inside the modem changes signal 
levels at a preset speed. The clock must 
time at the speed of the data being 
transmitted or faster. The faster the 
clock, the faster data can be transmit- 
ted. This does not mean that baud and 
BPS (bits per second) are the same. A 
modem can clock at 4800 or 9600 baud, 
but data will be transmitted at 1200 or 
2400 BPS. The only time baud and BPS 
are interchangeable is at the speed of 
1200 BPS or less. That is because the 
modems at those speeds usually clock at 
the same rate as the data. The correct 
way to refer to data transmission speed 
is by the term BPS, not baud. 

I discovered a second error in Mr. 
Chidsey's reference to processor speed. 
The speed of a computer is never rated 
in terms of baud. Computers, either 
micros, minis, or large mainframes such 
as IBM's 303X series, are measured by 

24 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



the time it takes to execute a single 
machine code instruction. The term for 
this is IPS, Instructions Per Second. A 
mainframe like IBM's 3033 Model N is 
rated at a speed of about 3.6 MIPS. 
This means that the computer can exe- 
cute 3.6 million instructions per second. 
Another method of comparing pro- 
cessors is by rating it against a bench- 
mark machine, in this case the IBM 
370/158 Model 3. 

Chuck Bolvin 

1234 Valley Lake Drive, Apt. 542 

Schaumburg, IL 60195 

Chidsey's Response 

First an explanation, which is not in- 
tended to serve as an excuse. The idea of 
the "Bit Smitten" column was to assign 
a person who had writing experience 
and some familiarity with a TRS-80 the 
task of recalling questions he had In the 
early part of the experience of working 
with the computer, and then to research 
answers and, with the back-up of tech- 
nical people on the 80 Micro staff, write 
columns based on this research and on 
simple tips for newcomers to the micro 
field. "Bit Smitten" is a researched col- 
umn, not one written by a computer ex- 
pert. That is, however, no excuse for 
passing on false or inadequate 
information. 

Mr. Bolvin 's description of the deri- 
vation of the word baud is persuasive, 
but I must protest to him that all three 
of the other authorities checked ascribe 
the term to "bits of audio data. " Refer- 
ence to a standard work. Computer 
Dictionary and Handbook by Charles 
Sippl, Howard W. Sams & Co., Indian- 
apolis, Kansas City and New York, 
confirms Mr. Bolvin 's point without 
question. 

Further checking, with Mr. Bolvin 's 
assistance, reveals that Emile Baudot 
created a five-level (or five-bit) code for 
use in automatic telegraph transmission 
(teletype). By making use of shift op- 
tion, two sets of 32 characters were pos- 
sible: a total of 64. The Baudot code 
was, however, little used in America. 
Donald Murray created a five-level 
shifted code, which is used here. Ameri- 
can microcomputers use the eight-bit 
ASCII code, and are now in the process 
of moving to 16-bit code. 

Baud and BPS are used loosely and 
incorrectly as synonymous by some 
manufacturers and advertisers of peri- 
pherals, such as modems. The rule of 



thumb appears to be that information 
on big machines, directed toward tech- 
nicians, uses BPS in describing data 
transfer rates, and information on mi- 
cros, directed toward businessmen and 
hobbyists, uses baud rate. 

I was clearly wrong in using baud to 
refer to IPS as a measure of speed of ex- 
ecution for a single machine-code in- 
struction within a computer. I stand 
abashed and instructed. 

Jay Chidsey 

205 East Adams St. 

Green Springs, OH 44836 

Subscription Solution 

I am shocked by the flippant answer 
given by your editors to Mr. Hoover {80 
Micro, December 1982, p. 20). Your 
subscribers deserve better. If it had been 
me, I would have complained to the 
postal service about mail fraud. 

L.J. Kutten 

201 South Central 

P.O. Box 16185 

St. Louis, MO 63105 

It was not our intent to be flippant. 
We responded to Mr. Hoover's prob- 
lem as quickly as possible, and resolved 
it three months prior to the publication 
of his letter. Our first priority is to serve 
our readers, and such matters therefore 
receive immediate attention. We 
published Mr. Hoover's letter because 
we were impressed by (and grateful for) 
the humor with which he handled a very 
unusual situation, and we wanted to 
share that humor. — Eds. 

Earning Our Keep 

It's articles like the one Dennis Kitsz 
wrote in the October 1982 issue (80 
Micro, "Applications," p. 368) that 
keep me a faithful subscriber . The 
most-used keys on my machine, 1 and 
space bar, had long since stopped re- 
sponding to my cleaning efforts, and 
were working so poorly that it seemed a 
trip to the Radio Shack Repair Center 
was inevitable. Since my Model I has 
been heavily modified, taking it back is 
not something I undertake lightly, but I 
couldn't figure out what the prob- 
lem was. 

Then along came the October issue 
and there was the answer! Sure enough, 
there were tiny cracks in the solder con- 
necting the key contacts to the board, 
just as Dennis said. In a matter of 



,vV" 



.^z^'^ 



ii 



^^A<f 



IF YOUR PRINTER 






^ .PR\PT CO^APP'^ op.goo, ,p3,„„„s«,al) ■ Man B25 IF 



^.^ae*5^°° ' . C. "o-* '^'^J, ,U ^S«'f ^..' "° ; ,39 (^-^f^'^^,^^^^ ■ EP«°" ''^raO .ilt^Ul... ^^ r...... ■ .p.on MX-80 



^<^^ 












Vp-I^N THIS LIST, % 
NEWSCRIPT.SHOULD BE 
ON YOUR COMPUTER." 

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t3l printer control. line numbering, double width characters, only NEWSCRIPT can givi 

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VSCRIPT's exclusive print *^ ^' j„j, 



NEWSCRIPT'S exclusive print processor 
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NEWSCRIPT'S exclusive print 
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SCRIPT'S Print processor you take full 
advantage of your printer's hardware and 
software features, creating an unsurpas- 
sed printed image. Text editing (the part 
you see], is only part of the job, printing is 
the other part — the part others will see. 

NEWSCRIPT controls over 80 popular 
printers. 

You don't even have to know how 
your printer works — only what it can do. 
NEWSCRIPT will do the rest with such 
major features as underlining, right jus- 
tified proportional printing, top and 
bottom titles, top/bottom left-right-center 
page numbering, chaining and embedded 
printing of any length file with disk span- 
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letters with selective editing, boldface, 
sub/super scripts, character substitution/ 
translation, table of contents, indexing. 



NEWSCRIPT'S text editor has 
sophistication to match Its print 
processing. 



Buffered key entry rates to 450 
characters per second — you never drop 
characters. Windowing to 240 characters, 
block move and copy within and between 
files, definable auto save, "HELP" and 
"WHOOPS" commands, repeat and query 
last command, search and replace within 
column and line limits as well as globally, 
and an automatic interface to the ELEC- 
TRIC WEBSTER spelling checker (sold 
separately]. 

NEWSCRIPT'S 277 page manual 
contains an introductory tutorial with ex- 
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over 1,300 entries, and a handy quick- 
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Start getting the printed results 
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and automatic correction) $149.50, GEAP (TRS-80 graphics — requires Epson MX-80) $49.95, DOTWRITER (Hi-res graphics — 
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Dealers: NEWSCRIPT is distributed by IJG, Inc. (714) 946-5805 
*Some features work onlp if your printer haa the mechanical capability. 

NEWSCRIPT trademark PROSOF registered U.S. Pal. Oflice TRS-80 registered trademark TANDY Corp. 



INPUT 



minutes my four-year-old keyboard was 
working like new. 

I probably would never have thought 
of looking that closely at the soldering, 
and I'm not sure the Radio Shack tech- 
nician would have either; it's a tough 
one to catch. As a result, that article 
saved me somewhere between the mini- 
mum $15 labor charge and $75 for a 
new keyboard. When you also figure 
the time it saved me {taking the machine 
apart and at least one round trip of 1 Vi 
hours to the nearest Center and back), 
you can see how that one article easily 
paid for at least a whole year's worth of 
magazine. 

Jim Unwin 

18022 Valley Vista 
Mulino, OR 97042 



Leaning on the Lamp Post 

Program Listing 5 is a modification 
on "Drunkard's Walk" {80 Micro, Oc- 



tober 1982, p. 97). It provides an inter- 
esting holding pattern for those mo- 
ments before inspiration strikes. 

Information, at least in English, is 
hard to come by over here in Germany 
and you fill the bill for TRS-80 owners. 
I'm also pleased at the response time on 
your reader service card and of several 
of your advertisers. 

Richard W. Stubbs 

HHC, V Corps (G3) 

APO NY 09079 

Tandy Bonus 

Despite all the warnings given in your 
fine magazine, I recently managed to 
destroy my TRSDOS system disk. Last 
Saturday I headed for my local Tandy 
store, where I have received superb ser- 
vice since buying my Model III 15 
months ago. I duly purchased a replace- 
ment disk and received the expected lec- 
ture on how not to do what I had done. 

On arriving home I booted the disk 



'** IDLER 

1 '** ADAPTED FROM: 'DRUNKARDS WALK' (80 MICRO/OCT 82, PG 97) 

2 '** BY:DICK STUBBS (HHC,V C0RPS-G3 APO NY 09079)/6 OCT 82 

3 '** FOR:TRS-80 MOD III ( 48K) (TRSDOS 1.3) 
10 X=RND(127} :y=RND(47) 

20 CLS:SET(X,Y} 

30 Z=RND(2) 

40 X=X+(RND(2)-Z) 

50 Y=Y+(RND(2)-Z) 

60 IFX>127ORX<0,10 

70 IFY>47ORY<0,10 

80 IFPOINT(X,Y) RESET (X,y)ELSESET(X,Y} 

90 RANDOM 

100 Z$=INKEY$;IFZ$="",30ELSECLS 

110 PRINT@527,"< B >ASIC or < T >RSDOS ?" : I$=INKEYS; IFI$=""110 

120 IFI5="T"CLS:CMD"S" 

130 CLSiEND 



Program Listing 5 



The Perfect Business System 



^oS 



pa^^ 



\.a9* 



1. *TRS 80 Mod III - 48K 

2, 2 Dual Sided/DD 40 TR Tandon Drives 

3. Apparat Disk Controller 

4, Okidata 83A Printer w/ Cable 

5. MAS 80 GL, AP, AR, CW.PR 

6, NEWDOS 80 

Package Price: *4100 



Of 






(t^s 



af^ 



\e 



CALL: MINI SYSTEMS SUPPORT ,430 

•TANDY CORP. 



(607) 732-3186 



and found that not only did the direc- 
tory show the usual LPC/CMD, 
HERZ50/BLD, etc., but full working 
copies of several disk dump programs 
and Big Five's Defense Command. I 
have read that Tandy is soon to start 
merchandising non-Tandy software, 
but did not think that this was the in- 
tended modus operandi! 

Bryan W. Carter 

219 White Oak Ridge Road 

Short Hills, NJ 07078 

TRSDOS Patches 

The following are three patches that I 
came up with, but I have not seen any of 
them published. These patches bypass 
the logo and copyright displays on 
TRSDOS when the system is reset. The 
last patch was written by John Ratzlaff 
and appeared in the September issue. 
These must be typed in exactly as they 
appear and are used on version 1.3 of 
TRSDOS. 



PATCH '0:0 (ADD =4E85,FTND = 21,CHG = C3) 
PATCH "0:0 (ADD = 4E86,FIND = 6C.CHG=9D) 
PATCH •0:0(ADD = 4E87,F1ND = 51,CHG = 4E) 
PATCH -0:0 (ADD =4EA9,FIND = CA,CHG - C3) 



The first patch changes the present 
LD mnemonic to JP for a jump to the 
memory location specified by the sec- 
ond and third patches. The fourth patch 
bypasses the time and date input for the 
system. If you want to change the 
system back to the original specifica- 
tions, redo the patches but switch the 
values for FIND and CHG of each 
patch. 

Hermes S. Mendez 

Forest Lake Academy 

P.O. Box 157 

Maitland, FL 32751 



Inside Information 

Those of you who are interested in 
contacting Craig Lindley concerning 
his "Inside Scripsit" articles (%0 
Micro, September, October, and 
December 1982), can call him in the 
evenings at 303-685-1786. Craig has 
received over 75 letters already. Un- 
fortunately, he cannot respond to 
each one individually, but he'll be 
glad to discuss the articles with 
anyone who calls. — Eds. 



26 • 80 Micro, February 1983 







NEW LOW PRICE— $99.50 

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say that it's an under $100, compact, reliable, robust, high-speed, 
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drives, for a Model I or 11! TR5-80— simply amazing! 

Amazing Technology 

Based on a special endless-loop tape cartridge, called a Wafer, the 

ESF system was designed specifically for computer data storage. 

Tiie direct-drive transport mechanism has only one moving part 

and data is transferred to and from the tape at a rate of 7200 baud. 

Amazing System 

Thousands of ESr buyers have been amazed by I6K programs loading 
in less than 20 seconds; automatic verification of saved programs; up 
to 70K bytes, and 99 files, on a single Wafer; a ROM operating system 

(RAM based in Model 111); no need for an expansion interface; and 1-year 

parts and labor warranty. 

Amazing Support 

With an ESr system you don't just get a piece of hardware, you get total 
support with hundreds of user workshops; dozens of high-quality, reason- 
ably priced programs (such as Electric Pencil 2.0. Electric Spreadsheet, 
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To see for yourself how amazing the ESF sys- 
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TRS-80 Is a Irademark of Tandy Corporatfl 
: Slflngy Floppy is a trademark o( EKalron Cprpc 



181 Commercial Street, 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



AID 



Engineering Software 

Can someone give me the name and 
address of a software distributor that is 
interested in programs for engineering 
applications? 

John A. Henson, II 

2011 Dawn Heights Drive 

Lakeland, FL 33801 



Looking for Software 

I am looking for software for my 
Model III 48K that will let me use the 
cassette port from a communications 
receiver to input CW and translate to 
ASCII and display /print. This will be 
used for monitoring only since I don't 
have a ham license. 

Also, I need to find someone locally 
who has The Last One program- 
generator package, and who would be 
willing to answer some questions I have 
about the operation and the efficacy of 
a $600 program generator. 

Alfred Kohlberg, Jr. 
Communications Service Company 

5706 84th Avenue 

New CarroUton, MD 20784 

(301) 577-2023 

DDC Problems 

I have a System 80 with the expansion 
interface that has an RS-232 port and 
SlOO capability (this is the Australian 
version of the American marketed 
PMC 80). Recently I bought the 
Aerocomp DDC to give me double- 
density capability, and found that it was 
not compatible with the System 80 
interface. 

I would appreciate information from 
anyone who has managed to get the 
DDC working in a System 80 expansion 
interface, the similar PMC 80 system, 
or in the Video Genie 80. 

R.A. Ivory 

P.O. Box 2320 

Christchurch, New Zealand 

Typing Blind 

I recently purchased a Modem I with 
cassette software, and an extra cable to 
hook up the modem through the cas- 
sette port of my TRS-80 Model I. I did 
this so I would not have to purchase an 
expansion interface or an RS-232 to 
communicate with my school's IBM 

28 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




370. There is, however, one problem. If 
I type in a program line, I can't see it 
until I list it afterwards. Also, there is no 
carriage return. 

Has any other reader had this prob- 
lem? How can I correct it? Note that the 
system at school is running in the half- 
duplex mode. Could it be a problem 
with the IBM 370 sending machine? 

Christopher Inguanta 

23-06 21st St. Apt. 6J 

Astoria, NY 11105 

Converted Program Wanted 

I would appreciate a listing from any- 
one who has successfully converted the 
Cassbox program by Charles E. Gillen 
{November 1982) to work with a Model 
III, and an Epson MX-80 with 
Graftrax-Plus. I can't get the printer to 
print double-wide characters on the 
front label. 

If anyone has figured out how to use 
the Epson control codes while using the 
cassette Scripsit, or if anyone knows of 
a good patch program, I'd like to hear 
from you. I want to be able to change 
codes while using Scripsit. 

Larry E. lerley 

923 Thistle Road 

Elizabethtown, PA 17022 

Parts and Ribbons 

In response to Bryan Headley's ques- 
tion (Aid, November 1982), parts and 
ribbons for the Base 2 Model 800 print- 
er (printer mechanism only) can be 
obtained from the OEM, Two-Day 
Corporation, 203 East Main Street, 
Riverton, WY 82501 (307) 856-1111. 
Ribbons are $9.95 each plus shipping. 

Computer Peripheral Repair, 1483 
East Warner Avenue, Santa Ana, 
CA 92705, has made exclusive arrange- 
ments with Base 2 Corp. to sup- 
port all repair work with factory-trained 
personnel, and to stock all major re- 
placement parts. Minimum charge is 



$50 plus parts. 

Neither company accepts credit 
cards, though the Two-Day Corp. will 
ship C.O.D. 

Roger Parish 

1712 Anna Rose Drive 

Belleville, IL 62221 

Police Need Help 

I am interested in finding a program 
that will aid me in the scientific recon- 
struction of automobile accidents. I 
have a Model II with two disk drives. 
Can someone help? 

Sgt. Michael J. Capman 

Crown Enterprises 

823 Parchmount A venue 

Parchment, MI 49004 

Programs for the 
Handicapped Needed 

We at the Cheshire Home for the 
physically handicapped are building a 
program library for disabled computer 
users. We are looking for new programs 
to add to this library. We already have 
several Apple, Pet, and TRS-80 pro- 
grams. Does anyone have any programs 
of this nature for the ZX series of 
computers? 

The program scope is unlimited, but 
please remember that many handi- 
capped operators have restricted vision, 
so the display needs to be extremely 
clear. 

Robin Nixon 

Seven Springs Cheshire Home 

Pembury Road, 

Tunbridge Wells, Kent 
England TN2 4NB 



Instruction Booklet Wanted 

I am desperate! I need a copy of the 
instruction booklet for the Voxbox 
(Catalog #26-1181). I bought this from 
a Radio Shack store about a year ago, 
and have been trying ever since to get 
the booklet. Can anyone help me? 

John Marcinisen 

230 Cedar Road 

East Northport, NY 11731 

Route Problems 

I recently purchased a Model III with 



the intention to use both the parallel 
and serial outputs directly to the matrix 
and daisy-wheel printers. To my dis- 
may, I found that the serial driver can- 
not be used since the Route command 
does not function properly on the cur- 
rent DOS system. 

Does anyone have a solution? I don't 
want to give up my Model III. 

Stanford L. Hart 

22110 Napa St. 

Canoga Park, CA 91304 



Coding Wand 

Can anyone provide hardware and 

software information for using a low- 
cost bar-coding wand with the TRS-80 
Model III? I intend to use this system 
for inventory control and batch number 
record keeping. 

Jerry Ellis 

Laboratory Service Company 

P.O. Box 7526 

Clearwater, FL 33518 

Needs Help 

I am trying to interface a TRS-80 
Model III with two additional vid- 
eo monitors for use in a press op- 
eration at a motorsports facility. Any 
help in obtaining either a circuit or an 
interface box to perform this function is 
appreciated. 

Michael F. Hollander 

Racing Information Systems 

7317 Haskell Avenue, Suite 214 

Van Nuys, CA 91406 



continued Jnini p. 10 

Thus, we will continue to accept adver- 
tisements that offer programs to back 
up protected software. 

Furthermore, we feel strongly that 
whether a program is protected has 
become an important buying considera- 
tion for many consumers. Thus, we are 
encouraging our writers to include this 
information in their reviews. We will 
also solicit such information for our 
buyer's guides. 

We hope that such- steps will even- 
tually become unnecessary. We would 
like to see a healthy and trusting rela- 
tionship develop between microcom- 
puterists and manufacturers. The com- 
puterists have made their feelings 
known in no uncertain terms. It is now 
up to the manufacturers to respond. 

— £. M. 

^See Lisl ot Advertisers on Paqe 387 



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w/a" drive capacity (DX-2D) $169.95 

RS232 (RX-232) $119,50 

RS232 W/32K 

(RX-232MI $199.50 

Case/power supply — lor 

4 plug-in boards (MF-1) $99.50 

Case — for 

2 plug-in boards [MF-2) 79.50 



VID 80TM 

"80 Character Video" 

• Adds all the extra ram and logic necessary to 
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CP/M system. 

• Functions in 80x24 or 64x16 char.icter mode. 

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• Reverse video (full screen}. 

• Improved grapnic resolution. 

• Easy plug-in installation inside case, 

• Two models available: 
Model ill (VX-3) and 
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■ CP/M system requires purchase of Holmes 
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" VX-1 requires upgraded monitor lor 80x24, 

■ VX-1 requires purchase of MF-T or MF-2. 

VID 80 (VX-3,VX-1| $279,95 

VID 80 plus 64K CP/M 

{Holmes package) $399.00 

VID 80, Holmes CP/M package 

and 64K added memory 

(112K toidl) $499.00 

"48K MEMORY 
WITHOUT AN INTERFACE" 

• Adds memory INSIDE keyboard up to 4}!K 

IM-2 W/16K (32K total) , , .' $119.50 

IM-2 W/32K (48K total) $139.50 

tCall or write for price 



engineering inc. 

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DISTRIBUTORS: 

Bi-Tech, N Y, (8(«l) &45-n6^ 

Level IV Producls, Ml (800) 'in-iiOi 

M & M Micro Mdrl, 

Quebec, Canada fiM} 751-9486 
Soft Sector Marketin;;, 

Ml (800) 521-6504 
DEALERS: 

CIE, CA (714) 757-484'i 
OK Electronic;, CA (714| 7'l4-02y9 
Bond Exchange, CA (213) 6B1-6797 
Dimensional Software, 

CA (714) 27,5-4243 
Eberl Personal Computer';, 

CO [30J) &93-8400 
Appatat, Inc., CO (303) 741-1778 
Ace Computer Products, 

FL (305) 427-1257 
Computek, FL (305) 267-6414 
Commtek, GA (404) 3%-0034 
FBG & Associates, IL (312) 782-9750 
Radio Shack, IL (309) 944-4111 
Stephen-Christopher Co., 

IL (312) 662-2356 
A-Computor Store, IN (3171 898-0331 
Projects of America, KS (316) 331-3670 
MJcroware, KS (913) 631-2029 
Perry's Computer System, 

KV (502) 754-5313 

TRS-80 IS a registered tr.idemark of l;ji 



Sofiware Support, MA (617) 872-9090 
Compudontix, MA (617) 533-8433 
Vespa Computer Outlet, 

Ml (313) 538-1112 
Allernaif Source, Ml (517) 482-8270 
Compute Unlimited, 

Ml (517) 631-3090 
Computer Shack, Ml (313) 673-2224 
Cosmopolitan Electronics, 

Ml |313) 397-3126 
Computer Place, MN (612) 869-3245 
Cosmopolitan Electronics, 

Ml (313) 397-3126 
Micro Support Services, 

MO (314) 474-6064 
I Compute, MO (314) 449-7880 
Micro Innovations, 

MO (314) %2-163S 
Mountain Data, MT (406) 622-5651 
Computer Stuff, NM (505) 256-9708 
Hewitt's Computer, 

NM (505) 883-0984 
Inllo Inc., NY (516) 924-9229 
lerry's Computer, OH (216) 579-0648 
Micro Data Supplies, 

OH (216) 951-6502 
Ptogressive Electronics, 

OH (614) 653-1329 
Heart to Heart Computer Services, 

OH (513) 663-4558 
idy Corporation, CP/M is a registered I 



Golden Fanrdsies, OR (503) 484-2834 
Stevens Radio Shatk, 

PA (215) 933-3441 
Montezuma Micro, TX (2141 339-5104 
CTL Associates, TX (713) 444-5405 
Micro Marl, TX (512) 349-9741 
East Coast Data, VA (804) 484-6636 
Tidewarer Data, VA (804) 397-9616 
freedom Micro-Systems, 

VA (703) 22B-58O0 
WCS, WA (206) 747-3495 
ABC Computer, WA (206) 775-6944 
FOREIGN DEALERS; 
National Management Services, 

Quebec, Canada (514) 387-2609 
International Software, 

Victoria 6,C, Canada 
382-1344 
MicroDeal, Bodmin, 

England (0726) 850621 
Victor Salefi, Middlesex, England 
Graphie France, Pans, France 
ASP Microcomputers, 

East Malvern, Australia 211-B555 
Computerware, 

Koein, West Germany 
Computer Service, 

Buersladt, West Germany 
Moonbase Computer, 

Scotland (041) 883-1189 
ademark ol Digital Reseaich 



One year warranty on all products. Add Shipping/Haniflinj; — MF-1, MF-2. $9,00 U,S., $15,00 Canada. Overseas $30.00. 
Other producis add $5 00 U.S. & Canada, All others add 15%, Pru i-s suhjccl lo i hange without notice. DEALER INQUIRIES 
INVITED. FOR INFORMATION SEND SELF ADDRESSED STAMPED ENVELOPE. Reader service lakes 8 weeks 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 29 



DEBUg: 



"Practical" Corrections 

The gremlins are at it again! My arti- 
cle "Practical Regression Analysis" 
(November 1982) contains three errors 
that might cause confusion. 

• The probability subroutine found on 
page 102 is incorrect. The proper ver- 
sion is: 

2790 ' PROB 

2800 DX = Dl:Dy = D2:DZ = D2:FF = F:IFF< 

I THEN DY = D1:DX = D2:DZ = D1:FF-1/F 

2810 DX=2/9/DX:DY = 2/9/DY 

2820 DD - (FF!(I/3)*(1 - DY) + DX - 1)/SQR 

(FFt(2/3)*DY + DX) 

2830 IFDZ<4THENDD = DD*(.08*DDt4/ 

DZ(3 + 1) 

2840 FP = . 5/(1 +DD*(.19685 + DD*(. 11519 + 

DD'(.000344 + DD*.01953))))t4 

2850 IF F> = 1 THEN FP = 1 - FP 

2860 RETURN 

• At the end of page 103, there is a 
"Listing continues" note. Actually, this 
is the end of the listing; there are no 
missing lines. 

• The legends on page 106 are switched 
for Figs. 7 and 8. 

Delmer D. Hinrichs 

2116S.E. 377th Avenue 

Washougal, WA 98671 

(206) 835-2983 

Poker Correction 

Thanks to Karl Weeks, I have found 
a couple of errors in my "Casino Draw 
Poker" game (November 1982). The 
game doesn't recognize either the royal 
flush or the four-of-a-kind. Since I have 
never gotten either, 1 didn't realize the 
problem existed until Mr. Weeks in- 
formed me of it. To correct the prob- 
lem, change line 8120 to: 

8120 IF(FF=1)AND(CS(5,1) = 13)AND 
(CS{4,1)= 12) AND (CS(3,I) = 11) AND 
(CS(2,1)= 10) AND (CS(1,1)= 1) THEN WV = 
9: GOTO9000 

You must also change the WT = 7 in 
lines 8140 and 8150 to WV = 7. 

Ron Balewski 

412 East Ridge St. 

Nanticoke, PA 18634 

(717) 735-3736 



Model III Graftrax 

There are several bugs in the listings 
of Thomas McNamee's "Graftrax 80" 

30 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




article (September 1982). 

• In hne 370 a test is made for printer 
ready by PEEKing at location 14312 to 
see if it is "61." This will not work on 
my Model III. The number should be 63. 

• The count for the number of codes, 
and the codes themselves, are sent out 
to the printer using the CHR$(X) func- 
tion. Unfortunately, Basic will not send 
out codes of 0, 10, and 12. 1 recently re- 
alized that the printer was connected as 
a port, and that I could use the OUT 
&HF8, X (or in decimal, OUT 248, X) 
command. This results in the following 
changes in lines 530-540: 

530 LPRINT CHR$(125); " ";CHR$(27)"L"; 

532 OUT &HF8, CC 

533 IF PEEK (14312)<>63 THEN GOTO 533 
535 LPRINT CHR$(255); 

537 FOR T- 1 TO CC; OUT &HF8, G(T) 

538 IF PEEK (14312)< > 63 THEN GOTO 
538 

540 NEXT 

The program comes close to the cor- 
rect aspect ratio for the 960 density, but 
is far off for the 480 density, which 1 
use. This can be improved by modifying 
the program to light two horizontally 
adjacent pixels, and then testing X two 
steps at a time. 

Donald Wade 

35-41 72nd St. 

Jackson Heights, NY 11372 

(212) 672-6399 



Case Dismissed 

1 have had many phone calls and let- 
ters concerning the September Debug 
on how to connect the plotter in my 
"Digital Doodles" article (January 
1982) to the computer. The following 
information will help answer these 
questions: 

• On the left side of the schematic, the 
inputs to the three inverters labeled 0, 1 , 
and 2 go to the address lines 0, 1 , and 2. 
The gates labeled 04 are 74LS04s, and 



those labeled 02 are 74LS02s. All the 
plotter software is written to use output 
port #2 (second 74LS373 from the top). 
The other three ports are not needed. 
The reason for the other three ports is 
that this is the schematic for the 1/0 
ports I use to make sure that it will 
work. The 74LS373s are no longer 
stocked by Radio Shack, but they are 
still sold by many advertisers in 80 
Micro. 

• If you have access to the address and 
data lines, I don't see why the hardware 
should not work on a Model III. Most 
of the software is in Basic so there 
should be no problem, though the one 
routine in machine language may have 
to be changed. 

Alan Sehmer 

I50A Lorretta Drive NW 

Corrales, NM 87048 

(505) 897-0955 



Lucky 13 Fix 

I encountered an error in Carl Bev- 
ington's article "Tee for Six" (August 
1982). To play the game Lucky 13 cor- 
rectly, change the 21 1 in line 800 to 212. 
Without this change a move from B to 
K is allowed, but the correct legal move 
from B to L is read as incorrect. 

Hal Smith 

1334 Keith Drive 

Colorado Springs, CO 80916 

Tax Estimator 

I have received several letters con- 
cerning my "Income Tax Estimator" 
article (October 1982). I would like to 
clear up some of the questions raised by 
readers. 

• The data used in the sample was ran- 
domly chosen for illustrative purposes, 
and did not represent real numbers for 
any particular individual. (I am not na- 
ive to allow 100,000 readers to peruse 
the numbers in my own return.) Given 
correct data, the program does produce 
correct results. 

• The program was originally written 
in 1980, and submitted to 80 Micro in 
1981. Minor revisions to update to 1 98 1 
tax rules were made in 1982. Given the 
lead time for magazine publishing it is 
impossible to ensure that any tax pro- 
gram will still be correct by the time it is 
published. 



Convert your TRS-80' 
into a World Class Computer 



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...with LSI's new 



Replacement CRT. . . 



The black & white "TV Screen" CRT (picture tube) which came with your TRS-80*model II or III is an inexpensive 
rapid "PA" Phosphor CRT intended for TV use. The display is actually strobing 60 times a second. No amount of "green 
plastic" will stop this strobing or eliminate the eye fatigue it causes. But a new Soff'ViJ^' CRT display tube with a slower 
decaying, colored Phosphor will. 

• Available in slow-decay green (similar to new IBM* and APPLE lll*monitors) or medium decay "European 
Orange" (easy on the eyes, elegantly beautiful , and the standard for CRT displays in Europe) 

• Leaded glass stops X-ray emission 

• Optional Anti-Glare Frosted Glass available to reduce eye strain from glare 

• Easy installation — tube comes with pre-mounted hardware 

• 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee 

• Ideal for Word- Processing & Programming, fast enough for Games 8i Graphics 

• Finest quality double-dark glass and phosphor fields make the letters seem to be coming out of black space 



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Try This Test: 




LSI's new Sqjff'VM' CRT 



Turn the brightness control on 
your TRS-80*all the way up. Wave 
your hand up and down in front 
of the screen. See how jerky it 
seems? Just like in front of a 
strobe light! That's because the 
screen actually is strobing at you. 
A slower-phosphor CRT will 
reduce that troublesome strobe 
effect. That's why most of the 
newer monitors, from I BM* to 
Apple IN* are using the new 
slow-phosphor CRT's. 

•IBM*, APPLE 



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and TRS-SO* are trademarks of IBM, APPLE Computer & TANDY Corp 



DEBUg 



• The program was written so that it 
acts as a summary program: It serves to 
keep track of each item, and provides a 
running computation of the entered 
data. Providing that the user makes in- 
telligent decisions as to what to hst and 
deduct with the new regulations in 
mind, the program will still provide the 
correct results. 

• Concerning the absence of the self- 
employment schedule SE: This particu- 
lar version was developed for the case 
where neither husband nor wife are sub- 
ject to SE tax, because Social Security 
payments are fully covered by their in- 
come from wages. Since this is not the 
general case, the following lines should 
be added to the program: 

1561 IF CK400 THEN GOTO 1570 

1562 PRINT "WITH SCHEDULE C IN- 
COME OF $"; CI 

1563 PRINT "YOU MAY BE SUBJECT TO 

SCHEDULE SE. CALCULATE" 

1564 PRINT "ANY SELF-EMPLOYMENT 
TAX AND ENTER IT NOW." 

1565 INPUT SI 

1566 D = S1 : K$ = "SELF-EMPLOYMENT 



150 BUSINESS 
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On Disk, Model III. 



This new concept in software pacl<- 
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money!! Over 150 business utilities 
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Includes routines tor: 
■*■ Graphs and charts (with print 
routines) 

* Real estate analysis 

* Depreciation techniques 

* Amortization schedules 

* Pricing and profit strategies 

* Financial decision making aids 

* Savings and investment tools 

* Over 60 common conversions 
and equivalents 

* Plus much more ! ! ! 

These easy-to-use programs are 
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To get in on this amazing limited 
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order to: 

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1567 X = X + S1 : D-X 



Peter A. Stark 

P.O. Box 209 

Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 

(914) 241-0287 



Golf Fix 



Helpful callers have identified a few 
errors in the coding of my "Callaway 
Golf Scoring Program" (May 1982). 
The changes are as follows: 

1220 L=0:Ll=O:Pi=O: IF SHOl 



GOTO 1270 

2380 PRINTX + Y,T$(X+Y),T1(X4-Y) 
2400 X = X-H0:1FNP>X GOTO 2370 

Also, delete line 2360. 

To use the program with a disk sys- 
tem, do not set the memory size, and 
delete lines 10-30 and 160-200. The 
screen-print routine will not work, but 
if your DOS has such a feature you can 
use that instead. 

Rodger Wells 

1008 Kehoe Drive 

St. Charles, JL 60174 



On page 320 of our Anniversary 1983 issue, we published an article by 
Charles Knight entitled "Directory Information Please" without the Program 
Listings. They are printed below. We apologize for the oversight. — Eds. 



* * * 
*** 



Program Lifting I 

20 REM ******************************************************** 

40 REH *** HAGIDEX Disk directory Management *** 

60 REM *** program by Charles P. Knight 

80 REH *** COPYRIGHT (C) 1982 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

100 REM*** Version 1.2 

120 REM ******************************************************** 

140 CLEAR2000 

160 ONERRORGOTO260 

180 0PEN"I",1, "TRANSFER/DAT" 

200 INPUT#1,VI ,D2,D2$,DN,IN,KTS 

220 CLOSE 

2 40 GOTO2 80 

26 IFERR=106THENRESUME280ELSEFEINT"UNRECOVERABLE ERROR" : CMD"E" : 

PRINT"PROGRAH ABORTED: STOP 

2 80 ONERRORGOTO0 

300 GS^"*" 

320 CLS:PRINT§9,"Disk Directory Management Program Master Menu"; 

340 PRINT@67 , "Requires L.D.O.S. operating system and at least 2 

drives" ; 

360 lFD2$=""THENNC$="No data in system at present - select optio 

n l"ELSENC$="Disk containing directory data should be in dfive " 

-rRIGHT5(D2$,l) 

380 PRINT@128+32-(LEN(NCS)/2) ,NC$; 

400 PRINTiai92,STRING${64,143) ; 

420 PRINT@284,"M E N U" 

440 PRINTSTRINGS(64,143) ; 



460 PRINT" 
480 PRINT" 
50 PRINT" 
520 PRINT" 
540 PRINT@320,CHR$(191 



{1} Enter more disks" 
{21 Sort Directory data file 
{3 } Print results" 
{4) End program" 
:PRINT@3 83 ,STRING$ ( 2 , 191) ; :PRIMT@4 

INGS( 2,191) ; :PRINTia511, STRINGS {2, 191) ; : PRINT@575 , STRINGS ( 2 

:PRINT@639,CHRS(191) ; 

560 PRINTSTRINGS(64,143) ; 

580 PRINTTAB{33) "Copyright (C) 1981 by" 

600 PRINTTAB{33) "Charles P. Knight." 

620 QQ=330 

640 PRINT@903,"Do not press <ENTER> after entering menu sc 

n"; :IFD2$<>""THENPRINT@704, "Number disks in file :";DN-1;: 

INT@704 ,"File not initialized! " ; 

660 IFKT$<>""THENPRINT(a973, "Library of : ";KT$; 

580 PRINTia768, "Enter selection please:"; 

700 CK=5 

7 20 IK$-INKEy$:PRINTia7 9 5,IKS; : IFIK$<"1 "ORIK$>"4"THEN7 40ELS 

(IKS) :GOTO840 

7 40 CK-CK+2:PRINT@287+CK,CHR$(143) ; : PRINT@287-CK ,CHR5 ( 143) 

>30THENCK=5:PRINT(a291,STRING$(28,32) ; : PRINT@256 , STRINGS ( 28 

PRINT@795," "; :PRINT@832,"No. files in system :";IN; 

760 IFQQ=330THENFL-FL+1:IFFL>32000THENFL=0 



47 , STR 
,191) ; 



lectio 
ELSEPR 



EM=VAL 

; :IFCK 
,32);: 



I isim^ I tiiniinues on p. 392 



32 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




^^ 



LOW PRICES 






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Okidata sPEED/cps parallel serial price 

82A 1 20 STD. STD. $494.00 

83A 120 STD. STD. $765.00 

84 200 $ 1 1 69.00 SI 295.00 

2350 350 $2405.00 $2765.00 



NEC Spinwriters 










3510-1 RO 


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3530-1 RO 


33 


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SPECIALS OF THE MONTH 

A Okidata 82 A $474.00 9.5 

A Epson MX-80 F/r $525.00 9.5' 

A Epson MX-100 $699.00 15 
A NEC PC-8023 $538.00 95 


Width 
Width 
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NEC 




7710-1 RO 


55 


7715-1 RO 


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7720-1 KSR 


55 


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Manufacturer's warranty included on all equipment. 

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Please allow 2 weeks clearance for personal checks. 

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PRINTER DIVISION 



202 W. LINCOLN, SUITE E • ORANGE, CA 92665 



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That's 

That number again 

That's 




^ 3 in '83! ^\ 

d to celebrate we've published a special 
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36 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



COMMANDER BO 



by Jake Commander 



Hey, what's this? Mmmm. Looks 
like some kind of box. Let's take a 
closer look. Hey, it's a soapbox. It 
looks very familiar. Friendly even. I 
wonder what'll happen if I stand on it. 
Whoooosh.... 

All I want is to be left alone. Just 
leave me in front of a computer with an 
idea and an editor, assembler, interpret- 
er, or a compiler, and I'm happy. The 
fact that a usable piece of software re- 
sults from my efforts is merely a bonus 
that makes programming more attrac- 
tive. I really enjoy it for its own sake. 

But then, along come the prophets of 
doom. Many times, when I read a book 
or an article about programming, 1 get 
preached at. Not that anyone gets on a 
soapbox and pontificates, but I come 
away with the idea that the author 
wouldn't approve of the way i do 
things. You see, I don't care a fig for 
how my programming ideas get in the 
computer as long as they work. In 
short, I'm an unstructured program- 
mer, and I want to stay that way. 

Maybe I feel I should be left alone 
with my sinful ways because I program 
mainly in machine code, which seems to 
afford me a special status. But then I 
fancy a change of style and write some- 
thing in Basic. Then a httle Pascal for 
dessert. I love it! Make that stupid com- 
puter jump through hoops! 

But then what do I see as I leaf 
through a Rodnay Zaks book on Pas- 
cal? A kind of pseudo-subliminal 
preaching. I can understand the author 
of a reference on Pascal taking a stand 
on structured programming, but this 
one seems to want to herd all potential 
programmers into the same stable. He 
says that perhaps 10 percent of the pro- 
gramming population has a natural flair 
for programming and has little problem 
in producing a working piece of soft- 
ware. The other 90 percent? Well, they 
can come out with a finished result, but 
only with an effort that will be the in- 
verse ratio of the amount of structured 
techniques they use. 

Of course, in my programming vani- 
ty, I place myself in the upper echelons 
of the first 10 percent and smugly face 
my monitor to continue entering byte 
after awful unstructured byte of code. 
But Rodnay isn't going to let me get 
away with that. He trips me up with a 
typically structured piece of structured 
logic. He informs me that nearly all pro- 







Structured 

programming 

blues 



grammers consider themselves to be in 
that same 10 percent. Thanks, buddy. 

Now my ego and conscience suffer as 
i continue to enter my nasty unstruc- 
tured code. Am I really a talented pro- 
grammer with a future, or just an ego- 
tistical computer hacker with delusions 
of grandeur? It seems the only way to be 
saved is to subscribe to the Church of 
the Pascalites and bow daily to the deity 
of disciplined programming. Well, no 
thanks. 

Nobody tries that with composers 
or painters or sculptors, and nobody's 
going to do it with me. I love the actu- 
al medium that I work with far too 
much to change my style now. Other 
artists are allowed so-called artistic li- 
cense, and I demand the same. I don't 
know a single artist who enjoys his 
work who wouldn't go bananas if told 



to change his style. These people de- 
velop their talents by emulating the 
works of other artists they admire un- 
til they finally develop their own style. 
And so it is with me. 

I learned programming back in the 
1960s under the tutelage of a book by 
D.D. McCracken. Good old McCrack- 
en introduced me to programming 
through a fictitious computer called 
TYDAC (for typical digital automatic 
computer). He assured the reader that 
the techniques learned would be of ben- 
efit to any programmer of almost any 
digital computer. 

These were the wild west days of 
computing before sheriffs had been in- 
vented. Things were tough then. Mem- 
ory (old-fashioned core-memory) was a 
scarce commodity and was most defi- 
nitely finite. This was constraint num- 
ber 1 . Also, in those bad old days, com- 
puters were huge expensive monsters 
that cost a fortune. Consequently, time 
on those computers was also expensive. 
Results had to be produced quickly^ 
someone else was always waiting in the 
wings to run his own important pro- 
gram. So, constraint number 2 was time. 

By the time he'd finished, McCrack- 
en had me wrestling with space and time 
to end up with working routines that 
had attained a mystical quality— ele- 
gance. This word isn't used any more in 
regard to programming, especially in 
the books on structured programming. 
Now the quality to be reached for is dis- 
cipline. I had enough of that at school 
and I relish the freedom I achieve by as- 
sembling any byte, anywhere and any- 
how I like. 

The best of it is that many machine- 
language programmers I know share 
my views. Structured high-level code is 
OK for beginners or for people who 
want to learn programming without 
making too great an effort. But leave 
me and my buddies alone, we'll happily 
(even enthusiastically) sit down and 
write your next structured interpreter in 
any style we see fit — and that just may 
be unstructured code. 

My legs are getting a little tired. What 
on earth am I doing standing on this 
box? I guess it's time to step down and 
stretch my legs. Good grief, did I just 
say all that stuff about structured pro- 
gramming? Sounds like awfully good 
sense to me. I have a feeling I might get 
on the box again next month. ■ 

80 Micro, February 1983 • 37 



THE NEXT STEP 



by Hardin Brothers 



You've learned to program your 
Model 1 or Model III efficiently in 
Basic. You've also started learning to 
program simple Assembly-language pro- 
grams. You are ready for the next step. 

The major topic of this column will 
be the techniques of combining ma- 
chine language and Basic. It vv-ill cover 
everything from the simple first steps of 
language interfacing to techniques of 
altering Basic verbs, using the "low 
memory" pointers, and even creating a 
Basic metalanguage for special applica- 
tions. Although I'll present short 
machine-language routines, my purpose 
is to show you techniques you can use 
for your own creations. 

I make some assumptions about you. 
First, I assume you are working with a 
Model I or Model III. Although a few 
columns might be limited to disk-based 
systems, most will be equally applicable 
to either disk or tape Basic. 

Second, I assume you have an 
editor/assembler program and that you 
can write and understand at least simple 
Assembly-language programs. Third, I 
assume you understand hexadecimal 
notation and can convert values from 
hexadecimal to decimal. 

And, finally, I assume you are 
curious about how and why your com- 
puter works, and that you would like to 
make it work more efficiently. 

Since the possible configurations of 
TRS-80 systems are many, I'll try to 
give values and addresses for 16K, 32K, 







Fixed 
location 
routines 



and. 48K RAMs for tape and disk sys- 
tems of the Model I and Model III. At 
times up to 12 different values may exist 
for the same pointer or address. Be sure 
you pick the one that applies to your 
system. 

Fixed Location Routines 

The first techniques presented in- 
volve separate machine-language rou- 
tines that are written to load to specific, 
fixed locations in memory. These 
techniques are most useful for long or 



7FE6 

7FE6 21003C 
7FE9 010004 
7FEC 1600 

7FEE 7E 
7FEF FE20 
7FF1 2803 
7FF3 16FF 
7FF5 35 
7FF6 23 
7FF7 0B 
7FF8 78 
7FF9 Bl 
7FFA 20F2 
7FFC Bft 
7FFD 20E7 
7FFF C9 
0000 
00 000 TOTAL 



00100 
00110 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 
00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
ERRORS 



t ******** ******* ****** 



Screen Melt 

to be Intecfaced 
to Basic 



1**************** 



LOOPl 



ORG 
LD 
LD 
LD 

LD 

CP 

JR 

LD 

DEC 

INC 

DEC 

LD 

OR 

JR 

CP 

JR 

RET 

EHD 



7FE6H 

HL,3C00H 

BC,400H 

D,00H 

A, (HL) 

20H 

Z,GO 

D,0FFH 

(HL) 

HL 

BC 

A.B 

C 

NZ,LO0P2 

D 

NZ, LOOPl 



BEG. OF SCREEN MEMORY 

LENGTH OF SCREEN MEMORY 

RESET FINISH FLAG 

GET SCREEN CHARACTER 

IS IT AN ASCII SPACE? 

GO IF IT IS 

ELSE SET FLAG 

AND DECREMENT CHARACTER 

BUMP POINTER 

DECREMENT COUNT 

GET HIGH VALUE 

MERGE WITH LOW VALUE 

FINISH SCREEN 

IS D STILL ZERO? 

GO BACK IF NOT 

ELSE RETURN TO BASIC 



Program Listing I 



complex routines or for routines that 
seem to defy all efforts at relocatable 
programming. Program Listing 1 does 
not fit these qualifications, but it is the 
demonstration program for this month. 

Listing 1 is a short routine that 
"melts" all the characters on the screen; 
it is useful as a showy, if slow, screen 
clear. Its origin is at 7FE6H, which is 
compatible with 16K, 32K, or 48K sys- 
tems. Before reading further, assemble 
it and save the program to either tape 
or disk. 

Fixed location programs are easy to 
use, but loading them separately from 
your Basic program can be tedious. The 
only difficulty you might find is in set- 
ting the appropriate memory size 
pointers correctly and letting Basic 
know where the program is. You must 
set the memory size to protect the pro- 
gram from being overwritten by the 
other machinations of Basic. Because 
this process is different for tape and 
disk users, the processes for each are ex- 
plained separately. 

For Tape Users 

Before loading and using a fixed 
memory routine with a Level II tape 
system, you must make two calcula- 
tions. First, convert the lowest address 
of the routine to decimal to answer the 
"Memory Size?" prompt. Your answer 
tells Basic the first byte of memory it 
cannot use. In Listing 1 , the lowest ad- 
dress you need to protect is 7FE6H, 
which equals 32742 in decimal, so you 
would set the memory size value at 
32742. 

Load the assembled machine-lan- 
guage program from tape and then 
return to the memory size prompt. How 
do you do that? Load the program by 
setting your tape recorder to the as- 
sembled program, then type SYSTEM 
and enter. Answer the "?" prompt with 
the name of the program, and the tape 
recorder will transfer the routine to the 
computer. When the routine is loaded, 
another "?" appears. Respond with /O 
and enter, and you will return to the 
memory size prompt. Now enter 32741; 
the routine will be safely loaded and 
protected in memory, waiting for you to 
call it. 

Then you face a second problem. To 
call the program from Basic, first tell 
the computer where it is. The starting 



38 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



address (not necessarily the lowest ad- 
dress) of the routine must be stored in a 
pointer at memory positions 16526 and 
16527, and your program must POKE 
the appropriate values there. First take 
the last two hex digits from the begin- 
ning address of the routine (E6H), con- 
vert that value to decimal (230), and 
POKE the result into 16526. Then take 
i\\Q first two hex digits (7FH), convert 
them (127), and POKE that value into 
16527. For Listing 1 the line of Basic 
would read: 

POKE 16526,230: POKE 16527,127 

Finally, to use the routine, you must 
include a USR command in your Basic 
program. Since no values are to be 
passed to or from this routine, all you 
need is a statement such as Q = USR(0). 
Instead of Q, you can use any valid, un- 
used numeric variable name. Instead of 
0, you can place any integer inside of 
parentheses. 

For Disk Users 

Using a fixed-location routine at the 
top of memory involves a special con- 
sideration for disk users. Not only does 
the memory size have to be set so Basic 
leaves the routine alone, but also a spe- 
cial HIMEM pointer must be set to 
guarantee that DOS commands will not 
mess up the routine. The problem 
comes about because TRSDOS, as well 
as some DOSes, uses the top 256 bytes 
of memory as a buffer for transferring 
programs from disk to memory. 

The address of the high memory 
pointer is 4049H and 404AH for the 
Model I, 4411H and 4412H for the 
Model 111. The easiest way to set the 
pointer is with a DOS that includes a 
HIMEM command. For example, the 
Model III TRSDOS command for the 
screen melt program is CLEAR 
(MEM = 7FE5). Without a special com- 
mand, you have to do some thrashing 
around. 

From DOS Ready, load the routine 
from disk. Then go to Debug, display 
the pointer, enter the Modify mode and 
set the pointer to the appropriate value. 
Be careful, though. Because of the way 
the Z80 stores and retrieves data from 
memory, DOS expects the value to be in 
"normal" reversed order, with the sec- 
ond half of the value first. 

For Listing 1, set either 4049H or 
441 IH to E6H and either 404AH or 
4412H to 7FH. Then exit from Debug 



back to DOS Ready and disable Debug 
from interrupting other commands. 

Setting high memory has one large 
advantage — you can ignore the memory 
size question entirely because Disk Basic 
sets the top of its allowed memory from 
the high memory value when you enter 
Basic. You can hit enter at the memory 
size prompt without having to convert 
the program address to decimal. 

Avoid having to set the high memory 
address separately by using a special 
trick. Add two lines to the original 
Assembly source code so the program 
will protect itself as it's loaded. In 
Listing 1, add the following two lines 
between lines 340 and 350: 



342 
344 



ORG 

DEFW 



4049H 
7FE6H 



With a Model III, the ORG value would 
be changed to 4411 H. 

Your second step, letting Basic know 
where the program starts, is easier in 
Disk Basic than in Level 11. The 
DEFUSR command recognizes hex- 
adecimal as well as decimal numbers, 
so instead of POKEing values into 
memory, include the command 
DEFUSRO = &H7FE6. You can change 
the zero to any single digit because Disk 
Basic lets you point to ten separate USR 
routines simultaneously. If you omit the 



100 


«****4»««t. .*««************** 


110 


* 


120 


* Melt Demonstration — 


130 


* for tape systems 


140 


* 


150 


*«**t««*..*t**im.**«i**n«*** 


160 




170 ( 


LS 


180 


OR 1=0 TO 1022 STEP 3 


1S0 


RINT @ I, CHRS(RND(1611 +31) ; 


200 ■ 


EXT I 


210 


OKE 16526,230: POKE 16527,127 


220 ( 


=USH(0) 


230 C 


OTO 180 




Program Listing 2 



100 
110 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
130 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 



Melt Demonstration -- 

for disk svsteras 



CLS 

FOR 1=0 
PRINT @ 
NEXT I 
DEFUSR0= 
Q=USR0(i 

GOTO lat 



TO 1020 STEP 3 

I, CHRS(RND(161] +31) ,- 



Program Listing 3 



digit, Basic assumes you meant and 
acts accordingly. 

To use the routine, the Disk Basic 
command is Q = USRO(0). Again, you 
can use any of ten digits in place of the 
first 0, but be sure you use the same 
digit you used in the DEFUSR com- 
mand. Andagain, if the digit is omitted, 
Basic assumes you meant 0. 

For Everyone Again 

Follow the above instructions and 
then enter and run either Program List- 
ing 2 or Program Listing 3. Listing 2 is 
for those with tape systems; Listing 3 is 
for disk users. If ail goes well, you will 
know you have learned to handle this 
first interfacing technique. 

Generally, this fixed-location, sep- 
arate-load technique is not used with 
routines as short and simple as my ex- 
ample. Also, the routine is put as high 
as possible in memory to conserve 
space. If you have 32K of RAM, assem- 
ble this program to 0BFE6H; with 48K 
RAM, the address would be 0FFE6H. 
Of course, you must adjust the memory 
size and USR pointers accordingly. 

How do you calculate those addresses 
for your own memory size? Let the as- 
sembler do it for you. In our example, 
change lines 180 and 340 like this: 



180 

340 STOP 



ORG 
RET 



OOOOH 



Assemble the program with the /NO 
option (no output), and note the ad- 
dress of the STOP label in the symbol 
table (0019H). Then change line 180 to 
read: 

180 ORG 7FEEH-19H 

Make the 7FFFH value equal to the 
highest address and the 19H value equal 
to the former address of STOP. Assem- 
ble the program to disk or tape, but be 
sure to write down the new ORG ad- 
dress to use later in setting the necessary 
pointers. 

Next month I'll explain techniques 
for saving and loading fixed location 
programs as part of your Basic pro- 
gram. Also, for tape users, I'll present a 
simple technique that almost gives you 
the same power and flexibility that disk 
users have to control multiple user rou- 
tines without constantly POKEing 
values into 16526 and 16527. 

If you have comments, questions, or 
suggestions for future columns, please 
contact me through 80 Micro or 
CompuServe. My EMAIL address is 
72165,735. ■ 

80 Micro, February 1983 • 39 



SUITE 16 



by Dan Keen and Dave Dischert 



Welcome to the first installment of 
a column dedicated to the Model 
16 and to those Model II computers 
that have been upgraded with the Mod- 
el 16 enhancement boards. 

In the months ahead we will investi- 
gate all aspects of life with the Model 
16 and 11/16. When new software be- 
comes available, we will discuss it here. 
We also plan to clarify concepts pre- 
sented in the owner's manual and the 
Assembler-16 manual. If you have 
questions about your system, let us 
know and we'll answer as many as pos- 
sible in print. 

First Impressions 

One of the first things a new owner 
will try after uncrating the machine is 
to make a back-up of the TRSDOS 
16* System disk. To our surprise, it 
cannot be done on a single-disk-drive 
computer! The back-up command re- 




First thoughts 

on the 

Model 16 



quires at least two disk drives. With 
some experimentation we found this 
to be true also of the Model 11/16 up- 
graded computers. Obviously this ma- 
chine is designed for use by people 



who have large storage needs and who 
would normally have either two or 
more floppy-disk drives or a hard disk 
connected to it. So for those readers 
who plan to buy a Model 16 but are 
not contemplating getting a hard disk, 
we advise purchasing a two-disk sys- 
tem right away. 

We tried to get around this one-drive 
problem by using the format command 
under TRSDOS 2.0* and then backing 
up under TRSDOS 16*. It was to no 
avail — under no circumstances can a 
back-up be made with only one disk 
drive. 

Model 16 users who have owned a 
Model II will have to get in the habit of 
placing disks in the drives with the la- 
bel facing toward the screen rather 
than away from it. 

The disk operating system for the 
Model 16 was written by the Ryan- 
McFarland Corporation, the same 



Assembly-Language Corner 



The only language now avail- 
able on the Model 16 is Assembly 
language. In this section of our 
column, we will explain some fun- 
damentals of programming the 
MC68000 microprocessor. We 
plan to make comparisons to Z80 
programming, since the Models I, 
II, and III use this chip, as does the 
Model 16. 

What does a Model 16 Assem- 
bly-language hsting look like? A 
sample program is in the Listing. 
Like any computer language, the 
code looks like Greek the first time 
you lay eyes on it. However, it is 
no more difficult than program- 
ming in any other Assembly 
language. 

The frame of many programs 
can be developed using subrou- 
tines built into the disk operating 
system. These routines are re- 
ferred to as supervisor calls. All 
peripheral addressing can be han- 
dled by supervisor routines, disk 
I/O, getting input from the key- 
board, displaying text and infor- 
mation on the screen, and sending 



data to a printer. In the months to 
come, we will examine many of the 
commonly used supervisor calls 
and show various ways to put 
them to work within an Assembly- 
language program. 

The Program Listing instructs 
the computer to clear the screen, 
position the cursor at the first line 
on the top of the screen and 36 
spaces to the left, display the mes- 
sage "80 MICRO" centered hori- 
zontally, and finally return to the 
disk operating system Ready mode. 

Those of you who purchase 
books on programming the 
MC68000 chip wiU have to do 
some translating. Unfortunately, 
the Shack Assembler-16 mnemon- 
ics and notations are not always in 
keeping with Motorola's syntax. 
This forces programmers to trans- 
late instructions in other books. 
The Assembler-16 manual claims 
the reason for this is an effort to 
standardize mnemonics. 

The conventions and symbols 
referring to an address pointed to 



by a register (that is, indirectly ad- 
dressing a register) are the first 
differences you might note. Some 
of the op-codes themselves ap- 
pear different. The instruction to 
move data from one register to 
another or one memory location 
to another is shown as MOV in 
the Assembler-16 manual, yet 
Motorola uses MOVE. 

The editor that allows develop- 
ment of source codes is in the same 
format as editors for most other 
microprocessors. Four columns 
represent label, op-code, operand, 
and comments. 

The actual character count from 
left to right estabUshing each col- 
umn is somewhat flexible. As long 
as there are at least two spaces be- 
tween each element, then the editor 
assumes it to be classified under the 
next heading to its right. For exam- 
ple, if two spaces were placed be- 
tween an op-code and its operand, 
the editor would know that the last 
instruction is an operand, even 
though it might not line up under- 
neath the operand column. ■ 



40 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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No More Waiting on the Printer 

The new MicroSpooIer stores data and 
then feeds it to a printer as fast as the 
printer can handle it. 

That means no down time: in a 
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for the next job without waiting 
for the printer to finish the last job. 




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As with the SooperSpooler, the new 
MicroSpoolers are the product of the 
highest engineering standards to insure 
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offers a complete line of stand-alone 
spoolers that can be installed in-line 
between virtually any printer and 
any computer. 

Easy to install. Easy to use. Easy on 
the budget. 

Features include: 

■ I6K Memory: User or factory 
expandable to 32K or 64K 

■ Multiple Copy Function 

■ Statys Readout: Tells you how much 
data is stored or how many copies 
are left to run 

■ Pause Function: To let you change 
paper, make adjustments 

■ Self-Test Routine: Performs a 
comprehensive check of most 
internal functions and memory 

■ Internal Power Supply: No bulky 
plug adapters 

■ Vertical Mount Configuration; 
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■ Plug-in connections to most 
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SUITE 16 



BEGIN 

CLEAR THE SCREEN 
LDA 
HOVW 
MOVW 
BRK 



.AO,SVC BLOCK 

@A0,#8 

6@A0,#27 

#0 



*POSITION THE CURSOR 



MOVW 
MOVW 
MOVW 
BRK 



iaA0,#10 
6@A0,#1 
8@A0,#36 
#0 



*DISPLAY A LINE OF TEXT 



MOVW @A0,#9 

MOVW 6@A0,#18 

MOVW 8@A0,#13 

MOVL lOlBAO , IMESSAGE 

BRK #0 



*LOAD AO WITH ADDR OF SVC 
*IDENTIFYING FUNCTION CODE 
*CODE TO CLEAR SCREEN 
*JUMP TO SUBROUTINE 

*INDENTIFYING FUNCTION CODE 
*ROW POSITION 
*COLUMN POSITION 
*JUMP TO SUBROUTINE 

*IDENTIFYING FUNCTION CODE 

*LENGTH OF MESSAGE 

*ASCII CODE CARRIAGE RETURN 

*LOADS ADDRESS OF TEXT 
*JUMP TO SUBROUTINE 



*RETURN TO DOS READY 



MOVW 
BRK 
MESSAGE TEXT 
DATAB 



@A0,#264 

#0 

'80 MICRO' 

13 



SVC BLOCK 



RDATAB 32,0 



♦IDENTIFYING FUNCTION CODE 
*CALL SUBROUTINE 

*DEFINE AN AREA OF MEMORY 
*AND PLACE AN ASCII 13 THERE 

♦ESTABLISH 32 CONSECUTIVE BYTES 
*IN MEMORY AND FILL WITH ZEROS 



END 



BEGIN 



Program Listing. Mode! ! 6 Assembly-Language Source Program 



people that wrote the Model I, II, and 
III Cobol development packages sold 
in Shack stores. Accompanying the 
purchase of this computer is an edi- 
tor/assembler disk and manual for 
writing Assembly-language programs 
for the MC680(X) microprocessor. It, 
too, is by Ryan-McFariand . While 
both the assembler and the Model 16 
owner's manuals contain a great deal 



of information, they do make a lot of 
assumptions. One of the goals of this 
column is to fill in the gaps. 

Reader Forum 

Users need an outlet for praises and 
complaints, as well as to give others an- 
swers to specific questions. 

Since this is the first column to ap- 
pear in this series, we haven't had the 



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opportunity to get any feedback from 
readers. So we visited several Shack 
stores that were selling the Model 16 
and asked the salesmen what the most 
frequent customer questions are. 

One consistently asked question 
concerns the software available for this 
new machine. All software that will 
run on the Model II will also run on the 
16 and 11/16. But that software only 
uses the Z80 microprocessor. The 
MC68000, which gives the computer its 
powerful advantage over other micros, 
lies dormant. Updated versions of 
many programs that use the 16-bit cen- 
tral processing unit are being prepared 
for release. 

You can expect programs for this 
machine to take advantage of its multi- 
user capability. This is where the Mod- 
el 16 really shines. One of the main 
purposes for its design is to allow sev- 
eral people to access the machine at the 
same time. Naturally, you can use this 
machine to store a simple Profile file, 
but there is no point to it. Such a thing 
can be done on a Model II at a far low- 
er cost. 

The manager of a Radio Shack 
Computer Center told us that Shack 
plans to release a multi-user disk oper- 
ating system soon. Such a system will 
cut up the RAM memory to enable up 
to three different programs to run si^ 
multaneously. Thus the system will not 
only be multi-user but also multitasking. 
One operator can print information 
from an accounts receivable program 
while another user at a remote location 
works on the payroll. Obviously, this 
microcomputer is not intended to be a 
personal home computer. 

Some criticism has been raised con- 
cerning the release of hardware before 
any software is available. We applaud 
Shack for putting the Model 16 on the 
market as soon as the computer itself 
was ready. This allows large software 
houses as well as Mom-and-Pop outfits 
to get a jump ahead of the manufactur- 
er and begin developing programs. 
More software is available for the con- 
sumer to choose from at an earlier date 
than if he were forced to wait for the 
manufacturer to develop it. We need 
not be dependent upon Radio Shack for 
programs to fit our business needs. 

Plese send your questions and com- 
ments to Dan Keen and Dave Dischert, 
Soft Horizons, RD 1, Box 432, Cape 
May Court House, NJ 08210. ■ 



42 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



The Official 








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maintain an unlimited number of names, allow you great sorting 

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Max| Manager is a remarkable data base manager. Us (asl / ^* ^"^ 

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bihues makes Maxi Manager a versauJe tool for many applications I ^^® '^ ^ system that will computeri2e check wriling. 

The program now incfudes Maxi Utility, which allows you lo I '^'^°'^"^9 and analysis (or business and personal finance. The system 

'^scue files on diskettes Jhat have been damaged by excessive wear or / 'ea'ufss 223 income and expense accounts, each of which will handle 

'^:^ ,^"9J^'^^°" ^'iP^"^-^^^^- Of '^^'ef^ ''elds from an existing data i ^n unlimited number o( Iransactrons. Extensive register and report 

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Who can use it? 

Maxi CRAS is powerful enough for small 
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them into the computer later, or let Maxi CRAS do all 
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But what makes it different from all the rest? 

We're glad you asked! Disk-based fwlaxi CRAS 
handles a virtually unlimited number of checks and 
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Why is this so important? For some transactions 
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Strong statement? Check out these features! 



• Write checks by hand, or print automatically 
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• The best selection of printed reports available — 
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• For even more detailed analysis, Maxi CRAS data 
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• Checkbook balance is constantly updated and in- 
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• A notes option can be used to flag tax-deductible 
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• Handles up to 223 income AND expense ac- 
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• Assign transactions to a single account, or 
distribute over multiple accounts. Assign specific 
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Cash transactions can be recorded in any ac- 
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• Check Address data base stores up to 40 ad- 
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• Maxi CRAS is supplied with a complete User's 
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Compare Maxi CRAS with any other system 
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^See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 45 



REVIEWS 



edited by Janet Fiderio 



-^xy 




TUB. 
CAT /s 



• • •• 

Author I 

Radio Shack 

Model I and Model III 

$150, Complete Package 

$65, Teacher/Student Module 

by Edward A. Iinbier 

Author I enables those who do not 
know a line of Basic to write quali- 
ty instructional lessons that also mea- 
sure what a student has gained from the 
learning experience. 

Instead of having to settle for pre- 
packaged software that doesn't fit a sit- 
uation, an instructor with Author I can 
write a teaching module precisely 
geared to the student, the subject mat- 
ter, and the proper academic level. Au- 
thor I programs can measure how a 
class is following a lesson on the whole 
and which portions are not being under- 
stood. They can identify pupils who 
need more help; tell how long each stu- 
dent takes to complete up to five subsec- 
tions and the whole lesson; and grade 
answers and compute subscores, the to- 
tal score, and averages. 

From the perspective of the student. 
Author I provides a customized, one- 
to-one learning experience. Who could 
ask for a better student/teacher ratio? 

When using Author I, the student se- 
lects the gears; the computer picks the 
route. The program jumps over materi- 
al already mastered and branches to re- 
medial explanations when necessary. It 
gives hints, compliments, and scoldings 
when necessary. Its built-in dictionary 
can store definitions to words not 
understood by the student. 

46 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



The Main Modules 

The authoring package has four main 
modules: 

Teach Siudenl, lessons 

Student Scoring and timing files of the class 

Author Development software for con- 

structing and editing a lesson 

PRTVERF Prints, verifies, and error-checks 
the labels and question groupings 

After choosing the module you want, 
enter the name of the lesson desired. 
When students access the Teach mod- 
ule, they arc asked for their names. This 
is for two reasons: to check if that stu- 
dent is allowed to take the lesson in 
question, and also to be able to use the 
student's name within the lesson for 
more personahzed instruction. This and 
other character strings input by the stu- 
dent can be used anywhere within the 
lesson. 

The student is escorted from page to 
page by pressing the space bar or the 
down arrow. Pages change and can 
contain text, questions, and glossaries. 
To enliven the display, text is mixed 
with graphics and special characters. 
Answers can be a single-key entry for 
muUiple -choice questions or up to 58 
keys and enter for fill-in-the-blank 
questions. Answers can also be selected 
by merely sliding the cursor over a 
chosen entry and pressing the enter key. 
Students can repeat lesson segments by 
using the up arrow. They are not al- 
lowed to return to the previous question 
page, but they do have the option of 
leaving the lesson by hitting the break 
key. Answers and the time it takes to 
complete a lesson are stored in the Stu- 
dent records module for later use. 

I found operation smooth and need- 



Review Contents 



Author I 46 

The Basic Answer 48 

Graphic Enhanced Basic .... 52 

Apple Crunch 56 

Echo-GP Speech 

Synthesizer 58 

DBASIC 58 

Ultra-Term 64 

DoughFlo 64 

Mikeegraphic 

Graphic System 68 

Microbuffer 69 

MXPLUS 69 



Our reviewers use a five-star rating system. 
One star represents the low end oftliis spectrum, 
while five stars represent the spectacular and l^igfi 
end of the spectrum. 



ed very little instruction to use the Teach 
module. 1 could not get into trouble 
with practice lessons that I had written 
no matter how hard I tried. 

Depending on the length of a lesson, 
up to 99 students can be enrolled within 
a given score file in the student module. 
A menu lets you select options to set up 
a score file, edit an existing one, and 
add students to an existing file. When 
examining the score file of individual 
students, you can choose to allow a stu- 
dent to have only one chance to com- 
plete a lesson (lockout mode) or several 
chances to complete the same lesson dis- 
playing either the current scoring and 
Uming information {overlay mode) or 
an average (average mode). Scores, sub- 
scores, timings, and subtimings are 
available for each student. If you want a 
printout of an entire class, then 
PRTSCORE, a Basic program, must be 
run. Besides the normal scorekeeping 
and timing data, a score group section 
provides the total number of students 
whose grades fall into 10 score ranges (a 
frequency distribution). 



MAILING LIST $53^9^ 

Q Y Q T C ILA S99.95 when Form letter option 

*3 I i3 I K_ I tI is additionally purchased. 

FOR TRS-80 (Tandy Trademark] Model I and III 



WHAT SETS OUR SYSTEM APART?.., 

• Our system is confit;ured specifically for large mailing lists 
(or small] on floppy disk drives. Some other major systems 
run on floppies but are really intended for use on hard disk 
drives Such a system assumes that you have vast amounts of 
on line disk storage capacity. ..the continuity of the data is 
limited to what you can have on line at one time To get the 
real benefit of such a system, one usually has to purchase 
expanded track/density floppy disk drives and even then the 
problem occurs when all the drives are filled with data. We 
have neatiy solved this problem by allowing all-your data 
disks to be maintained in continuous order.. .even though, 
due to the limitations of vour drive.s, the list may be too large 
In all be "on line" at one time Thus our system accomodates 
['xtremely large lists using your existing drives and yet avoids 
the "segmented" data problems of the hard disk approach 

• While it is fashionable to advertise all-machine-code systems, 
our system is primarily written in BASIC. ..with embedded 
machine code for the speed sensitive areas. What this means 
is that our system is easy to modify, yet extremely fast This 
IS very important since many users like to have custom modi- 
fications made (either by them or us] so as to fit some unique 
requirement. Our manual has a section devoted exclusively 
to such modifications.. Remember all-machine-code systems 
are extremely difficult to modify. 

• Continuity of the ordered data (even data spanning many 
disks] is not limited to a "session", but is permanent 

• Optional "backing up" of your data as-you-^o is an integral 
[lart of the system and is not restricted to the end of a session 

1 his IS true even for deletions 

• The length of our data fields are more than adequate to 
act omodate even your longest names/addresses. 

• Adjusts to a 32K memory although full use is made of a 48K 
memory .Can be used with any DOS including TR5D05 

• (he program disk does not have to stay on line, thus freeing 
more space for data storage. 

• Load and scroll through entire entries or selected fields bdit 
as you scroll or go directly [takes about 2 sec ) to a specific 
entry and edit or delete 

• Our automatic repeat feature allows often used names' 
addresses to be entered with a single key stroke. 

• Each disk entry optionally "remembers" how many mailings 
have been made for that particular entry. ..Can be tied in with 
pLirge.i'select. 

• Continuing expert support just a [)hone call a\\-a\' You will be 
able to dist.uss your problems^'modif ications with the authors. 

• Money back guarantee if not fully satisfied. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES: 

• Simple to use, even for the novice. ..menu oriented 

• Permits 2260 names "on-line" with 40 track double density 
drives and almost 5000 names with 80 track drives. The older 
i'"i single density drives permit 102.') on-line entries. ..made 
possible with our unique data compression techniques 

• Super fast sort by alph. or zip order (8 sec. for 1000 entries) 
Both orders can exist simultaneously on disk 

• High speed recovery of entries from disk .speed of sort is 
meaningless if retreival from disk is slow Ours pulls in over 
ri per sec' 

• Master list printout of your list in several formats {not |ust a 
rehash of labels] .extremely useful 

• 7i|i order is "sub-alphabetized". 

• Less than 5 digit zips have leading O's appended 

• Supports 9 digit zips, Canadian zips, and foreign abbrev. 

• Optional second address line 

• Optional reversal of names about commas This permits disk 
storage in last-name-first order to facilitate meaningful order- 



ing while the printout will be in "natural" order 
Permits telephone, account, and/or serial numbers, etc 
Prints on envelopes or labels 1, 2, 3 or 4 across 
S;an print individual labels at time of creation or editing 
Test label/envelope printing allows you to make vertical and 
horizontal adjustments with ease 

Transfers old files to our system. ^^SBH^^H LOOK! 

Selective printout by specific zips or zip ranges 
Plenty of user defined fields with provisions for simulta- 
neously purging and/or selecting the printout even allows 
for inequalities.. Powerful and easy to use. 
Editing is simple and fast,. .direct access or automatic 
search... Batch transfer of edited entries to backup disks. 
Optionally provides for duplicate labels 

Deleted entries have "holes" on disk filled aulomaticallv and 
alph. order is still maintainedi 

All labels optionally support an "Attn " line with provisions 
tor multiple entries This permits mail to be sent to several 
people at given addresses conserves disk space 
All 0's are replaced by easier to read O's in addresses. 
Continuous display of number of labels/envelopes printed 
Extensive use of error traps ..even recovers from a power 
failure during a printout. 

Lxtensive assortment of extra cost options tor customized 
master list printout (in addition to the standard one mentioned 
above), transfer of entries between disks, summary reports, 
and "publisher's" type multiple list label printouts. 
Hardware requirements...32K, printer, and 1 or 2 drives 



FORM LETTER (Use with Mail List System] $39.95 

Create letters and store on disk with provisions for later retreival 
and additions Then print your letters using your mailing list 

• Same select and purge features as mailing list system. 

• Select either continuous fanfold or "cut sheet" paper 

• Selectable tabing, test printing, and paging. 

• Allows regular or legal Size pages 

• Greetings are selectable by codes on mailing list. Options 
include Mr /Mrs , First/Last Name, global, or user defined 



SUPER CALENDAR (Supplied on tape only] $19.95 

Prints out calendars of individual months of years ranging from 
1t83 lo any time in the future Standard banker's holidays are 
noted Additionally prints out large "graphics" type wall 
calendars with memos under each dav ..Use as a planning 
calendar with optional disk storage. ..Requires ^bK and a printer 

Loan Amortization (supplied on tape only] $29.95 

Achieves pin point ai < uracv with a built in calendar Tho 
sophisticated program produces an exceptionally professional 
looking printout that includes yearly summaries as well as 
"totals-to-date" Several options for calculating interest includ- 
ing one that pushes the payment date ahead to the next business 
day It the regulai pay dale falls on a weekend or holiday 



FOOTBALL SCOUT 



(disk only] 



$89.95 



charge local schools Lip to SIOOO per season for these sophisti- 
cated reports. Analyze the tendancies of opposing teams . 
Equivalent to that used by the pros 




^See Lisi of Advertisers on 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 47 



REVIEWS 



The lesson developer generates the 
pages for the lesson. The Author and 
PRTVERF modules allow editing and 
provide branching information and 
error-checking of lesson flow. Author is 
the screen-oriented text editor that pro- 
duces the text, question, glossary, and 
control pages comprising a lesson. I rec- 
ommend the software manual be on 
your lap during the branching and la- 
beling phases of lesson production. 
Otherwise, it is not much needed. 

Operations are smooth and slick. 
Mixed text and graphics and special 
character symbols can be easily posi- 
tioned and moved around the screen. 
When you are finished, what you see is 
what you get. Arrow keys position the 
cursor for text and graphics entry; shift, 
arrow inserts and deletes a character or 
line; shift, @ initiates the graphics 
mode; double shift, @ initiates the 
special character mode for choosing 
from over 100 special characters. 

Within the graphics mode, hitting the 
zero, period, or the enter key toggles 
you to the drawing, no-drawing, and 
erase modes. The special characters 
mode has a disadvantage: At least four 
key depressions are required to display 
one character. If you have a good eye, 
though, you can create an eye-catching 
display with most of the line graphics 
and special characters of the Model III 
(some limitations here for Model I 
users). A buffer to store various repeti- 
tive drawings would have been a 
timesaver. 

Seven types of labels can be embed- 
ded within the text and control pages to 
make use of question groupings, an- 
swers, date, student's name, and a ran- 
dom-number generator. The number of 
tries to give a correct answer, as well as 
the points for each answer, can be se- 
lected, and the messages for responding 
to correct and incorrect answers can be 
selected in generating question pages. 

A good flowchart of a lesson should 
be made before dealing with the branch- 
ing option in this module. Control 
pages allow conditional and uncondi- 
tional branching (with possibilities such 
as greater-than or equal-to question 
groupings or address labeling). This is 
probably the most difficult area to de- 
sign in producing a lesson, 

Basic and machine-language pro- 
grams can be accessed from the Teach 
module if a small number of lines of 
code can be inserted within the external 
program. After the external program is 
run, the student automatically returns 

48 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



to the Teach module with scoring infor- 
mation. It does take about 20 seconds 
for even the smallest external Basic pro- 
gram to run and return to Author I. It 
would have been convenient to be able 
to pass variables from the external pro- 
gram into the Author I package. Then 
the system would be able to do things 
like generate its own math questions. 

PRTVERF is a module to print, veri- 
fy, and error-check a given lesson. 
Three error codes and eight reference 
codes aid you {the lesson developer) in 
troubleshooting your lesson. 

My misgivings are not with this very 
able software package, but with the lim- 
itations of the Model I and III comput- 
ers I tested it with. Color and a touch 
screen would enhance the package 
greatly. Early in 1983 an authoring soft- 



ware package will be available for the 
Color Computer that will be screen ori- 
ented, in color, and will make use of the 
built-in tone generator circuitry. 

Author I is sold in two ways. A com- 
plete package with all the modules sells 
for $150. An abbreviated version, with 
just the Teach and Student modules, 
sells for $65 and is designed to run pack- 
aged software. One such package is a 
series of 150 programs sold in four 
modules called CARD (computer-aided 
reading development). Sentence, para- 
graph, reading for details, and compre- 
hension are the topics these modules 
address. 

Author I is an impressive package 
that can be used by even those with no 
Basic experience to produce interactive, 
good-looking lessons. ■ 



• •••• 

The Basic Answer 

Logical Systems Inc. 

11520 Port Wasliington Road 

Meguon, WI 53092 

Model I and III 

$69 

by G. Michael Vose 
80 Micro staff 

The Basic Answer, or TBA, is a text- 
processing utility that works like an 
advanced computer system compiler. 
It allows you to create Basic program 
source code using a word processor or 
text editor and then use that textual 
code to produce an executable Basic 
program. It is designed to work only 
with the LDOS operating system. 
What makes TBA unique is that it al- 
lows you to use a descriptive. English- 
like syntax and it encourages the use of 
that or black magic "structured 
programming." 

Now structured programming is a 
concept that frightens some computer- 
ists and is the holy grail for others. The 
disciples of structured programming 
scoff at the undisciplined masses who 
program in interpreted Basic, that 
most unstructured of all languages that 
allows you to GOTO and GOSUB a 
line number. The structuralists cringe 
at the idea that you can send execution 
to a place without a name. 

The wild and unruly masses of pro- 
gramming mavens addicted to inter- 



preted Basic's easygoing, meandering 
style — a style that lets you tack on a 
new idea when it comes to mind — re- 
coil in horror at the mention of struc- 
tured programming ideas like "proce- 
dures," "labels," and "compile." 

In a debate between the two camps, 
the structuralists would argue that 
making each function in your program 
a subroutine, identified and called by a 
label, makes for more understandable 
source code — code that is much easier 
to read when you come back to it a year 
later. They would claim that isolating 
individual routines forces the pro- 
grammer to give more thought to the 
overall structure of his program. The 
traditionalists would argue that Basic's 
major attraction is that it is interpret- 
ed, providing instant gratification to 
programmers who can write a line of 
code and test it immediately to see if it 
works. Besides, a traditionahst argues, 
you can write structured Basic code if 
you just do a little planning and flow- 
charting ahead of time. As for labels, 
what are remark statements for? 

While this debate rages on, TBA 
steps in with a typically American solu- 
tion to this problem — a compromise. 
TBA lets you write your source code in 
structured fashion, labels and all, and 
gives you a simple tool to create ordi- 
nary Basic code to execute at 
everyone's favorite time, not bedtime 
or mealtime, but run-time. 

How It's Done 

Here's how TBA works. First, you 



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REVIEWS 



create source code using a word pro- 
cessor, text editor, or even your Basic 
program editor. Obviously, a word 

processor or flexible text editor will 
make writing, adding or deleting char- 
acters, and changing your source code 
easier. You then save your source code 
text file in ASCII. Next, you use TBA 



''While this debate rages on, 

TBA steps in with 

a typically American 

solution to this problem — 

a compromise. " 



to compile your source file into an ob- 
ject file — this object file will not be ma- 
chine code, but familiar Basic code. 
Once your object file is created, you 
can load and run it as any Basic 
program. 

Since you must compile your source 
file before you attempt lo run your 
program, there is an extra step in- 
volved in programming the TBA way. 



This can be annoying if you make er- 
rors in your source code since you'll 
find the errors only when you run your 
object code file. When you make er- 
rors, you must reload your source file, 
correct the errors, recompile the object 
file and run the program a second time 
to ascertain whether the errors have 
been corrected. This procedure gets 
tiresome very quickly and guarantees 
that you'll become a careful program- 
mer in a short time. 

Let's Have a Look 

Listings 1 and 2 are examples of 
TBA source and object programs. I've 
used the program featured in Decem- 
ber 1982's 80 Micro ("TRS-80 
Tongues," p. 216) as my example. The 
first thing you'll notice about TBA 
source code is that there are no line 
numbers used. The other major differ- 
ence between the source and the object 
code is the variables. TBA source code 
allows you to use up to 14 characters 
for variable names, and all 14 charac- 
ters are significant. Furthermore, there 
are two kinds of variables — local vari- 
ables whose values are retained only 
within the routine in which they ap- 
pear, and global variables whose val- 



REM Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion 

@beginning=count% 

els , --.^ ■ 

=Celsius. tGmp% ,Fahrenheit , tem% 

go sub Sget.Cvai 

Fahrenheit. tem% = (CelsiLis.temp% * 9/5} + 32 

print@400, Celsius . temp% " degrees Celsius 
"Fahrenheit. tem%" degrees Fahrenheit" 

for count%=ltol000:next count% 

goto @b eg inning 

@get.Cval 

print@140,"Type in the Celsius temperature"; 

input Celsius. temp% 

return 

Program Ltsling I. TBA Source File 



1 REM Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion 
3 CLS 

5 GOSUB 12 

6 FA%=(CE% * 9/b} + 32 

7 PRINT@400,CE%" degrees Celsius is "FA%" degrees Fahrenheit' 

8 FOR CO%=1TO1000:NEXT C0% 

9 GOTO 3 

12 PRINT@140,"Type in the Celsius temperature"; 

13 INPUT CE% 

14 RETURN 

Program Listing 2. TBA Object File 



ues are maintained throughout the 
program. 

The next major difference in TBA 
source code is that all GOTOs and GO- 
SUBs are followed by labels, not line 
numbers. Each routine in the program 
is defined by a label. When you want to 
perform a routine, you call that rou- 
tine, or procedure, to use the structur- 
alist's term, by using its label after a 
GOTO or GOSUB. Therefore, your 
source code will specify "GOTO 
©Format. Screen" to call a procedure 
for setting up a screen display. The 
compiled object file will then read, less 
descriptively, "GOTOIOO" (the @ 
sign is used by TBA to signal that what 
follows is a label). 

There are some other slight differ- 
ences in TBA source code. All variable 
types must be declared each time the 
variable's name appears in the code — 
the four variable types are integer, sin- 
gle precision, double precision, and 
string. The Basic keyword REM lets 
you place remarks in the source code 
that will be carried over to the com- 
piled object program; if you use the ab- 
breviation for Remark (the apostro- 
phe, '), the remark will be deleted from 
the object program. 

Otherwise, you write TBA source 
code much as you would regular Basic 
code, using labels and no line numbers. 
This results in source code that looks 
like Pascal. Logical Systems Inc. just 
might legitimize Basic in the eyes of up- 
per echelon computerists with this re- 
fined achievement. 

The real power of TBA may go be- 
yond this refinement of the Basic lan- 
guage, however. The writers of TBA 
built into the system the ability to pro- 
cess the source code in a variety of 
ways. This processing is accomphshed 
using directives. Directives allow the 
writing of master source code that ac- 
commodates all possible program 
configurations. At processing time, 
the directive appropriate for a specific 
application is chosen to produce an 
object program that serves that appU- 
cation. An example will illustrate this 
concept. 

TRS-80s run with a variety of pe- 
ripherals — a distinction becoming 
more common, for example, is floppy 
disk versus hard disk. With TBA, it is 
possible to write your master source 
code with a directive to allow discrimi- 
nation between hard- and floppy-disk 
operation. When processing, or com- 
piling, the source program, you can 



50 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



SLAYING MONSTERS IS NO GAME. 



Role-playing games are a serious business. They require thought and strategy, skill and luck. Your 
computer role-playing games should help you, not slow you down. In this age, there is no excuse for 
endless disk I/O delays and constant referral to manuals. That's why Med Systems does role-playing 

right. Our Warrior or RAS games are 
^^^^^*~* entirely implemented in machine 

^^^ memory, with machine language 

speed and dungeon-master 
^ complexity. Why settle for 

anything less? 



^ Each volume of the 

Warrior of RAS 
trilogy is com- 
pletely dif- 
ferent from 
the others. 
New graph- 
ics, different 
goals, additional monsters. 
And each Warrior of RAS vol- 
ume can generate millions of 
unpredictable games. Not 
just data bases, but new 
mazes. New caverns. New 
challenges. 

Since a Warrior of RAS en- 
counter may last many 
days, games can be 
saved directly to tape 
^, or disk. And the 

characters you de- 
/ velop can also be 

/ saved, and can be 

' loaded into any of the 

other Warrior of RAS 
games. Don't spend 
your time playing 
games. 





ihc dragon. 



The Warrior of RAS tnlogy requires 48K 

on the TRS-80 Model I or Model III. 

'Please add S2.00 for first class postage, S4,00 for 
overseas order. 



Volurfm I DUNZi^jnL Tape or Disk $39.95 
Volume II KAIV ^^^ Tape or Disk S39.95 
Volume III THE WYLDE^ Tape or Disk $39.95 



MED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE • RO. BOX 3558 • CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 
TO ORDER, CALL: 1-800-334-5470, or see your dealer 



REVIEWS 



then choose to compile a floppy- or 
hard-disk version of the object pro- 
gram. TEA calls this conditional pro- 
cessing. Conditional processing pro- 
vides greater flexibility and ease in 
programming appHcations that re- 
quire many different conditions. 



Evaluation 

TEA is a very sophisticated pro- 
gramming tool, yet it is easy to use and 
learn. The documentation is similar in 
style to the LDOS manual. The manual 
is complete, professional, and full of 



Procedure Label Def n # Line # Referenced at Line # ' s 



laBEGINNING 
8GET.CVAL 



2 

11 



3 
12 



Variable Label Defn # XLATE Referenced at Line #'s 



CELSIUS. TEMPI 4 
COUNT% * 2 

FAHRENHEIT. TEM% 4 



CE% 6,7,13 

C0% 8 , 8 

FA% 6 , 7 



Table 1. TBA Label and Variable Table 



examples of TBA features. Logical 
Systems does not write products that 
unsophisticated TRS-80 users are likely 
to buy, so their documentation style 
tends to be complicated because there 
is no fluff — each sentence is packed 
with important information. 

tea's error messages are descrip- 
tive and well thought out. As you 
might expect from a professional pro- 
gramming tool such as this one, TBA 
provides a cross-referenced label and 
variable table when processing a source 
file. Table 1 is the table for the sample 
program in Listings 1 and 2. 

The generation of software products 
exemplified by TBA promises to push 
microcomputers into sophisticated 
new environments. Companies Uke 
Logical Systems Inc. deserve support 
and congratulations. ■ 



• •••• 

Graphics Enhanced Basic 
Autel Electronics 
P.O. Box 11187 
Albuquerque, NM 87192 
Model I or ill, disk only 
48K RAM 
$69.95 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 

A number of printers are now avail- 
able with dot-addressable graphics: 
the Epson with Graftrax option, the C. 
Itoh 8510, and the NEC 8023A. A few 
programs are also available to dump 
screen graphics and make figures on 
these printers, but they are slow or inad- 
equate for a number of applications. 
Graphics Enhanced Basic (GEB) solves 
this problem. It is a plotter language for 




Figure I 
52 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



making high-resolution figures on the 
Epson, C. Itoh 8510, and NEC 8023A 
printers. 

Unhke most programs that use the 
high -resolution features of these print- 
ers, GEB actually interfaces with your 
Basic. Figures 1-3 were all done on my 
C. Itoh 8510 using GEB. The programs 
(see Listings 1-3) are all quite simple. 
GEB works with TRSDOS, NEW- 
DOS80, LDOS, and MULTIDOS. It 
does not work with DOSPLUS. 

One problem associated with making 
pictures on the printer is the huge 
amount of memory they require. GEB 
avoids the issue by spooling out to disk, 
so not all of the picture needs to be in 
memory at once. GEB resides in about 
6K of high memory. It uses an adjust- 
able buffer below it. 

GEB allows different densities on the 
various printers. The Epson can run in 



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T i 



A Computer That 
Writes Programs 
For You. 

what will they think of next..? 



Your computer is fantastically fast. ..once it knows what 
to do. You probably realize that a computer is really 
the combination of hardware and software, working 
together smoothly, to give you what you want. Either 
one alone is useless Software is really the key. ..the 
"mind" of a computer system, tvery project or task 
you want to do requires a new specific software ap- 
pMcation to make it behave exactly the way you desire. 

Of course, you may be able to "force-fit" an application 
into some existing canned program you have, but to 
really get results, you need a separate application 
program to run on your computer. 

Until now, that meant you were forced to pay money 
for application software off the shelf, or if you could 
afford it, have it custom written for you, or, if you are 
qualified, do it yourself. .spending endless hours 
figuring it out and writing it. Now, your computer can 
write individual application programs for you. These 
programs are each separate, unique software programs 
that run in standard Basic on your computer. 

A company named FutureSoft has developed this ex- 
citing and long awaited remarkable working tool for 
you, There are two versions called Quikpro+Pius and 
standard Quikpro. Both of them create unique separate 
Basic programs for you,., to do exactly, precisely, what 
you want to do. And listen to this. ..you create a new 
program in minutes instead of hours. 

You can quickly generate a new program when you 
want it. You can generate thousands of different 
unique programs, each one standing alone as a com- 
plete program that runs in Basic. Best of all, you do not 
have to be a programmer to do it. The Quikpro soft- 
ware becomes your personal programmer, waiting to 
do your work for you any time of day or night you 
choose to use it. 

The custom programs you generate from this software 
provide for: Data Entry, Additions, Changes, Record 
Locating & Searches, great variety of Computations, 
and Report Printing (if you have a printer). It lets you 
decide what data to manipulate and how to manipulate 
it. It lets you decide the formats you want to appear on 
your screen and/or to print out in a report. It lets you 
use differing formats on the same data base. It lets' you 
make calculations from data within records without 
altering the data base. It lets you report results with or 
without including the base data from which results 
were calculated. 

All this is included in the ability/power of the program 
you create. You do it by simply answering questions 
that appear on your screen. Instantly, the Quikpro soft- 
ware instructs the computer to perform complex and 




error free instructional sequences You get the im- 
mediate benefits of professionally written software for 
your application. 

The resulting custom program is truly a separate Basic 
program. You can list it, you can modify it, you can ac- 
tually see what makes it tick. You can even ask it to 
print out its own operating instruction manual so others 
can run it for you. Finally, you can really tap the speed 
and power of your computer the way you really want. 
You can create new programs for every use you have in 
Business, Science, Education, and Hobby areas. And 
you can start now. 

The software is available immediately from the 
creators. It comes in two versions. If you want to 
generate separate Basic programs with all the data 
handling plus Calculations and Report Printing 
features, you want Quikpro+PIus. Specify to run on 
TRS80 Model I and Model III at only $149; to run on 
TRS80 Model M at $189. 

If you do not need Calculation ability or Report Print- 
ing in the separate Basic programs you will create from 
this program generating software, then standard Quik- 
pro will do the job for you. Standard Quikpro to run on 
TRS80 Model 1 or Model 111 is $89; to run on TRS80 
Model II is $129. (Later on you can always trade up to 
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the two). 

Both programs are available to run on many other 
computers besides TRS80. Details are available by 
calling or writing. 

You can order right now by phone or mail. If you have 
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i^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 53 



REVIEWS 



60 and 120 dols/inch density, and the 
C. Itoh and NEC printers allow densi- 



ties of 80, 96, 136, and 160 dots/inch. 
For comparison, the Tandy six-pen plot- 



10 REM set memory size to 47000; draws figure 1 

20 ESC(27,62) :REM UNIDIRECTIONAL PRINTING 

30 ESC(27,63) :REr4 BOLD PRINT SELECT 

40 CLEAR 500 

50 PI=3.141592654:PH=PI/4 

50 BUFFER(6) 

70 LIMIT(4,4) 

80 OPENFILE("PLOT/GEB:1'M) 

90 SETMARGIN(0,1) 

100 AREA(0,8,0,8) 

110 FRAME 

120 ORIGIN(4,4) 

130 HEIGHT( .3) 

140 FOR 1=0 TO 7 

150 A$=" ANGLE ="+STR$ ( PH*I*180/PI) +" DEGREES" 

160 TEXT(0,0,AS) 

170 ROTATE(PH) 

180 NEXT I 

190 PLOT 

200 CLOSE FILE 

210 NPAGE 

220 END 

Program Listing I 



ter has a resolution of 200 dots/inch. 
The amount of memory necessary to 
hold all the graphics information is: 

Size=iength * widlti (inches sciuared) 
* density * 9 

where Size is in bytes. This means that 
a page width of 8 inches, 15 inches 
long, with 60 dots/inch density would 
require a full 64K for storage. GEB 
performs smooth spooling of this out 
to disk, so you need not even be aware 
of the large size (except that your disk 
drives will be on). 

A list of the graphics commands is in 
Table 1 . These commands form a plot- 
ting language powerful enough for vir- 
tually any applieation. You can draw 
lines, move the imaginary pen around 
on the plotted page, scale graphics, and 
move the origin about. You can rotate 
any number of radians (the Tandy six- 
pen plotter only allows you to specify 
four rotations) or create plots within 
plots with the Clip command. 

One of GEB's more powerful fea- 
tures is its ability to print text. Not only 



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54 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



REVIEWS 



do you have a full alphabet with num- 
bers, you also have a predefined Greek 
character set, and the ability to define 
your own characters. The text is dis- 


played with the TEXT(x,y,A$) com- 
mand. A$ is then printed out with the 
first character at (x,y). You can print 
text at size (set by the Height command) 


and rotation (set by the Rotate com- 
mand). The height versus width of the 
characters is determined by the ratio of 
the limits of the x and y directions in 
your plot. 




10 REM Program to generate spiral; figure 2 

20 ESC(27,33) 

30 REM SET MEMORY SIZE TO 47000 

40 BUFFER(6) 

50 LIMIT(4,4) 

60 0PENFILE("PL0T/GEB:1",1) 

70 SETr4ARGIN(0,l) 

80 AREA(-l,l,-2,2) 

90 PE=3.1415 9:TH=PI/180:RA=1:DR=RA/3600:CLS 

100 SCALE(1,2) 

110 MOVE(SIN(0) ,COS(0) ) 

120 FOR 1=0 TO PI*20 STEP TH 

130 PRINT@32,I 

140 DRAW(SIN(I) *RA,COS(I) *RA) 

150 RA=RA-DR 

160 NEXT I 

170 PLOT 

180 CLOSEFILE 

190 NPAGE 

200 END 

Program Listing 2 


The ESC command allows you to 
output special escape sequences to your 
printer to do things like change font, 
force bidirectional printing, or use bold 
printing. 

Clip lets you specify a rectangular 
space within the graphics page for tem- 
porary clipping. This means that you 
can plot figures and draw lines within 
this clipping area, but parts of these 
lines and figures that fall outside of the 
clipping rectangle will not be drawn. 
You can use Frame to draw boxes 
around the clipping rectangle. This 
gives you a number of distinct plots 
within a single graphics page, a power- 
ful feature indeed! 

GEB's manual, although short, con- 
tains enough information to use the 
program effectively. Several sample 
programs are provided for demonstra- 



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^'See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 55 



REVIEWS 



10 REM set memory size to 30000 

20 CLEAR 500 

40 BUFFERC8) 

45 LIMIT(10,8) 

50 0PENFILE{"PL0T/GEB:1",5) 

60 SETHARGIN(0,1) 

70 AREA(0,25,0,25) 

90 HEIGHT(,4) 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 21 

110 PRINT "line number ";I 

120 A$=CHR$(I)+" "+CHR$(I+21)+" "+CHR$(I+42)+ 

" "+CHR$(I+63)+" "+CHR$(I+84)+" "+CHR$(I+105) 

130 TEXT(0,22-I*.75,A$) 

140 NEXT I 

150 PLOT 

160 CLOSEFILE 

170 END 



Program Listing 3 



BUFFER— Set buffer size 

CI.OSEFILE — Close the current graphics file 

LIMIT — Define the size of the graphics page in inches 

OPENFILE — Open a disk file for graphics 

PLOT— Route graphics file to the printer 

SETMARGIN—Define top and left margins 

NPAGE — Put printer at top of page 

ESC — Send escape sequences to the printer 

AREA — Scale the graphics page in user-defined units (UU) 

CLIP— Define a clipping rectangle 

MOVE — Move to (x,y,); no hne is drawn 

DRAW — Draw to (x,y); Une is drawn 

FRAME — Draw a rectangle around current clipping values 

PUTDOT— Draw a single point 

ROTATE — Rotate the effects of all subsequent commands 

SCALE — Scale the results of subsequent graphics commands 

ORIGIN— Define where (0,0) is (translation) 

CLEARMAT — Cancel rotate, scale, and origin calls 

TEXT — Display text on the graphics page 

HEIGHT— Define the height of characters in UU 

Table I 



tion purposes; they are printed in the 
manual and provided on disk. The disk 
also contains a text character table and 
the Assembly source code for the vari- 
ous characters. This provides a simple 
way to produce your own characters 
and create a table for your plots. 



I am quite impressed with GEB and 
highly recommend it to anyone who 
has one of these printers. In fact, for 
most plotting needs, I recommend 
buying a printer that works with GEB. 
It is easy to take advantage of this 
powerful plotting language to do vir- 



tually anything that a digital plotter 
can do (and for less than half the cost). 
The only exceptions that come to mind 
are situations in which you need higher 
resolution than 160 dots per inch, plots 
larger than 8 by 15 inches, or multicol- 
ored plots. ■ 



* • • * 

Apple Crunch 
Frederic Vincent Huber 
Hearst Corporation 
Avon Books Division 
New York, NY 
Softcover, 264 pp. 
$2.95 



by Don Stauffer 



The apple in Apple Crunch refers not 
to a Brand-X computer, but to the 
city of New York. Here is a fictional 
novel about computer crime that is con- 
temporary, realistic, and believable — 
and a TRS-80 even figures prominently 
in several places. 

The "bad" guys, a computer-school 
dropout and his ex-professor, are out to 
bilk the Big Apple out of 10 megabucks 
with some clever computerized extor- 
tion. After some common computer 
embezzlement to finance their major 
operafion, they attempt to access, hide, 
and hold for ransom the information 
needed by the city to apply for a $200 
million Federal loan. Their motive: 

56 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



revenge for having lost a loved one 
through bureaucratic bungling and apa- 
thy, combined with ' 'computer errors . ' ' 
The protagonists are a pair of city 
employees. Joe Copely is an aging de- 



child with a TRS-80, also helps in his 
computer education. 

The author is obviously knowledge- 
able about computers. I did not catch 
any technical flaws in the entire book. 



''This book could almost be a 

do-it-yourself manual for computer 

crime. I suspect, however, that the 

methods described are ones that Klein's 

real-life counterparts. . . deal with effectively, " 



tective, assigned to a harmless detail af- 
ter his probes of graft and corruption in 
the NYPD irritated too many people. 
Klein is the chief of computer security 
for the city. 

This pair make perfect foils for one 
another. Klein is long on computer and 
computer-security expertise, but short 
on investigative skills. Copely is just a 
streetwise cop who knows next to noth- 
ing about computers. As each teaches 
the other their skills, the reader is of- 
fered a fascinating glimpse into the 
worlds of police work and computer 
crime. Copely's granddaughter, a gifted 



His description of a TI Silent 700 is ac- 
curate even to the color of the keys. The 
details of poHce work were also very 
convincing, as were his descriptions of 
computer crime. 

This book could almost be a do-it- 
yourself manual for computer crime. I 
suspect, however, that the only methods 
described are ones that Klein's real-life 
counterparts have already learned to 
deal with effectively. 

I thoroughly enjoyed this highly 
readable and suspenseful novel. A sur- 
prise ending is a delightful dessert to an 
excellent book. ■ 




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It's so easy to use, you'll be doing 
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6252 


1040 ES 






TRS 80^^ IS a trademark of Tandy 

Apple ir is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

CP/M" is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

IBhf is a trademark ol IBM Corp. 

AtarP' is a trademark ol Atari, Inc. 



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REVIEWS 



• •• 

Echo GP Speech Synthesizer 
Street Electronics Corp. 
1140 Marie St. 
Carpinteria, CA 93013 
(805) 684-4593 
$299.95 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 

The Echo General -Purpose (GP) 
speech synthesizer is a versatile add- 
on built around the Texas Instruments 
TMS 5200 speech processor chip, an en- 
hanced version of the chip used in 
Speak and Spell. It models the human 
voice track using linear predictive 
coding. 

The serial version of the Echo GP re- 
quires an RS-232 interface. The parallel 
version, which looks just like a printer 
to the computer, plugs into the printer 
port of your expansion interface, or any 
Centronics-type parallel printer port. (I 
used the parallel version for this 
review.) 

Routines in firmware called Text- 
Talker convert standard ASCII text into 
voice output. If you have the parallel 
version, you need only LPRINT your 
text to hear it spoken. You can access a 
number of features of the Echo GP by 
entering a CNTRL-E (CHR$(5)) fol- 
lowed by an appropriate command. 
These features include pitch control, 
volume control (there is also a volume 
knob on the front of the Echo GP), 
punctuation modes, speech rate, 
"caps" mode, letter mode, word pro- 
nunciation, and others. 

You can also choose to output 
phonemes rather than words. This op- 
tion is useful because a large number of 
words are incorrectly pronounced by 
the Echo GP. Take "begin," for exam- 
ple. Echo GP normally pronounces this 
word "be-jin." Using phonemes allows 
you to correct the pronunciation. The 
manual contains a table of commonly 
mispronounced words and misspeUings 
that you can use to force correct pro- 
nunciation. For example, to pronounce 
"begin" correctly, you should spell it 
"big in." To pronounce "achieve," 
you should spell it "ucheeve." 

You can control the voice output 
with the CNTRL-E command se- 
quences. The pitch goes from male to 
female, and the voice can be flat or in- 
tonated. English intonation often 

58 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



depends on context, so although Echo 
carmot copy normal speaking intona- 
tions, it is an improvement over simple 
monotone speech. 

The volume control is equally easy to 
control. For example, if your applica- 
tion for the Echo is in education, it is 
nice to be able to accent important 
words or phrases from within the pro- 
gram. The same is true for games. 

The speech rate has a compressed 
mode, in which speech is almost twice as 
fast as normal. With just a little prac- 
tice, this is still very understandable. 
The "caps" mode means that groups of 
capital letters will be spoken as single 
letters rather than as a word (IBM is 
pronounced as three separate letters in- 
stead of "ibm"). The letter mode is 
similar, but it spells out all words rather 
than pronouncing them as a whole. The 
Echo GP normally pronounces all 
words it finds unless it does not 
recognize it as a word (for example, 
"zps" will be spelled out), or if the 
"word" is a number. The character 
string 12.23 is spelled out "One Two 



Point Two Three." 

The manual describes the phonemes 
used by the Echo GP and how you can 
use them for best results. How to place 
stress on syllables and how to insert 
pauses, as well as pitch and volume con- 
trol, are all covered, and a table of 
phoneme codes is provided. 

I am pleased with the Echo GP. It is 
not good for proofreading documents 
by routing them to the printer, since it 
will mispronounce many words. How- 
ever, for programs that require speech 
synthesis, it is a useful and extremely 
flexible tool. An internal buffer also lets 
your computer continue with what it 
needs to do before the text has been 
spoken. 

While speech synthesis technology is 
not yet to the level of human speech, it 
is readily understandable, and pitch and 
intonation control go a long ways to- 
wards making it pleasant. Certainly the 
Echo GP is vastly superior to those talk- 
ing games that use the cassette port. The 
Echo GP provides a quality synthesized 
voice for a modest cost. ■ 




• •• 

DBASIC 1.0 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James St. 

Syracuse, NY 13203 

Color Computer, 64K, 

Hogg Lab's FLEX operating system 

$30 when purchased with FLEX, 

$40 alone 

by Scott L. Norman 

With the recent availability of 
FLEX, Color Computer owners 
can choose from a wide variety of new 



software packages: high-level language 
compilers and interpreters, data-base 
managers, word processors, and more. 
One new FLEX interpreter is DBASIC 
from Frank Hogg Laboratory. 

A Little Background 

Before deciding to make the minor 
hardware modifications necessary to 
use FLEX on your machine, how will 
you benefit from the system? After all, 
FLEX by itself leaves you with 48K of 
perfect stupidity — there is in effect no 
programming language aboard, just 
RAM. The Hogg Lab version of FLEX 
includes a command, CBASIC, which 



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REVIEWS 



copies the Color and Extended Color 
Basic ROMs to RAM so that you can 
use these interpreters without erasing 
FLEX from memory, but this is of lim- 
ited use. After all, you had the Color 
Basics before you started! Besides, this 
command restricts you to cassette I/O, 
so it is a giant step backwards. 

DBASIC 

DBASIC provides a fairly inexpen- 
sive means for using Radio Shack Disk 
Color Basic to produce files that can be 
examined and manipulated by standard 
FLEX utilities. The actual I/O chores 
are handled by FLEX, but this is trans- 
parent to the user. With one exception, 
which I'll discuss later, you simply pro- 
gram in Disk Color Basic. 

Getting Acquainted 

DBASIC consists of two binary disk 
files, DBASIC.CMD and DBASIC.SYS, 
and a utility called RTF.BAS that con- 
verts existing Radio Shack ASCII files 
to FLEX format. Both DBASIC files 
must be present on the same disk at run 
time. If you purchase DBASIC and 
FLEX at the same time, everything will 
be delivered on one single-sided, 
double-density disk. If you purchase 
DBASIC separately, copy the new files 
to the system disk. DBASIC will only 
work with the Hogg Lab's implementa- 
tion of FLEX and can be run on a 
single-drive system. A pair of drives 
makes life much easier, though. I'll 
describe operation with one drive. 

Once FLEX has been booted up, the 
DBASIC command invokes a routine 
that moves the Basic interpreters from 
ROM to the upper half of RAM, shuf- 
fling portions of the code to avoid inter- 
ference with FLEX itself. The system 
now reads the DBASIC.SYS file, which 
contains modifications to Disk Basic's 
initialization routine. When memory 
has settled, you receive two more mes- 
sages: the standard Disk Extended Col- 
or Basic logo, plus one for DBASIC. 
The usual Color Basic cursor replaces 
FLEX'S + -f- + prompt. 

A couple of minor differences show 
up immediately; for one thing, PRINT 
MEM returns a value of 22567, which is 
256 bytes fewer than that returned by 
Disk Basic immediately after startup. If 
the FLEX system disk is still in the 
drive, the DIR command can be used to 
obtain a directory listing. The directory 
format resembles that of FLEX more 
than that of Disk Basic, however. It dis- 



plays file name, extension, file size (in 
256-byte sectors, not grans), and date of 
file creation. The Radio Shack format 
includes information about file type 
(ASCII, binary, and so on), but this is 
not preserved by DBASIC; the exten- 
sion has to be used to indicate the nature 
of each file, instead. 

A few other differences are spelled 
out in the documentation. Disk Basic's 
Back-up, Copy, and DSKINI com- 
mands have been replaced by their 
FLEX equivalents. Print Free(O) will of- 
ten return enormous numbers, since 
FLEX measures everything in sectors 
instead of grans. A new command, 
FLEX, has been added to the Basic vo- 
cabulary; naturally enough, it returns 
the system to the operating system. 

For the most part, you program in 
DBASIC just as though FLEX didn't 
exist. If your program creates output 
files that are to be manipulated by other 
FLEX utilities, they should be saved in 
ASCII format by appending ,A to the 
Save command, as usual. Either a peri- 
od or a slash can be used to separate the 
file name and extension. If you want to 
specify a drive number, it should pre- 
cede the file name (0:MYFILE.XYZ 
would be appropriate). Note that a co- 
lon is required between drive number 
and the file name, in contrast to 
FLEX'S period. 

The one major difference between 
DBASIC and Radio Shack's standard 
Disk Color Basic is that DBASIC will 
not support random (direct access) files. 
None of the associated commands such 
as Field, LSET, RSET, and so on, are 
recognized. You can use all the com- 
mands normally used for sequential 
files, of course, but be aware that disk 
files created under DBASIC will be in- 
compatible with standard Disk Color 
Basic. All cassette files, though, are 
compatible. 

Some Simple Experiments 

My first effort working with 
DBASIC was a short program segment 
that I saved to disk in ASCII format. 
(The BAC extension is menfioned in the 
documentation as a convenient way of 
identifying ASCII programs.) Just as 
advertised, programs can be reloaded 
with DBASIC's Load com.mand; it can 
also be listed from FLEX. When I saved 
the same program in tokenized form, 
however. List wouldn't work. DBASIC 
would still accept it using the Load com- 
mand, however, just as the original Mi- 



60 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



REVIEWS 



crosoft interpreter accepts both forms 
of Basic programs witfi a single 
command. 

Continuing the theme of manipulat- 
ing files created by DBASIC, I stored a 
second program segment in ASCII for- 
mat, making sure that its line numbers 
were higher than those in my first trial 
program. I was then able to use FLEX's 
Append command to merge the two 
segments. 

I found this works with data files, 
too. As a quick test, I copied and ran 
the simple checkbook program that ap- 
pears on page 28 of the Radio Shack 
Disk System manual. The output file, 
CHECKS.DAT, was automatically 
generated in ASCII. This is where I first 
got a glimpse of the advantages of run- 
ning under a full-fledged DOS; I could 
use FLEX'S List command to examine 
the data file, independent of the pro- 
gram that created it. 

In principle, other utilities then could 
have been used to work on the file. Of 
course, this fiexibility requires that you 
pay a little more attention to system op- 
eration than is required for stock Basic. 
For example, when running DBASIC it 
is quite possible to load an ASCII file 
that is not a program. The conse- 
quences may be interesting, but they are 
unlikely to prove useful! 

Using Stock Programs 

DBASIC would be of very limited in- 
terest if it were unable to use programs 
written for the standard Color Basics — 
subject to the sequential file restriction, 
of course. Therefore, I decided to try 
running a fairly serious commercial pro- 
gram under FLEX via the DBASIC 
package. The example I chose was Trans 
Tek's C.C. Writer (CCW) word proces- 
sor, a friendly line-oriented editor that I 
often use for correspondence. 

C.C. Writer is written in Basic and 
outputs ASCII text files, so it seemed to 
be a natural candidate. Trusting to 
dumb luck, I booted FLEX, called 
DBASIC, and loaded the cassette con- 
taining the master copy of CCW; stan- 
dard practice is for each user to make 
his or her own disks from the tape. 

Everything went like clockwork. At 
the end of the loading process , a 
DBASIC disk catalog appeared on 
screen, verifying that the various files 
making up C.C. Writer at this stage 
were indeed present. CCW's loader 
program puts the two main program 
segments, CCW. DAT and CONVERT. 

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80 Micro, February 1983 • 61 



REVIEWS 



DAT, on disk in ASCII. Once again I 
used flex's Append to merge them, 
renaming the joint file NEWCCW. 
Finally, I saved both ASCII and 
tokenized versions of NEWCCW. 

Both versions loaded and ran nor- 
mally under DBASIC, although the ac- 
tual loading processes took longer for 
the FLEX version. 1 assume that this 
has to do with the way FLEX allocates 
the 256-byte sectors where programs are 
stored. The difference in storage for- 
mats seemed to confuse CCW's ability 
to calculate the free space remaining on 
the disk, as well. Outside of this, I de- 
tected no bugs in the program's opera- 
tion . I was able to use FLEX to examine 
text files produced by NEWCCW just 
as for the Radio Shack checkbook 
program. 

The bottom line, then, is that even 
though DBASIC's disk I/O is actually 
handled by FLEX utilities, you rarely 
need be concerned with the fact. Inci- 
dentally, DBASIC will also read Color 
Computer machine-language cassette 
programs. There is no compatibility for 
machine-language disks, however. 

Converting Your Old Basic Programs 

Earlier I mentioned the RTF pro- 
gram, which converts ASCII files stored 
in Radio Shack's Color DOS format to 
similar files that can be read by FLEX. 
This is the tool to use if you have Color 
Disk' Basic programs that you would 
like to run under DBASIC. 

RTF itself is loaded from DBASIC. 
The Run command brings up a four- 
item menu, giving you the option of list- 
ing a directory for a Radio Shack or 
FLEX disk, copying from Radio Shack 
to FLEX format, or returning to 
DBASIC. The copy option prompts 
you for the numbers of the drives hold- 
ing the two disks (these can be the same) 
and the name and extension of the 
original file. Next, you insert the source 
disk in the drive. After it is read, you 
receive a prompt that identifies the 
starting gran (in decimal and hex, no 
less) and asks you to insert the destina- 
tion (FLEX) disk. 

Hitting the enter key starts the con- 
version process. The file is hsted on 
screen as the conversion proceeds. 
Large files have to be copied in several 
stages, but this is no problem as RTF 
prompts you to switch disks as needed. 
After completion of the process, an 
"All Done" message appears on the 
screen. If you now examine the direc- 



' 'Incidentally, DBASIC will 

also read Color Computer 

machine-language 

cassette programs, '' 



tory of the FLEX disk, you will find 
your converted file, old extension and 
all. Again, since this will be an ASCII 
file, it can be manipulated by FLEX 

utilities. 

A Bug and Its Cure 

While most of DBASIC's operating 
characteristics are quite benign, 1 did 
encounter one bug. There is a pretty 
simple fix, though, and something of a 
surprise twist to the whole affair. 

The bug appeared when I tried to use 
the graphics commands of Extended 
Color Basic. Whenever a graphics 
screen was called up, the desired display 
appeared on about the ninth line of the 
screen preceded with eight lines or so of 
garbage. The top of the graphics was 
there, but it was displaced downwards 
from its rightful position. Of course, 
this meant that about eight lines of de- 
sired material were lost from the bot- 
tom of the screen. 

The nature of the undesired stuff 
varied, depending on whether or not 
any programs had been run before the 
graphics commands were used. At vari- 
ous times, I saw square wave patterns, 
circular arcs, and isolated dots. The 
background of the garbage screen was 
always the correct color as defined by 
the Color Basic commands. Text dis- 
plays were not affected; PRINT@0 put 
a character at the extreme upper left 
corner of the screen, just as it should. 

I discussed this with Frank Hogg and 
Tom Speer, the author of DBASIC. 
Their first opinion was that the problem 
lay with FLEX's file control blocks, 
which can cause a DBASIC graphics 
display to begin at locations other than 
a 256-byte page boundary, contrary to 
the rules of Extended Color Basic. The 
fix that they recommended was insert- 
ing a FILES 1 or FILES 3 command in 
a program anywhere ahead of the com- 
mands that call up graphics. These Files 
statements reserve more or less buffer 
space than the default of two buffers, 
and thus move the start of the graphics 
RAM. This works perfectly well. 



The Files statements can also be en- 
tered from the command mode before 
your program is run. The command 
mode is especially useful for FILES 3, 
which halts execution if included in a 
program; this has to do with reserving 
more space than the default. Having to 
enter Run twice to get a program run- 
ning can be an annoyance. 

If you want to write programs requir- 
ing more than three buffers, 'FILES n' 
also takes care of the graphics bug if one 
of the following values of n is used: 6, 8, 
9, 11, or 14. 

A few days after I brought this matter 
up, Frank Hogg informed me that the 
same bug occurs in Disk Color Basic it- 
self — the numbers are just different! 
Sure enough, the same effects do crop 
up, and for the same general reason. 
For the record, you can get clean graph- 
ics in Disk Color Basic for the following 
numbers in a Files statement: 2, 5, 7, 9, 
11, and 13. 

Summary 

DBASIC is evolving along with the 
Color FLEX DOS. My copy of FLEX 
was version 5.0, but by the time this 
review appears, purchasers wiU be re- 
ceiving version 5.0:1. The difference 
is that 5.0: 1 uses software-defined text 
screens giving 24 hnes of either 51 or 
64 characters, like Martin Consulting's 
Colorterm intelligent terminal pro- 
gram. This affects the way in which 
DBASIC must store and piece together 
code from the Basic ROMs. Hogg Labs 
promises to keep track of changes, 
though, so the DBASIC shipped at any 
time will be compatible with the con- 
temporary version of FLEX. Future 
versions may even cure the graphics bug 
once and for all. 

Other than the restriction to sequen- 
tial files, DBASIC imposes no particu- 
lar restrictions. Most programming 
tasks can be carried out just as for Ex- 
tended Color Basic, with the added ad- 
vantage of having I/O files that can be 
examined and manipulated outside of 
their parent programs. 

The language is of dubious value if 
you are not interested in reading and 
writing disk data files, but then FLEX 
itself has little to offer if you are only in- 
terested in writing totally self-contained 
Basic programs. If you are seriously 
contemplating stepping up to FLEX, 
however, DBASIC is a reasonably 
priced addition to your programming 
library. ■ 



62 



Micro. February 1983 



HeXMAN dlnls. 

Disk Management System 

Computerized file storage and retrieval for your whole disk library. 




LIBRARY 



SECURITY 
COPIES 

OFF-SITE 



SECURITY 
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ON-SITE 



SECURITY 







DISK 
LIBRARY 




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■'■as needed 



'storage' 




COMPUTER 

MEMORY 



-..-_L- :- DOS 



MANAGED BY HEXMAN 



Your Disk Operating System makes a fine job 
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old files are kept or where to store new files, 



your DOS takes care of It. Now HEXMAN 
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Storage Management 



Only a small portion of your disks can be in your disk 
drives at any one time. These disks form the "Filestore" 
to whicti your computer hias Immediate access, and ttie 
remaining disks form your disk "Library" Ideally tlie 
"Filestore" stiould contain the most active files, while 
Inactive files are kept on "Library" disks stored near the 
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HEXMAN comes as close to this ideal as it can by 
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HEXMAN also performs other storage management 
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Model I — 48K, 2 drives. Double Density adaptor. Lower 
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LDOS operating System. If you do not have LDOS, 
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US 



169 




90-day trial - just $20. 

\Ne are sure HEXMAN will become a "must have" pro- 
gram for all serious TRS-80 users. But check it out for 
yourself. Purchase HEXMAN now and try it out. If you 
feel you can live without it (unlikely!), return if for a 
prompt refund less a $20 evaluation charge. 

Offer valid for direct sales only - dealer terms may vary. 

HeXAOON 



WARNING — 
TIMELOCKED SOFTWARE 



This product is timelocked. Unregistered copies will 
expire at a future date. Registered owners will receive an 
extension patch when needed. 



A NOTE ON CANADIAN.MAIl- - please allow 5 lo 10 davs in eacfi 
direction tor mail delivery. For faster service leave your orders or 
enquiries on our 24-hour answering mactiine. 



P.O. Box 397, Station A 
Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6C 2N2 
Telephone (604) 682-7646 

Electronic Mail-Micronet 70235,1376 



f^ 46 



■See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 63 



REVIEWS 



*•• 

Ultra-Term 

Don Burgan 

United Software Associates 

North Palm Beach, FL 33408 

Models I & III 

$59.95 

by Stewart E. Fason 

The Ultra-Term smart terminal pack- 
age is running my new direct- 
connect, auto-answer modem and I 
couldn't be happier. It is easy to 
operate — you need no arcane knowl- 
edge to run the program. 

Features 

With Ultra-Term, you can transmit 
and receive files without converting 
them to ASCII (if Basic) or hex (if ma- 
chine language). Because other terminal 
programs may demand files be sent in 
ASCII or hexadecimal, two programs 
included in the package will automati- 
cally convert a file so that it can be sent 
to any system, and convert a file re- 
ceived in hex back to machine language. 



It is compatible with all major oper- 
ating systems: TRSDOS, NEWDOS, 
DOSPLUS, LDOS, and MULTIDOS. 

Ultra-Term lets you receive an unlim- 
ited number of files while unattended, 
as long as the computer sending data is 
also using Ultra-Term. When two com- 
puters using Ultra-Term are talking, 
they can send files just as they are on 
disk. This method is usually faster than 
using ASCII or hex — converting one 
byte of a machine-language file to hex 
requires two bytes, and a compressed 
Basic file converted to ASCII will be 
about 30 percent longer. Furthermore, 
the size of the file transmitted is limited 
only by the size of the disk, rather than 
by the buffer size at each end. Ultra- 
Term also verifies every bit to ensure 
accuracy. 

It lets you set your RS-232 parame- 
ters to conform with the system on the 
other end. Most bulletin boards use 300 
baud, 7-bit words, one stop bit, and 
even parity. Compatibility is no prob- 
lem among TRS-80 owners, but I often 
talk to IBMs, Apples, Commodores, 
Burroughs, or who knows what. If they 
can't use my RS-232 settings, I must be 



able to use theirs. 

Ultra-Term automatically dials pre- 
programmed telephone numbers, or 
one that the operator enters through the 
modem. It lets a colleague on the west 
coast access my computer long after I 
have left for the day. He can use my sys- 
tem (with some hmitations) as though 
he were at my keyboard. He can up- 
load, download, and leave messages 
(which can be password protected). 

The package lets you turn the printer 
on or off by pressing three keys simulta- 
neously. It has a IK buffer, which 
makes life easy for slow printers. 

When the operator on the other end 
sends an ASCII bell (control G, hex 07), 
a tone comes through your cassette 
port. If you have an amplifier hooked 
up, the other end can signal you with 
audio at any time. 

Ultra-Term lacks some frills — it has 
no auto-log-on and you can't modify 
control characters, for example. Don't 
expect a fancy leather-bound notebook 
containing the disk and documentation. 
The manual is only eight pages long, but 
as I've said, the program is simple. For 
$59.95, you can't beat it.H 



• •• • 

Doughflo 

Alphanetics 

P.O. Box 597 

Forestville, CA 95436 

Model I and IH, disk system 

$79.95 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 



Until I received Doughflo, my 
checking account never balanced. 
But as my business began to grow, I 
needed to know where my money was 
going, and where it was coming from. 
How much do I spend on computer 
equipment? Software? Office supplies? 
Women? A hand accounting system is 
just not the way to go. 

Doughfio from Alphanetics is the 
program that solved all my accounting 
problems. My accounts balance to the 
penny and I have monthly records of all 
my financial dealings. Thirty-three 
categories for income and expenditures 
define my subtotal categories, such as 
personal costs, equipment costs, 
business costs, taxable income, and 
total expenses. With Doughflo, I not 

64 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



only keep track of the final balance, but 

I can easily and quickly see where my 
everyday expenses lay. 

Doughfio is a convenient way to 
solve a variety of common income and 
expenditure analyses, tax preparation, 
and bookkeeping tasks; this is true for 
both the household and for the small 
business. For the household, it is an ex- 
cellent bookkeeping system; for the 
business, it is simply the easiest way to 
keep track of your income and expenses. 

Doughfio requires at least 32K RAM 
and one disk drive. It comes on three 
disks for the Model I and two disks for 
the Model III. There is a large ASCII 
file of instructions and two identical 
copies of Doughflo, in case one copy 
gets zapped. Sample data files are also 
enclosed and these are used in the man- 
ual to show the workings of Doughfio. 

My version of Doughfio cannot be 
backed up and only works in single den- 
sity for the Model I, but by the time you 
read this, Doughfio will be unprotected 
by Alphanetics, allowing you to use 
your favorite operating system and even 
double density. 

I dearly love Doughfio, but there are 
a couple of small points that I dislike 
about the system. First, the manual is 



not particularly outstanding, and it is 
not provided in a printed form — it is 
supplied on disk. You must route it 
through your own printer. It would be 
difficult to read the manual by listing it 
to the screen and pausing the listing 
with shift @, but it can be done. It 
would be much more convenient to sup- 
ply a printed manual. 

In terms of content, the manual is 
helpful but lacks referencing (such as a 
table of contents or an index). Fortu- 
nately, a cursory reading of it is all that 
is necessary to use Doughflo, because 
the program itself is menu-driven. 

You can configure Doughfio using the 
CATGEN option from the main menu. 
The default is to use only one drive, re- 
quiring you to switch your program and 
data disks frequently. If you configure 
it for a multiple -drive system, Doughfio 
stores this on the program disk, and you 
are not required to switch disks. 

CATGEN also lets you create your 
categories and set up the reports gener- 
ated by Doughfio. Various categories 
can be summed in any order and the re- 
sults labeled for meaningful presenta- 
tion, either to the screen or the printer. 
You can define up to eight such subtotal 
reports. The system I set up is shown in 



TONIGHT ON YOUR TRS80 




KEEP THE WEST BEAUTIFUL 

Its Up to you! Outlaws and 

renegade I ndlans on all sides. 

Even the train's been hijacked by outlaws with 

all the payroll on board. Can you clean up THE 

WILD WEST by Clifford Abrahams? 




EXPLORE MARS 

Fortunately your craft can 

Jump over small boulders and 

pits and can blast away at the larger boulders. 

But watch out - the natives are not friendly. 

join the MARTIAN PATROL by Rlcl< Maurice. 




DRIVE THROUGH THE NIGHT 

Hostile competitors, oil slici(s, 

wandering pedestrians and 

a treacherous raceway ail combine to make 

this a real challenge. Roll your TRS up to the 

starting line for GRAND PRIX 80 by Rick Maurice. 




SAVE YOUR HOME CITY 

Steady your nerves, keep a 

sharp lookout, and prepare 

for battle. Fiendish aliens are all around, and if 

they destroy the city, you're next, its a SPACE 

ATTACK by Clifford Abrahams. 



orderstoMELBOURNE HOUSE SOFTWARE INC. 

Dept. CS S47 Reedwood Drive, Nashville, TN 37217 

Cassettes (16K Model mm 

^250 a 26518 PENETRATOR $24.95 

G 26542 STRIKEFORCE $15.95 

D 265B5 GOBBLEMAN $15.95 

D 18775 THE WILD WEST $15.95 
D 18760 MARTIAN PATROL $15.95 

D 18743 CRANDPRIX80 $15.95 

D 14074 SPACEATTACK $15.95 



Enclosed is my check or money orderfor S 

Please charge my visa or D Mastercard card *f 

signature 

Address city. 



VI a a and M/C ordsra 

can ba phonad In: 615/361-3738 



Dealer orders and queries: 800/251-5900 
(ask for a Melbourne House operator) 

Disks (32K Model i/im 

D 26710 PENETRATOR $24.95 

a 26734 STRIKEFORCE $19.95 

O 26760 GOBBLEMAN $19.95 

D 19172 THEWILDWEST $19.95 

D 19139 MARTIAN PATROL $19.95 

a 19111 GRANDPRIX80 $19.95 

D 14049 SPACEATTACK $19.95 



TOTAL: $_ 

Residents of CA, MO. TN, please add sales taxes-. _ 

S&H: _ 
TOTAL: $. 

expiration date 



S2.00 



.Name. 



State 



.zip. 



Melbourne House Software inc. 




REVIEWS 



Table 1. 

When I enter the checkbook, re- 
ceipts, and so on, into this program, I 
assign each expenditure or income into 
one of these categories. I can then print 
out monthly totals for each column, the 
percent of each of these categories is of 
total income, or total expenses. The 
grand total is printed for the all ex- 
penses and all income as well, and the 
net profit/loss (the sum of the total ex- 
penses and total income). 

Other reports can be defined. For ex- 
ample, the subtotal category Personal 
Costs is defined to be the sum of cate- 
gories N, O, P, Q, R, S, and T. Equip- 
ment costs are the sum of C, D, E, and 
F. You can easily define these subtotal 
categories as the sum of the primary cat- 
egories as flexibly as you wish. It is the 
perfect tool to see who your money is 
running off with, or which accounts 
yield the largest profit margin after ex- 
penses are subtracted. 

Entering the data is easy. To protect 
your files as much as possible, the data 
files are chosen by you and then 
dumped into an intermediary file. All 
work is done with this file. When you 
are done processing, you can save the 
contents of the intermediary file into 
permanent file storage. 



Expense Categories 



A 


Gas and Electricity 


B 


Postage 


C 


Office Supplies 


D 


Computer Hardware 


E 


Computer Software 


F 


Miscellaneous Equipment 


G 


Reference Materials 


H 


Phone Bills 


I 


Printing Costs 


J 


Advertisement Costs 


K 


Media Costs 


L 


Insurance 


M 


Rent 


N 


Auto Insurance 


O 


Personal Insurance 


P 


Eating Out 





Groceries 


R 


Savings 


s 


Auto Maintenance 


T 


Miscellaneous Expenses 


Income Categories 


1 


Deposits 


2 


Magazine Writing 


3 


Book Writing 


4 


Manual Writing 


5 


Program Royalties 


6 


Job Income 


7 


Nontaxable Income 



Table I. Sample Expense and Income Categories 



\ . . Doughflo will soon be 
unprotected by 
Alphanetics. . ." 



The permanent files are arranged by 
months. You can have more than one 
month in the intermediary file, so you 
can do bimonthly, trimonthly, or even 
yearly reports just as easily as monthly 
reports. When you load in the interme- 
diary file for inputing data, you will see 
the last record read in. For example. 

Entry Number 254 Date 03/31/82 

Category Receipt/CK# Name Description Amount 
Z C30332* Mastercard $-500.00 

This is the standard data display 
screen. The entry number tells you 
where the entry occurs in the intermedi- 
ary file. The data is the date given to the 
record. The category assigned to the en- 
try tells the type of expense/income it is. 
The Receipt/Ck# is for further identifi- 
cation of the entry. For checkbook bal- 
ancing, this is the check number, or de- 
posit slip number. The C in this column 
tells Doughflo automatically that this is 
a check. The * tells that the check has 
been entered but not yet cleared by the 
bank. The Name/Description column 
lets you say to whom the check was 
written and for what purpose, or to 
identify the entry further. The amount 
is negative because it is a check, hence 
money leaving your account. The entry 
is assumed to be negative (even though 
you don't enter a minus sign) unless a 
plus sign precedes the amount. 

You can edit a file by deleting entries, 
adding entries, or editing an entry. You 
have full editing capabilities for each 
column in the record, so you can easily 
alter the date, amount, whether the 
check has cleared, or whatever. You can 
display records in several ways. You can 



Seek an entry by entry number and dis- 
play it in the same format as above. To 
display the next entry, press the N key, 
or press P to display the previous entry. 
Press the F key to scan forward and the 
R key to scan in reverse. The entries are 
displayed one after the other (in the di- 
rection requested) until the last entry is 
reached or the first entry is reached, or 
you tell it to stop. 

Pressing B causes the program to 
compute a balance up to the current en- 
try. You are asked for the beginning en- 
try. If you press the enter key, the first 
entry is assumed. A balance is calculat- 
ed by adding up all the amounts. The 
result looks something like Table 2. 
After this, you can save the file to disk 
or not, when you exit to the menu. 

From the main menu, you can sort by 
category, date, name/description, or re- 
ceipt/check number. You can sort all 
permanent files, or the intermediary 
file. You can save the intermediary files 
into the permanent monthly files. This 
option searches through the intermedi- 
ary file and puts the various entries into 
the monthly files in which they belong. 

Doughfio's report generation is very 
good. The output may be sent to the 
printer or to the video screen. Doughflo 
assumes 66 lines per page, and cannot 
be used to output escape sequences to 
change the printer's font. If you are 
content with standard formatting, 
Doughflo is quite adequate. It supplies 
two top titles with your title name and 
the date ranges for the report. The sum- 
mary report generates the grand totals 
for each category and the percentage 
each category total is of total expenses 
and total income. The summing report 
generates similar information for each 
of your subtotal categories. 

Doughflo is an excellent income/ex- 
pense analysis program. It will tell you 
where your money goes and where it 
comes from. ■ 



CATEGORY 
U 

2 INCOME 

3 CREDIT 

4 NOT INC. 

5 NOT INC. 

6 EXPENSE 

7 EXPENSE 

8 CREDIT 
NOT INC EXP 
NOT INC CRD 



ENTRYNUMBER....10 
RECEIPT/CK# 

M0108 
$ 500.00 
S 500.00 
S 100.00 
S 200.00 
$- 400.00 
$-100.00 
$ 99.99 
$ 300.00 
$ 599.99 



DATEOl/08/81 
NAME/DESCRIPTION 
WINDOW WASHING 
CLEAR CHECKS 
+ TOTAL BANK DEPOSITS 
= BALANCE 
UNCLEAR CHECKS 
TOTAL OTHER INCOME 
OTHER EXPENSES 
GRAND TOTAL EXPENSES 

G.T. INCOME -1- EXPENSES 



AMOUNT 
$ -10.00 

$ -400.00 
$1000.00 
$ 600.00 

$ 200.00 
S 500.00 

$ -110.00 

$ -710.00 

S 790.00 



Table 2. Sample Balance Table 



66 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




star Micronics GEMINI-10 



$419«88 UPS DELIVERED 

• 100 characters per second, bi-difectiona!, losic-seeldns pnnthead action 
(48 lines/min.) with 2K print buffer, expanabie to 4K on-board 

• 9 X 9 matrix produces proportional, 10, 12, 17 cpi with true descenders, 
double width, double strike, italics, & special graphics charaaers 

• 120 X 144 hi-resolutJon dot-addressable graphics matnx 

• Subscripts, superscripts, underlining, backspace, piLJS 2K user-programmable 
character ROM, perf slop, vert/horz tebs 

• Fnction/tractor standard; ha^dles 3-part forms (8,5") 



PMNTCRS 

Anadex 0P-9501A S1409.88 

Anacfex DP-9629A $1499.88 

Centronics 122-1 $829.88 

Centronics 122-3 $949.88 

Centronics 352 $1649.88 

Cen&onics353 $2324.88 

C. Itoh Prownter $499.88 

W/RS-232C S609.88 

C Itch Prownter 2 S734.88 

W/RS-232C $V89.88 

C.IK)h F-10 Scafwnter, 40 cps 

Parallel or RS-232C S1499.88 

CJtoti F-10 Printmaster, 55 cps 

Parallel or RS-232C $1799.88 

F-10 Tractor $289.88 

Daisywrjter 2000 $1089.88 

Oaisy^wite^ Traaor $149.88 

Oalsywriter Cabfe $49.88 

Diablo 620 S1269.88 

(>ablo630 $1969.38 

Diablo 630 KSR $2694.88 

630Traaof $314.88 

0MP-8S Pnnter $469.88 




The "generic" version of the NEC & 
Pro^/nter Features 120 cps, b<-direcoon- 
d. bgic-seckjrg prsit actwn. 9 pin pnnt- 
head produces 4 fons (including pro- 
portonal), 8 sizes, subscripts, super- 
scnpts, underlining & Greek/fnath fonts, 
tot -addressable sraphics matnx is 160 x 
144 cfei, with 1/144" line feed. Frictiod & 
ffactof feed is standard (takes 9'A" 
width paper), 

IDS Mtcroprism $679.88 

IDS Prism 80 $1104.88 

abcwe w/graphics $1339.88 

abCN« w/sheetfeed $1459.88 

abwew/4-cotof $1539.88 

IDSPn5ml32 $1269.88 

atxve w/graphics $1339.88 

abcwe w/shectfeed $1459.88 

abcMs w/4-cokx $1699.88 



PMNTCRS 



McrottneflO, . . . 


$349.88 


Mcroline 82'\, . 


$439.88 


S0/82A Tractor. 


$59,88 


82A Roll Paper Holder . 


$49.88 


Microline83A. , 


S694.88 


8aV83A Olograph ROM . 


. $44.88 


MiC'Olne84 w/graphtcsS, tractor 


-'arailel, 200 cps . , 


$1044.88 


RS-232C, 200 cps, ,. 


$1164.88 


NECPC-8023A 


, $509.88 


NEC 3510 


$1929.88 


NEC 3530 


$1809.88 


NEC 3550,,. 


$2199.88 


3500Traaor, , 


, $239.88 



Smith Corona TP-1 ... $599.88 
10 or 12 coi, parallel or RS-232C 

CALL FOR PaCES oo Epson, DIP, MW, 
Datasoutii, & other printers, 

TRS-80 HARDWAflE 



TEC Drwes 


$239.88 


Hayes Chroncgraoh 


$214.88 


wiodel l/lll cable. , . . 


S29.88 


Model 11/16 cable 


$39.88 


TTiS-80 Color cable. 


$29.88 



TRS-80 Color RS-232C-io-Paralfel 
Cortveirer & cable S99.88 

MODEMS 




The LYNX TRS-80 direct-coonea 
modem features auto-dial, auto-answer, 



MODEMS 

0-300 baud transmission. Will work wiitv 
out RS-232C interface on Model ills. 
Comes complete with hardware 



lyMK TRS-80 AtocJem, 



$229.88 




Hayes Smartmodems feature prosram- 
abilrty in any languase, auto dial & auto 
answer, full & half duple!<, keyboard con- 
trol, user-selectable prameters, 7 LED 
status li^ls & an audio monitor. Comes 
complete with power suppf/ and mod- 
ular telephorK cable 

300 Baud $239.88 

1200 Batjd $569.88 

Si3nalm3n Mart: 1 , , $89.88 

TRS-80 SOnWARE 

MICROTERM 

A termiral program from Micro-Systems 
Software, makers of DOSPLUS. Mcro- 
term supports ttie features on auto-dia! & 
answer modems like the Lynx & Smarr- 
modem. Features pre-programmed dial 
& transmit, direct file transfer, 34K capture 
buffer, arid higfi operational baud rate 
(near 9600), Specify Model I or Model 111 
when ordering 
Articroterm $79.88 

DOSPIWS3.4 

The preferred <isk operating system for 
Model I or 111. Features BASIC asiay son. 
(multi-key, multi-array), acttve "DO", de- 
vice routing, DOS comnwnd repeat, etc, 
Exceptranal, Specif)- Model I or III, single 
or double track, 40 or 80 track drive 
DOSPI.US34 $99.88 



Informatien & Orders 

(603)-881-9855 

Ofdere Onty: (8(X))-343-0726 
NO HIDDEN CHARGES 

FREE UPS shipping on all orders- f^ extra crta^se to use credit cards- All equipment 
Shipped factory fresh with manufacturers warraniy-COO orders accepted (£10 fee 
added)-No purchase orders accepted-No laeisn or APO orders accepted- 
Mintmum S50 per order— This ad prepared n November prices subieci to change 



TRS-80 SOnWARE 

NEWSCRIIT7.0 

Prosoffs NEWSCRiPT is the best word 
piocessing software available for the TRS- 
80 Model I or III. NEWSCRIPT supports the 
features of most popular phntcs, in- 
cludins NEC, C Itoh, Okidata, Epson, 
Centronics, etc, 

NEWSCRIPT features tnje proportional 
spacing, single and double wkJth type, 
subscripts, superscripG, underlining, 
boldfece, mulDpte pftches, ftjil-screen 
editina stobal search & replace, arxj 
Customized "form" letters th^t also will 
create a MAIL lABEL (see bdcr^). 

A typeahead/printahead buffer maxi- 
mizes pnnter & computer speed. P*»n 
Engli^ commands simplify operation 
arKl ecfiting, NEWSCRIPT comes with a 
comptete manual, including many ap- 
pficatioos, and support from the 
authors Speafy Model I or ill 
when ordering 

NavScript $109.99 

MML LABEL OPTION 

Create mailing latscfs from NEWSCfilPT 
files famac 2 up, 3 up, etc, (or use on 
etw&opes, packages Not a mail list pro- 
gram wrth sot options. Available onV 
with purctBse of NEWSCRIPT (not as an 
upgrade). 

Mailing Label Option $15.00 

SCRJPST/NEWSCRIPT CONVERSION 

Takes cithar Etectnc PefKil or Scnpsit files 
and corwerts tnem to NEWSCRIPT files. 
Upgrade your okJer library Of files with 
ihis tend/ program, 

Scriptsit Cofiwersion $15.00 

El£CTmC WEBSTER 

A 50.000 word diCDonary for NEWSCRIPT, 
It can t>e selected from the mam menu, 
used, ttien returns you to mam menu. The 
Electric Webster features 5pd\ chectdng, 
■oc^ors on change, & a "bro^-se" feature 
■alkAvins you to choose spellings or to 
■enter your cv^ Full/ compatible w^ 
NEWSCRIPT 

Electric Webster $134.88 



iHIGH TECHNOLOGY AT AFFORDABLE PRICESi 

S THE BOTTOM LINE 



IMILFORD NH 03055-04231 



TRS-80 MODEL 11/16 
DISPLAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 




FAST EASY TO USE 

FULL SCREEN UPDATES 
SUPPORTS ALL LANGUAGES 
EXCEEDS CtCS/BMS SUBSET 

MICROWAVES 

Bridle Road 

Antrim. N.H. 03440 

Telephone 603 352 7725 
603 362 7744 

,^548 



REVIEWS 



T^piSSiB*' 



PROFESSIONAL 
FEDERAL INCOME TAX 
PROGRAMS 

FORTRS-80 MODEL 1,11 ORIII 

Cuts manual production time by as 
much as 75%. 

Determines least tax quickly. 
Saves input information on disk-auto- 
matic transfer of essential information. 
Batch processing possible. 
Uses IRS prescribed computer generated 
print outs. 

fVohibits bypassing of mandatory entries. 
Accuracy assured by triple check logic. 
Enter only pertinent lines-faster than 
line by line. 

Single line correction with automatic 
update of succeeding totals. 
Professionally used-nationally advertised. 
Overlays available. 
Requires 2 disk drives & 48K. 

• BASIC TAX PACKAGE $1 65.00 • 
INCLUDES 1040, 1040A, 1040EZ 

ANDSCHEDULESA&B 

OTHER SCHEDULES$35.00 EACH 

MANUAL $5.00 __.. 



■■■ MICRO-TAX ^^ 

P.O. Box 4262, Mountain View, CA 94040 

Call: (415) 964-2843 ^339 



• ••• 

Mijkeegraphic Graphic System 
Mikee Electronics Corp. 
P.O. Box 3813 
Bellevue, WA 98009 
Model I and UI 
$340 

by Jake Commander 

Many TRS-80 owners might argue 
that the machine's single greatest 
weakness is its inability to display high- 
resolution graphics . Whereas many 
micros can boast a resolution of 256 by 
192, the TRS-80's graphics perfor- 
mance of 128 by 48 looks puny by com- 
parison. True, even these 6,144 pixels 
can be made to do some fascinating 
work, but it's usually a case of speed 
fooling the eye into not noticing the 
ragged, stepped edges of such poor 
resolution. 

If you've drooled enviously at the 
Mikee Graphics advertisements, here's a 
chance to see how it performs in real life. 

The Mikee Graphics Board from the 
Mikee Electronics Corporation offers a 
hardware option to upgrade the graph- 
ics of the TRS-80 from third to first 
class. After installing the board in the 
keyboard unit, you can hook up an ex- 
tra module to allow resolutions of 384 
by 192 on a Model I or a massive 5 12 by 
192 on a Model III. That's 73,728 and 
98,304 dots respectively! 

With this kind of resolution, many 
more serious tasks in the realm of com- 
puter-aided design and management 
(CAD/CAM) can be undertaken. What 
makes it even more effective is that the 
graphics can be intermixed with text to 
allow labeled diagrams and the like. A 
demo program supplied with the pack- 
age amply demonstrates its many fea- 
tures. In addition to the normal low-res- 
olution graphics, the system allows 
high-resolution graphics of 384 by 192 
on the Model I, 512 by 192 on the 
Model III, or medium-resolution 
graphics of 192 by 192 on the Model I, 
and 256 by 192 on the Model III (all in 
combination with inverse video). 

Mikee Electronics has opted for a 
memory-mapped video display similar 
to the normal TRS-80 system. Whereas 
normal video is mapped from 3C00 to 
3FFF hex, the Mikee video is mapped 
from COOO to EFFF hex. That's 12K of 
RAM at the top of memory, making the 
TRS-80 memory map look like Fig. 1. 

Notice that in a 48K system, the top 
4K is untouched by the Mikee system 



but the 12K immediately below it is 
commandeered for the medium- and 
high-resolution graphics. This works 
out very conveniently for maintaining 
software (such as driver routines) that 
may use the top RAM in your system. If 
you have less than 48K, your resident 
software will be below the Mikee 
Graphics RAM anyway. If you do have 
48K then you retain the use of your up- 
per 4K for high-RAM software — this is 
more than adequate under normal cir- 
cumstances. 

The 12K that's set aside for high reso- 
lution is flipped in with a port output 
command. In fact, all options in the 
system are selected by this method, with 
port 254 (hex FE) being the control 
port. Four output bits are used to select 
any or all appropriate combinations of 
the following options: 

Bit 7— Select Mikee Graphics RAM (12K) 
Bit 6 — Select mid-resolution mode 
Bit 5 — Select normal TRS-80 graphics 
Bit 4 — Select inverse video 

I would have prefered another port 
than 254, as this is already a de facto 
standard for the control of most high- 
speed clock modifications. This has to 
be accounted for by using bit (which 
controls the high or low clock speed) 
along with the four control bits outlined 
above. 

It's a simple matter to mix text with 
high-resolution graphics in much the 
same way as with low-resolution graph- 
ics. Under normal circumstances on an 
urmiodified TRS-80, any byte placed in 
video RAM that has a value less than 
128 is displayed as a character. The 
shape of this character is fetched from a 
character-generator ROM that is pre- 
programmed to generate the appropri- 
ate shapes according to the ASCII char- 







'■my////////////. 

JmiKEE GRiPHICS;>; 
^RAM (IZK) y. 

'//////////////// 










NORMAL VIDEO RAM (IKl | 







ROM AREA 
Syi-f- (MODI ) 

laK (MOD ni) 



Fig. 1. The TRS-80 Memory Map 



68 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



REVIEWS 



acter set (plus a few extra on the Model 
III). However, when the byte in video 
memory has a value between 128 and 
191, the displayed shape is no longer 
fetched from the character generator 
ROM. Instead, a system called "bit- 
mapping" comes into play. On the 
TRS-80, the lower six bits are taken 
from the display byte and loaded into a 
shift register. As the electron beam 
scans down the face of the screen, each 
bit is displayed in a carefully synchro- 
nized sequence as a white point if it's a 
1, oradarkpoint if it'saO. Each of the 
six points controls a particular pixel, 
hence the term "bit-mapping." 

The Mikee Graphics system detects 
all bytes that are graphics characters 
and (ignoring the normal six graphics 
bits) uses its own method of bit- 
mapping the pixels. So if the normal 
TRS-80 video RAM is filled with 
graphics characters (they would nor- 
mally be dummy graphics blanks), the 
whole of the screen will be given over to 
the Mikee bit-mapped graphics. 
However, if you throw a letter A into 
normal video RAM, it will switch out 
Mikee at that character position and 
display the correct character generator 
shape. This neat touch does away with 
the need to generate ordinary text from 
the bit-mapped pixel graphics— exactly 
what you have to do on the Color Com- 
puter if you want text in high-resolution 
display mode. 

Apart from text generation, the 
graphics are pretty logical. Any bit set 
anywhere in the 12K of Mikee Graph- 
ics RAM lights any one of the 73,728 
or 98,304 points on the screen (ac- 
cording to Model I or III use). It's as 
simple as that. 

So much for the theory. What about 
the practical aspects of receiving and in- 
stalling the package? Well, the system 
comprises a small printed-circuit board 
that fits inside the keyboard unit and at- 



taches via a multi-way connector to the 
main graphics unit (a small gray box). 

You're also supplied with an installa- 
tion and instruction manual . . . and a 
magnifying glass! No, it's not for small 
print — the manual is exceptionally clear 
and contains numerous photographs il- 
lustrating step-by-step installation in- 
structions. Separate sections cover 
Model I and Model III installations, 
and some software examples help you 
get the thing into action. 

The magnifying glass is to help you 
check your soldering for any bridges or 
solder balls. As you have to make 15 
soldered connections, a thorough 
checkout with the glass makes rather 
good sense. Not only that, but when 
you've finished the subsequent comput- 
ing session, you can start collecting 
butterflies. 

A tool kit is available from Mikee 
Electronics for those people who've 
never dabbled with a soldering iron, but 
if you have no previous soldering expe- 
rience, get somebody else to install it- 
soldering to integrated circuit pins can 
become a tragic mess to a beginner. The 
unit is easy to install, though, and 
worked the first time on my Model III. 

Criticisms 

I have a couple of small gripes, but 
they're far outweighed by the excellent 
performance of the system. I've already 
crabbed about the use of port 254 as the 
control port. This could be a minor nui- 
sance if you have a high-speed clock. 

When you turn the system on, it 
doesn't default to normal TRS-80 
graphics. It's necessary to output to 
port 254 to set the computer to its stan- 
dard display mode. I think this is a 
disadvantage. 

I can thoroughly recommend Mikee 
Graphics to any Model I or III owner 
with a need for high-resolution 
graphics. ■ 



■¥-■¥■■¥■ 

Microbuffer 

Practical Peripherals, Inc. 

31245 La Baya Drive 

Westlake Village, CA 91362 

Epson MX-80 and 100 

$159 

-¥■-¥■-¥■ 

MXPLUS 

Dresselhaus Computer Products 

Box 929 

Azusa, CA 91702 

^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



Epson MX-80 and 100 

$49.95 

by L. W. C. Dye 

When the Epson MX-80 arrived 
about two years ago, it rapidly 
pushed established printers aside and 
captured about 40 percent of the small- 
printer market. However, with the 
rapid advances in technology, it seems 
that whatever we buy today is obso- 
lete tomorrow. The Microbuffer and 
MXPLUS are two products that will 
make your Epson perform as it never 



(I^WiiilfIiik(SfeYc(iV 



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at Check-out 



NEW SYSTEM MAKES 
TRS-80 m A TOTAL 
CASH REGISTER & 
POINT-OF-SALE 
COMPUTER 

Which performs all the normal 
functions of a computer and is 
specially programmed to.. . 



■ COMPUTE Sales Taxes, Discounts, 
Special Sales and Promotions 

■ TRACKS Sales by Type, such as Visa, 
Mastercard, ChecK, Charge, etc. and by 
Employee /Operator for up to 30 people 

■ SELF-PROMPTING to Cashiers 

■ Produces Audit Trails and ACCOUNTING 
DATA tor entire operation 

■ CONTROLS up to 20,000 INVENTORY 

LINE ITEMS on our Hard Disk Drive 

■ CONTROLSup to 1,500 INVENTORY 
LINE ITEMS on your Floppy Drive 

■ Complete, Ready-to-Bun SOFTWARE 
comes with Cash Control Drawer Unit 

■ AUDIBLE SIGNAL produced when any 
key is depressed by any operator 

■ DRAWER operates automatically or by 
manual override anytime 

■ Generates RECEIPTS on Printer 

■ Available to display in English, French, 
Spanish, or German Languages 

■ Operates on 110AC or 220AC...just plug 
it in 

■ NO INTERFERENCE with or modification 
of regular TRS-80 Mod III. ..plugs right 
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FREE Specifications and Data Package or 
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80 Micro, February 1983 • 69 



REVIEWS 



did before and make a new printer seem 
less attractive. 

The Microbuffer 

The Microbuffer comes in two ver- 
sions — the serial MBS-8K and the par- 
allel MBP-16K. The parallel version is 
Centronics compatible, buffers 16,000 

characters, and replaces the standard 
Centronics interface on the Epson. The 
serial version buffers 8,000 characters 
and supports both hardware and soft- 
ware handshaking at speeds from 
300-19,200 baud. The 8K buffer on the 
serial version was probably a space limi- 
tation because the RS-232C compo- 
nents fill the majority of the board. 

Both versions are built on high-qual- 
ity PC boards. There is one socketed 
ROM on the board and all other com- 
ponents are soldered. The installation 
instructions are thorough and clear. Al- 
though my board slipped right in, the 
instructions point out some possible 
tight spots due to minor variations in 
the Epsons and how to handle them. 

My printer and my computer were 
flying now and running faster at 
4,800-baud serial than they had been 
running parallel. The buffer was soak- 
ing up the lines and freeing the comput- 
er as fast as it could transmit. Unless I 
was sending a lot of graphics over the 
cable, the computer could get ahead of 
the printer and the buffer would slowly 
fill. When it does get full, the computer 
must again wait for the buffer to empty 
enough to get another line in but the 
computer will always stay 8K to 16K 
ahead of the printer. 

To illustrate the speed difference, I 
ran four tests with both the Microbuffer 
and an unbuffered Epson serial inter- 
face board. The first test was printing a 
6,380-character text file with my word 
processor with right-justification and 
emphasized print turned on. The sec- 
ond test was the same text file but with 
right-justification and emphasized print 



turned off. The third test was an LLIST 
of the 13K word processor itself. The 
last test was an LLIST of a small 2.5K 
program that could not fill the buffer. 

The Epson normally prints at about 
80 cps, but slows down to about half 
that when printing emphasized or dou- 
ble strike. The word processor goes 
through additional work for the right- 
jusfification and needs more time to get 
a line ready. 

Table 1 shows the results of these 
tests. In every test with the Microbuffer, 
the computer was done before the print- 
er and was available for more work. Us- 
ing the unbuffered serial board, the 
computer and printer always finished 
together so only one time is shown. The 
print time improvement is dramatic for 
the Basic word processor, but minimal 
for the LLIST's. However, the comput- 
er is freed up earlier in all cases. Note 
that the buffer filled about 45 seconds 
into the 13K LLIST but the computer 
was still freed up three minutes earlier 
than it would have been. 

The MXPLUS is another PC board 
add-on for the Epson. To install it, you 
remove the IB ROM and plug it into the 
MXPLUS board. The board is then 
plugged into the IB socket and one con- 
nection is made to the 3C chip with a 
test cHp. The instructions are clear but 
the installation is very tight and the 
board could be made a little smaller. It 
takes a little juggling with the test clip 
on 3C to get a good connection and en- 
sure that it is not shorting out another 
pin. The MXPLUS board ends up un- 
der the Microbuffer, but there is ade- 
quate clearance. 

The MXPLUS contains firmware 
programming to give you hardware 
control of many of the Epson, Graf- 
trax, and Graftrax + functions. The on- 
hne, form-feed, and line-feed buttons 
are your controls and a small sticker is 
supplied as a reminder of the nine func- 
tions provided. They are; 



Tests at 4800 baud 



6K Text — Justified and Emphasized 
6K Text — Regular unjustified 
13K IXIST 
2.5K LLIST 



Buffered T 


me 


Unbuffered Time 


Computer 


Printer 


Both Done 


2:35 


4:06 


6:05 


2:05 


2:38 


4:05 


1:44 


4:59 


5:01 


0:09 


1:17 


1:18 



Table 1 



• Reset All Functions 

• Condensed Print 

• Double Wide Print 

• Emphasized Print 

• Double Strike 

• Perforation Skipover 

• Italics (with Graftrax) 

• Indentation 

• Eight lines per inch 

MXPLUS is activated by pressing and 
holding the on-line button until the Ep- 
son beeps. The on-line light will blink in 
a short on, long off pattern if none of the 
functions are turned on. This is also the 
reset function, and a press of the form- 
feed button will turn all functions off. 

Each additional press of the on-line 
button will lake you to the next func- 
tion. If the on-line light is in the short 
on, long off pattern, the function is off. 
If the pattern is long on, short off, the 
funcfion is on. The functions are tog- 
gled on and off with the form-feed but- 
ton. You can quit at any time by press- 
ing the line-feed button to escape and 
then the on-line button to ready the 
printer. 

Emphasized print will still override 
condensed print just as on a normal Ep- 
son, but in general, you can mix soft- 
ware and hardware control. Hardware- 
selected wide print will not turn off at 
the end of each line, however. Perfora- 
tion skip prints 58 hues then skips eight 
for LLISTs and such. It should be 
turned off if pagination is under pro- 
gram control. Indentation moves the 
left margin in six spaces to allow three- 
hole punching or binding, but if a line 
wraps, the continuation is not indented. 
The eight-lines-per-inch function also 
resets top-of-form except with Graf- 
trax + . 

With MXPLUS, I can now print doc- 
uments in double width, condensed 
print for that bold look. Since you can 
stop the printer and switch modes at any 
time, changing type styles in the middle 
of a document without inserting control 
codes is possible. 

The only problems I found were the 
lack of indentation on wrap-around 
lines and that the first character on a 
double-width wrap around will be single 
width— minor problems indeed com- 
pared to the features added. 

Both the Microbuffer and the MX- 
PLUS are good "value added" modifi- 
cations to the Epson that add features 
to an already excellent product and save 
you some time, too.H 



70 • 80 Micro, February 1983 





REVIEW DIGEST 



Computers for Everyone, Jerry Willis and Merl Miller, 
Dilithium Press, Beaverton, OR, $6.95, soft cover, pp. 262. 

"Despite its annoying tone, I would recommend this for 
people who know little or nothing about computers and don't 
mind sifting through the verbosity and corny jokes. It can be a 
relatively painless way to learn the basics. It is loaded with use- 
ful information and has illustrations that are both amusing 
and informative." Classroom Computer News, October, p. 64. 



PDS (Partitioned Data Sets), Misosys, 5904 Edgehill Rd., 
Alexandria, VA 22303, Model I or III, LDOS, $40. 

"Basically PDS is a file on a disk that itself contains 
subfiles. . . .It is a sophisticated utility for a sophisticated 
audience. It is an excellent complement to the file-handling 
procedures already found in LDOS, and will find particular 
application by users who have large disk-storage problems." 
InfoWor/d, November 29, p. 100. 



Beta-80, MECA, 56677 Sunset Ave., Yucca Valley, CA 
92284, Model I, $699 single density, $849 double density. 

"I was bound and determined to find effective mass storage 
at low cost. I pored over computer journals for months before 
I learned about a small company in California called MECA. 
They had just started production of a digital-cassette storage 
device called the Beta-80, which was designed to interface 
directly with the TRS-80 Level II. I have owned my Beta-80 
for well over a year now, with no more than a handful of lost 
bytes." 80 U.S. Journal, December, p. 100. 



El Diablero — An Adventure Game, Computerware, Dept. C. , 
Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, Color Computer, $19.95 
cassette, $24.95 disk. 

"Your 'situation' in El Diablero is that you awake, dazed 
and confused, in the middle of the desert . . . knowing that you 
have been learning the techniques of sorcery from an old man 
in these parts. The problem is that you can't remember 
anything you have learned, and you can't find the old man. 
You must learn to use this 'magical' power. . .another excel- 
lent game from Computerware." '68' Micro Journal, 
November, p. 14. 



DiscatER, softERware, 16007 Miami Way, Palisades, CA 
90272, LDOS, Model I and III, $39.95. 

"Although DiscatER is a floppy-disk -cataloging program, 
it actually keeps track of each file on the disk. . . . This is an ex- 
tremely functional product at an excellent price. DiscatER is 
simple enough to be used by people with minimal computer 
proficiency. . ." InfoWorld, November 15, p. 49. 



Madam Rosa's Massage Parlor, The Softcore Software Co., 9 
Southmoor Circle, Kettering, OH 45429, Color Computer, $15. 

"Madam Rosa's Massage Parlor falls far short of all 
expectations (whatever yours may be) and it's not even a very 
good adventure. It was written on the level of a slightly 
voyeuristic 15-year-old recluse without the deviousness one 
would expect for $15." Rainbow, November, p. 66. 



Outhouse, Soft Sector Marketing, 6250 Middlebelt, Garden 
City, MI 48135, Model I or III, $15.95 cassette, $19.95 disk. 

". . .what we have here is a game that is fast and funny. 
But is it a good game? I have played a few fast action games 
that just did not appeal to me. Fortunately, Outhouse is not 
one of these. There are enough different types of aliens to 
give the game variety and hold your interest. There is enough 
variance in speed to give a seemingly endless challenge." 80 
U.S., December, p. 101. 



Color Fan, Atomic City Electronics (Atomtronics), 3195 Ari- 
zona Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544, Color Computer, $34.95. 

"Most readers. . .are aware of the power supply and heat 
problems of the Color Computer, and have seen several of the 
published 'fixes'. Atomtronics has now come up with a 3" 
cooling fan for the Color Computer that is easy to install and 
will help alleviate some of these problems. . . . This is a prod- 
uct that we have needed for the Color Computer for a long 
time, and will greatly extend the life of parts and pieces in the 
computer." '68' Micro Journal, November, p. 15. 



Roman Checkers, Tandy/Radio Shack, Radio Shack Stores, 
Color Computer, $29.95. 

"Don't let the name fool you. Roman Checkers is Radio 
Shack's version of the popular board game, Othello. This RS 
product is a surprisingly clever rendition of the board game 
that uses 'reversible discs'." The Rainbow, November, p. 55. 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 71 



CALENDAR 



February 

5 Computer Swap America Santa 

Clara County Fairgrounds, San 
Jose, CA. 



7-9 Technical Education Research 
Centers, Cambridge, MA. Mi- 
crocomputers in Education 
Washington, DC. 



14-17 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. Computer Science 
Conference Orlando, FL. 



16-18 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. International Solid 
State Circuits Conference New 

York, NY. 



16-18 TALMIS, Oak Park, IL. 3rd 
Annual Software Publishers and 
Computer-Based Training Con- 
ference Ambassador West, Chi- 
cago, IL. 



17-19 Technical Education Research 
Centers, Cambridge, MA. Mi- 
crocomputers in Education New 
York, NY. 



18-21 2nd Annual Pacific Computer 
Expo Convention and Perform- 
ing Arts Center, San Diego, CA. 



21-23 American Federation of Infor- 
mation Processing Societies 
Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Office 
Automation Conference Phila- 
delphia Civic Center. 



23-25 Future Computing Inc., Rich- 
ardson, TX. Personal Computer 
Retail Forum Loews Anatole, 
Dallas, TX. 

72 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



March 

1-3 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. COMPCON 
Spring '83 San Francisco, CA. 

8 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 

Spring, MD. MICRODELCON 

Newark, DE. 

10-12 The Council for Exceptional 
Children, Reston, VA. Use of 
Microcomputers in Special Edu- 
cation Hartford, CT. 

14-15 Michigan Association for Com- 
puter Users in Learning, Wayne, 
MI. MACUL '83 Dearborn, MI. 

16-18 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. 16tli Annual Simu- 
lation Symposium Tampa, FL. 

17-19 Arizona State University, 
Tempe, AZ. Microcomputers in 
Education ASU campus. 

18-20 West Coast Computer Faire 

Brooks Hall, San Francisco, CA 
Civic Auditorium. 

25-26 1983 Small College Computing 
Symposium St. Olaf College, 

Northfield, MN. 



29-31 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. Workshop on 
Computer System Organization 

New Orleans, LA. 



April 

4-8 



IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. Tutorial Week 
East '83 Orlando, FL. 



6-8 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. 1983 Internationa) 
Optical Computing Conference 

Cambridge, MA. 

10-13 Association for Computing Ma- 
chinery (ACM)/SIGAPL, Wash- 
ington, DC. APL83 Sheraton 
Washington Hotel. 



17-22 Infocom '83 Town & Country, 
San Diego, CA. 



25-27 IEEE Computer Society, Silver 
Spring, MD. 1983 Symposium 
on Security and Privacy Clare- 
mont Hotel, Oakland/Berkeley, 
CA. 



Coming Next Month 



The March issue of 80 Micro will 
feature several you-can-build-it hard- 
ware projects. Topics include a $5 
CP/M modification for the Model I, an 
audio amplifier, a guide to constructing 
an EPROM programmer, and com- 
puter security with a credit card. We'll 
also have a cassette operating system 
and the first installment of a Lisp inter- 
preter series. 

Our new Color Computer column 



will make its debut. Called The Color 
Key, it's authored by Scott Norman. 

Model II owners will find a special 
surprise beginning in March. Each 
month, we'll print conversion tables for 
a few Model I/III programs to make 
them usable on the Model II. 

In Fun House, Richard Ramella in- 
troduces an adventure game that play- 
ers can customize with names they 
choose for characters and locations. ■ 



The Original Magazine for Owners of the TRS-80'^' Microcomputer 



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System Diagnostic 



For Cassette or Disk 



IS YOUR COMPUTER WORKING CORRECTLY? ARE YOU SURE? 

Tests every component oE your TRS-80 £or proper operation. 



DISK 



CASSETTE 



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RAM: Four separate tests including every address and data value 
^^ ^^^ ^^^ *^^« Video Display: Character generator, video RAM, and video signal tests 

^fc»J^^^ ^V^^ Keyboard: Every key contact tested 

^^»^^»# Line Printer: Character test 

Cassette Recorder: Read/write/verify data 

RS-232-C Interface: Read sense switches (Model I), connector fault, data transmission, framing, data loop, baud rate 
generator 
Disk Drives: Disk controller, drive select and restore, track seek and verify read, read/write/verify all tracks and 
^S^^ ^ tf%^? ^^B^^ sectors, formatting, disk drive timer, disk head cleaner 

^F^^^^^^^^P "^^ ^im^ Model I: single or double density, 35, 40 or 80 track drives 
^ ^^m ^WtK^^°*^^^ ^' ^''^S'c or double density, 35, 40 or 80 track drives 

" '^ " single or double sided drives 

- One program adapts to any system configuration and hardware. 

- Individual tests of each device with operator monitoring and intervention. 

- Continuous system tests run continually for hours, with diagnostic reports optionally written on line printer. 

- Complete instructions and documentation. 

SPECIFY TRS-SO" MODEL I OR MODEL lU 



SMART TERMINAL 

Enables your TRS-80 to be used as a data communications terminal 
to a time-sharing system, computer bulletin board, or another computer, 
via the RS-232-C interface. 

• MEMORY BUFFER holds data for transmission or data received from 
other computer. 

• CASSETTE or DISK may be used to load or save data from memory. 

• AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION of data from memory. 

• AUTOMATIC STORAGE of incoming data at user's option. 

• TRANSMIT or RECEIVE WITH VERIFICATION options included for 
communication between two TRS-80s using Smart Terminal. 

• Full CONTROL KEYS, including control key mapping into any ASCII 
character. True BREAK key. Lower case supported on Model i. 

• Buffered LINE PRINTER ECHO for incoming data. 

• Disk and cassette files fully compatible with ELECTRIC PENCIL" and 
SCRIPSIT" programs. 

• BAUD RATE and RS-232-C CHARACTERISTICS can be reset from 
within the program. 

• SAVE PROGRAM option creates "personalized" back-up copy of 
program with all options set as specified bv user. 

• ONE PROGRAM supports both cassette and disk systems. Program is 
compatible with PMC-80 and other TRS-80 "work alike" computers. 
Model I or III Version supplied on cassette $69-75 

supplied on diskette $74-9S 
Model II CCP/M3 Version $79.95 



MON-3 and MON-4 

The TRS-80 Monitor Programs #3 and #4 are powerful utility programs 
enabling you to interact directly with the TRS-80 in Machine Language. 
They are as useful for beginners as for advanced programmers. 

• BEGINNERS can learn to interact directly with the computer in 
Machine Language. 

• 40-PAGE MANUAL provided with each program. 

• SIMPLE commands, easy to use. 

The Features Of The Monitor Pro g rams Enable You To The Followin g 

• DISPLAY memory in different ways, 

• DISASSEMBLE memory to see Machine Language commands. 

• MOVE and COMPARE memory areas. 

• SEARCH through memory to find specific values. 

• MODIFY memory in various ways. 

• RELOCATE object programs. 

• PRINT output on video display or line printer. 

• READ and WRITE object tapes in SYSTEM Formal. 

• UNLOAD programs using low RAM on disk. 

• SAVE and READ disk files (MON-4 Only). 

• INPUT and OUTPUT of disk sectors {MON-4 Only). 

• SEND and RECEIVE data over RS-232-C Interface (MON-4 Only). 

• Create SYMBOLIC Tapes (MON-3) or Files (MON-4) of Disassem- 
bled output for Editor/Assembler program. 

MON-3 CEor Cassette Systems) $39.95 
MON-4 {for Disk Systems) $49.95 



MAIUNG LIST 

Maintains mailing lists of up to 1326 names (48K version). Add, change, 
delete, or find names. Machine language sort according to information in 
ANY field (first or last name, address, city, state, zip code). Three or four 
line labels printed in 1, 2, 3, or 4 columns, in masterlist, or on video display. 
TRS-80 Model X/3 Disk Version $69-95 
IBM PC Disk Version $79-95 



HOME BUDGET 

Keeps track of your monthly and year-to-date income and expenses. 
Income and expenses classified by code numbers for identification of 
categories. Data includesdate, code number, amounts and check number 
(optional). Computes monthly and year-to-date summaries showing 
income lax deductions. All output printed on video display or line printer 
at user's option. Complete instructions for customizing to suit your own 
budget. 

TRS-SO Model 1/3 Cassette Version $Z9.95 

TRS-SO Model X/3 Disk Version $49.95 

1MB PC Disk Version $59-95 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

Based on Dome Bookkeeping Record «612, this program keeps track of 
income, expenditures, and payroll for a small business. Receipts and 
expenditures can be entered on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. Program 
computes monthly, through last month, and year to date summaries. 
Payroll section (included in disk version only) keeps record of employees 
and paychecks with up to stx categories of oayroll deductions. Computes 
employee payroll records and year-to-aate payroll totals. Complete 
instructions for customizing to suit your own business. 

TRS-SO Model 1/3 Cassette Version $Z9-95 

TRS-80 Model 1/3 Disk Version $49.95 

IBM PC Disk Version $59.95 



■CQIVIPLJTHQMICSi 



*^9 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



NEW TOLL-FREE 
ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914)425-1535 



• All orders processed within 24 Hours 
■ 30-Day money back guarantee 
• Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4.00 for CO. D. or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5 00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 



74 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80™ (Model 1, 11, III, or 16) • APPLE™ • IBM" • OSBORNF" • CP/M^" • XEROX^- 







The VersaBusiness" Series 

Each VersaBusiness module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VersaReceivables' 



$99.95 



Versa teCFJVflBLES" is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly si ale ment -generating system. It keeps track of all information related to who 
ov^s you or your company money, and can provide aulomatic billing (or pasi due ac' 
counts. Versa tec EI V/iBLES~ prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
teporis and can be linked with VersaLedger li" and Versa Inventory". 

VeRSAPaYABLES" $99.95 

Versa Payables" is designed to keep track of cunenl and aged payables, keeping you 
in louch iwilh all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. WRSa Payables- mainlains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, Iransaclbn reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSA PAYABLES", you can even !cl your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VeRSAPAYROLL™ $99.95 

VersaPayroll- is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track ol all govern men treqiii red payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll con be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the VersaLedger IP" system. 

VERSAInVENTORY" $99,95 

VERSAhvEhJTORY^ is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item, VERSA INVENTORY" keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder. etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VERSA ReCEIV ABIES" system. VERSA1nv;entory~ prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and yeartodate sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 

iCDIYIPUTHQI^ilCS 



C s^g 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, N.Y. 10977 

• TRS-80 is irddemark o! ihc Radio Shack Drvision of Tandir Corp, ■ 'APPLE b a (rademark of 

■CP/M is a iradftnark of Di^lal Research 



VersaLedger xv $149.95 

VersaLedger 11'" is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VersaLedger IP" can be used asa simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system oi; developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system lAithout any additional software. 

• VersaLedger ir" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, incotne statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger ir" comes with a professionally- writ ten 160 page manual de- 
signed lor first-time users. The VersaLedger ir" manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VerSaLH)GER IP", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



Every VERSABtJS!NF.5S"nKKliilc' is giuianlpttlloouipeifoim all oihprtompfiilii.cjyiU' 
iv.dai a fraction of ihpir cost. Kyouaipnol so'isfcii "Jilli'in^' VERSA EMJSINFSS'" modulo, 
iiwy ri'iurn il ivilliiii 30 d.iyslor .1 r«liiiifi. Manuals fotany VERSABUSINESS'" iiiiKiiil,' ni,.i 
pvirctwscd (or S25 each. crodiii-H lowaid ,1 i.itcr jnirdiasc of thai module 



To Order: ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Toll-free (800) 43 1-28 18 

(.N.Y.S. residents ri.ll V I U12.1- l.>35) 

■ add S3 tor shippina m UPS areas * add SS !o CANADA or MEXICO 

• add iA lor C.O.D. or non UPS areas ^^^ " .idd jiroper posi.lgi' eiscwheic 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

All prides and siwrificarioiis siibjuil li) change ' Delivery subjecl to availabilriy 



Apple Corp. - *IBM is a iradcmaik ol IBM Corp. - 'OSBORNE is a iradomarh o! Osbomc Corp. 
- 'XEROX is a irndemark ol Xerox Corp, 



CQIVIPIJTHQMICS 



N 
C. 



• • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80'" • ATARI™ • APPLE" • PET' • CP/M™ • XEROX"" • IBM" • OSBORNE" • • 

■ TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp, - ' ATARI is a trademark of Atari inc. - "APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. ■ ' PET is a trademark of Commodore 
■ CP/M is a trademark of Digital Resean;h - "XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. ■• IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. ■ " OSBORME is a tradema* of Osbome Corp. 



BUSINESS PAC 100 




X \ * ^" ^^'''moni back guarantee 
/A -k 30-Day money 



100 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 128 Page Users Manual 

Inventory Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance.... Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM UST 



NAME DESCRIPTION 

1 RULE78 Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78's 

2 AMMCJl Annuity computaton program 

3 DATE Time between dates 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a particular date falls on 

5 LEASHMT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKEVM Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL Straightline depreciation 

8 DEPRSY Sum of the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB EkJuble declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

12 CHECK2 Prints MEBS checks along with daily register 

13 CHECKBKl Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTGAGE/A Mortgage amortization table 

15 MOLTMOM Computes time needed for money to double, triple. 

16 SALVAGE [determines salvage value of an investment 

17 RRVARIM Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

18 RRCONST Rate of return on irivestment with constant inflows 

19 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an investment [compound interest) 

21 FVAL F*resent value of a future amount 

22 LOAMPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 RECWITH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for oblig. 

26 ATHNGDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP % Markup analysis for items 

28 SIMKFUMD Sinking fund amortization pnagram 

29 BOMDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expeaed return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a warrant 

34 BOriDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPi^ Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPEI Portfolio selection model-i.e, what stocks to hold 

38 OPTWRITE Option writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXFVAL Expected value analysis 

41 BAYES Bayeslan decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADIMF Value of additional information 

44 UTILFTY Derives utility function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear programmirig solution by simplex method 
4b TRAILS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 QUEUEl Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

49 CVP Co St ■volume-profit analysis 

50 COHDPROF Conditional profit tables 

51 OI^LOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 FQCIOQ Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FQEOQPB As above but with quantity price breaks 

55 QUEaECB Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

56 MCFANAL Met cashflow analysis for simple investment 

57 PRORND Profitability index of a project 

58 CAPI Cap. Asset Pr. Model analysis of projea 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal, required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERQANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FINRAT Financial ratos for a firm 

64 NW Met present value of project 

65 PRIMDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRirSDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASlND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TIMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FCJPRIMF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABELl Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BiiSBOD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from Omeciock info. 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 IMVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 IMVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMdSAn Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGM Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system- storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 EWELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AQTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 IMSRLE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYR0LL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale-lea seback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor's rate of return on convertable bond 
100 P0RTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage- valuation program 



D TRS-80 Cassette Version $99.95 

D TRS-80 (Mod-I or III), Pet, Apple 

or Atari Versions $99.95 

D TRS-80 Mod-ll, IBM, Osborne 

and CP/M Versions $149.95 

ADO S3. 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AHEAS 

ADD $4.00 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S., CANADA AND MEXICO 

iCQIYIPLJTHQMlCS 




'^^^ TOLL Poi. 




rsrtAT>^f.rtATc:AL apc^jC^tctjs SEc^yi:::^" 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



ASK FOR OUR 64-PAGE CATALOG 



DEALER [NQUIRIES INVITED 



HOUR fci^ 
OA ORDER 

ALL PRICES a SPECiFICATIGNS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
DELIVERY SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY 



76 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



1040A 



Department of the Ireasufy — Inlernil Revenus SeivicE 

U.S. Individual Income Tax Return 



T-; 0MB No, 1545-0085 



Use 
IRS 
label. 
Other- 
wise, 
please 
print 
or type. 



Your first name and iniiiil (if joint return, also give spouse's name and initial. 



Present home address (Number and street, including apartment number, or rural roijtej 



Your social security number 



Spouse's social security no. 



City, town or post office, Stite and ZIP coda 



Presidential 

Election Campaign W if joint return, does your spouse want$l to go to this fund? 



^ Do you want $1 to go to this fund? 



Your occupation 



Spouse's occupation ► 



Yes 
Yes 



Note: Checdmg "Tes" will 
not increase your lax or re 
duce your refund. 



Ifl 



MICROM.TIC TC$-8€* €wner§ do rcur own 

PROGRAMMING 
COMPANY 



Taxes Like An Expert with TAX/SAVCC II™ 

- TKS-ItU 14 a trademark of the Radio Shark Division of Tjndy Corp. 



4W^ ^'itA S^tt^doid^' 




rCC MCDEL I, II** cr MCDEL III 

TAX/SAVER IF" — The tax help program for the layman, the professional accountant or tax preparer. 

New and expanded, TAX/SAVER il"" offers a different approach to preparing a tax return. Like the original, the new version has 
(he tan regulations programmed in so il is more than just a calculator. Designed for non-accountants, TAX/SAVER 11"" asks you 
Questions, ju5t as an accountant does. Based on your answers, it leads you through the tax maze to your lowest legal tax Then it 
tells you how to fill in your return, line by line, or it will output to a printer. 

TAX.''SAVER If" also has speed features for those doing more than one return. Optional program instruction and lax text mjke 
TAX/SAVER 11™ the practical system for professional preparers as well. TAX/SAVER 11'" has lull disk storage of data files (with 
optional password protection). 

The manual includes information on special tax areas, lists of possible deductions and a tax glossary. 

TAX/SAVER [I'" compares itemized deductions to national averages; automatically computes certain limitations - for example, on 
medical deductions and contributions; checks for excess FiCA; helps determine dependents. Yet, TAX/SAVER II'" offers the 
privacy and convenience of home use. 

The user- oriented design with special screen formatting makes data entry, verification and correct ion easy. Vet you are always in 
control. You can skip any help (eatures or parts of the program that you don't need. 
TAX/SAVER II'" 

• Completes long and short forms (1040 & lOaOA) 

• Itemized Deductions . Schedule A 

• Interest & Dividends ■ Schedule B 

• Tax Calculation - Tables, Rates 

• Tax Savings Methods ■ income Averaging, Maximum Tax. Alternative Tax 

• Business Income Schedules C & SE 

• Capital Gains - Schedule D 

• Allows you the privacy of your own home 

• Lets you help friends and relatives with their taxes 

• Has built-in aids. Answers specific questions like "Is my lather my dcpcnd(;nt?'' and "Arc my deductions reasonable?" 

• Manual includes 1982 tax forms, information on special lax areas, lists of possible deductions, and glossary of lax terms 

• Completes long and short forms including itemized deductions, excess FICA, earned income credit, community properly, 
tax calculation (comparing all possible filing statuses in one run) 

• Tax regulations are programmed in by our team ol accountants. Just type in your figuiesSiyou'up done your ownlax return 

• Helps you find fhe lowest tax 

• Discounts on yearly updates 

• Prints out on standard IRS forms overlays or plain tractor fes^d paper 

• Accepts totals from all other tax forms not listed here 

PROFESSIONAL TAX/FORECASTERS" 

TAX/FORECASTER", the quick lax estimator (with printout) for both 1982 and 19831etsyoureviseitsestimateby merely changing one or more lines. Use it as a tax planner eilher 
together with TAX/SAVER If" or by itself. TAX,''FORECASTER'* lets you quickly ask all of your WHAT IF? Queslions and instantly recalculates your taxes Agreat lax preparation 
aid for both the layman and professional. Includes Income Aweraging and disk storage of Client files, 

• Ek>th TAX/SAVER 11'" and TAX/FORECASTER'" are tax-deductible • Discounls are given on yearly updates • Free lax newsletter is issued annually 
With the combined packaqe TAX'SAVER 11" and TAX. FORECASTER'". i,-oy ran now h,ive, al an affordable price, the power to predict, control and reduce your tax liability 




REVIEWS: 

■ well designed and easy to use" D. Lubar, Crealii^e Compuling 1 81 

■ TAX SAVER" may veriJ well live up to its name" 
M. Tannenbaurr, CPA, 80 Microcompuling 2 81 

CUSTOMERS: 

"For Ihe price il ciin'l be beiil [ am looking forward lo \m''<\. year. With ibis 
program i finish my liling in 2 hours. Thank you " 

"Excelleni presentahon. Tulorial style is one of us masl anracn'-e al(n 
butts. Findly, a program \ can really iis^!" 

PROFESSIONALS: 

"This IS the perfect prtigram for ifiose doing lax^s tor others tor reasonable 

lees. Il uias obviously written by folks that know both proqramrE^in^ and la:^ 
]jn' " TAX SAVFR" li superior " 



D TAX/SAVER 11'" (MOD I & III) $139.95 ■ Manual Included 

n PROFESSIONAL TAX/ FOR EC ASTER'" (MOD 1 & 111) $99.95 (J79.9S ii purchased with TAX/SAVER II'") 

D UPDATE lor Registered TAX/SAVER IF" Owners $83,95 

D TAX FORM OVERLAYS $19.95 

D TAX/SAVER IF" - Model IP* Version $199.95 

D PROFESSIONAL TAX 'FORECASTER'" . Modpl II" Version $129 95 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

D TRS-8Q Model I with 32K and 2 disk drives 
D TKS.80 Model III with 32K and 2 disk drives 
a TRS-80 Model 11" with 64K and 1 disk drive 
'* Availability of Model II programs uncertain at press lime. 



iCQIYIPJTHQMICS 



50 N PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



— ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
- DELIVERY SUEJJECT TO AVAll ABILITY - 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR ^^ 
\ 24 ORDER l^ 
LINE 

^^^ (914) 425-1535 



-k 30-Dax; money back guarantee 

* ADD S3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

* ADD S4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

* ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

* ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE U.S., CANADA & MEXICO 



^See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 77 



CQIYIPUTHQI^ICS 



N 
C. 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80** • • 
MODEL I, MODEL II & MODEL III 



' TRS-80'" is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



FROM 



|- RACET 



COMPUTES l1 



' All orders processed wilhm 24 Hours 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 
• Add $3.00 tor shipping in UPS Areas 
•Add $4,00 forC O.D or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5.00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all ol tier countries 



'** ESSENTIAL UTILITY PROGRAMS FOR EVERY TRS-80 OWNER *** 



Tach Mmi Rocel Cmu|)uted lUiiitq Ptogtontd 

'"* ALL PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN IN MACHINE LANGUAGE 

"• ABSOLUTELY NO KNOWLEDGE OF MACHINE LANGUAGE IS NECESSARY TO USE ANY OF THE UTILITY PROGRAMS 

"* EACH UTILITY PROGRAM IS CALLED UP FROM BASIC USING THE SIMPLE BASIC COMMANDS PROVIDED 

"* EACH UTILITY PROGRAM COMES WITH A RACET COMPUTES INSTRUCTION MANUAL 

*** EACH fNSTRUCTION MANUAL INCLUDES SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF UTILITY USAGE 

•"EACH UTILITY ALLOWS THE USER TO PERFORM CERTAIN BASIC OPERATIONS TEN, TWENTY OR MORE TIMES FASTER THAN THE 

EQUIVALENT BASIC ROUTINE (FOR EXAMPLE, GSF CAN SORT AN ARRAY OF 1000 RANDOM NAMES INTO ALPHABETICAL ORDER IN 

UNDER9SEC0NDSI!) 



GSF (GENERALIZEDSUBROUTINE FACILITY) 

■ SORTS 1000-ELEMENT ARRAYS IN 9 SECONDS 

• SORTS UP TO 1 5 ARRAVS SIMULTANEOUSLY (MIXED STRING. FLOATING POINT AND 
INTEGER) 

• SORTS SINGLE OR MULTIPLE SUBSTRINGS AS ASCENDING OR DESCENDING SORT 
KEYS 

• READ AND WRITEARRAYSTOCASSETTE 

• COMPRESS AND UNCOMPRESS DATA IN MEMORY 

■ MOVE ARRAYS IN MEMORY 

• DUPLICATE MEMORY 

• FAST HORIZONTALAND VERTICAL LINES 

• SCREENCONTROLSFORSCROLLINGTHESCREEN UP, DOWN. LEFT, RIGHT AND FOR 
GENERATING INVERSE GRAPHIC DISPLAYS 

• ADDS PEEKS AND POKES (MOD-II VERSION ONLY) 



MODEL-I VERSION i25 00 

MODEL-II VERSION $50.00 

MODEL-NI VERSION S30 00 



KFS-80 (KEYED FILE SYSTEM) 



• CREATE ISAM FILES (INDEX SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD) 

• ALLOWS INSTANT ACCESS TO ANY RECORD ON YOUR DISKETTE 

• INSTANTLY RETRIEVE RECORDS FROM MAILING LISTS. WVENTORY, ACCOUNTS 
RECEIVABLE OR VIRTUALLY ANY APPLICATION WHERE RAPID ACCESS IS RE- 
QUIRED TO NAMED RECORDS 

• PROVIDES THE BASIC PROGRAMMER THE ABILITY TO RAPIDLY INSERT OR ACCESS 
KEYED RECORDS IN ONE OR MORE DATA FILES 

• RECORDS ARE MAINTAINED IN SORTED ORDER BY A SPECIFIED KEY 
■ RECORDS MAY BE INSERTED OR RETRIEVED BY SUPPLYING THE KEY 

• RECORDS MAY BE RETRIEVED SEQUENTIALLY IN SORTED ORDER 

• RAPID ACCESS TO ANY FILE REGARDLESS OF THE NUMBER OF RECORDS 

• MULTIPLE INDEX FILES CAN BE EASILY CREATED WHICH ALLOWS ACCESS OF A 
SINGLE DATABASE BY MULTIPLE KEYS (FOR EXAMPLE, BY BOTH NAME AND ZIP- 
CODE) 

MODEL-I VERSION $100 00 

MODEL-II VERSION 1175 00 

MODEL-INVERSION $10000 



DSM {DISK SORT MERGE) 

• SORT AN aSK DISKETTE IN LESS THAN THREE MINUTES! 

■ SORTS LARGE MULTIPLE DISKETTE FILES ON A MINIMUM ONE DRIVE SYSTEM 

• ALL RECORDS ARE PHYSICALLY REARRANGED-NO KEY FILES ARE REQUIRED 

• SORTS RANDOM FILES CREATED BY BASIC, INCLUDING FILES CONTAINING SUB- 
RECORDS SPANNING SECTORS 

• SORTS ON ONE OR MORE FIELDS IN ASCENDING OR DESCENDING ORDER 

• FIELDS MAY BE STIRNGS, INTEGER, BINARY INTEGER OR FLOATING POINT 

• THE SORTEDOUTPUTFILEMAYOPTIONALLY HAVE FIELDS DELETED, REARRANGED 
OR PADDED 

• SORT COMMANDS CAN BE SAVED FOR REUSE 

• SINGLE SORT MERGE. OR MIXED SORT'MERGE OPERATIONS MAY BE PERFORMED 

• SORTED OUTPUT MAY BE WRITTEN TO A NEW FILE, OR REPLACE THE ORIGINAL IN- 
PUT FILE. 



MODEL-I VERSION $75.00 

MODEL-II VERSION $150.00 

MODEL-HI VERSION $90.00 



MAILLIST (A MAILING LIST DATABASE SYSTEM) 

• IDEALLY SUITED FOR ORGANIZATION MAILING LISTS, PERSONAL ADDRESSBOOK, 
OR MAILING LISTS BASED ON DATES SUCH AS REMINDERS FOR BIRTHDATES OR 
DUES PAYABLE 

• USED ISAM {INDEX SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD} FOR RAPID ACCESS TIMES 

• YOUR MAILLIST CAN ALWAYS BE SORTED AND MAINTAINED BY UP TO FOUR INDEX 
FILES [FOR EXAMPLE, NAME. ZIPCODE. DATE AND NUMBER) 

• MAILLIST ALLOWS UP TO 30 ATTRIBUTES TO BE SPECIFIED (TO BE USED IN SEL- 
ECTION OF SPECIFIED RECORDS WHEN GENERATING REPORTS OR MAILING 
LABELS 

• MAILLISTSUPPORTSBOTH5 0R9-DIGITZIPCODES 

• PRINTING MAYBESTARTEDORENDEDATANYPOINTIN THE LIST THEUSERCAN 
SPECIFY FIELDS OR CODES TO BE PRINTED 

■ CAPACITY IS 600 NAMES FOR WODEL-I,3500NAMES FOR MODEL II, 38, OOONAMES FOR 
MODEL II WITH HARD DISK DRIVE 1200 NAMES FOR MODEL III 

MODEL-I VERSION $75.00 

MODEL-II VERSION $150.00 

MODEL-IM VERSION $75.00 



78 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



HSDS HARD DISK DRIVE SOFTWARE 

■ MAKES TRSDOS COMPATIBLE WITH MOST HARD DISK DRIVES 
• ADDS MANY EXTRA FEATURES TO TRSDOS 



COMPROC (COMMAND PROCESSOR) 



AUTO YOUR DISK TO PERFORM ANY SEQUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONS THAT YOU 
NORMALLY GIVE FROM THE KEYBOARD (FOR EXAMPLE, INSERT THE DISKETTE, 
PRESS THE RESET BUTTON, YOUR COMMAND FILE COULD AUTOMATICALLY SHOW 
YOU THE DIRECTORY, SHOW THE FREE SPACE ON THE DIKSETTE, LOAD A MA- 
CHINE LANGUAGE SUBROUTINE LOAD BASIC, LOAD AND RUN A BASIC PROGRAM, 
AND SELECT A GIVEN ITEM ON YOUR MENU ALL WITHOUT TOUCHING THE KEY- 
BOARD') 



MODEL-I VERSION 

MODEL-III VERSION 

NOT AVAILABLE FOR MODEL-II 



,520 00 
. $30 00 



DISCAT (DISKETTE CATALOG SYSTEM] 

• THIS COMPREHENSIVE DISKETTE CATALOGUING/INDEXING UTILITY ALLOWS THE 
USER TO KEEP TRACK OF THOUSANDS OF PROGRAMS IN A CATEGORIZED LI 
BRARY FILE INCLUDES PROGRAM NAMES AND EXTENSIONS, PROGRAM LENGTH, 
DISKETTE NUMBERS AND FREE SPACE ON EACH DISKETTE KEEP A COMPLETE 
CATALOG OF THE DIRECTORIES ON ALL YOUR DISKETTES IN ALPHABETICAL 
ORDER (SORTED ON EACH DISKETTE OR COMPLETE ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 
PROGRAMS ON ALL YOUR DISKETTES) 



MODEL-I VERSION . .. 

MODEL-III VERSION 

MODEL-II VERSION (SEE MODEL-II UTILITY PACKAGti 



350.00 
, S50 00 



BLINK (BASIC LINK FACILITY) 

• LINK FROM BASIC PROGRAM TO ANOTHER SAVING ALL VARIABLES 

• THE CHAINED PROGRAM MAY EITHER REPLACE THE ORIGINAL PROGRAM OR CAN 
BE MERGED BY STATEMENT NUMBER 



MODEL-I VERSION , , ,, 

MODEL-III VERSION 

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^See List of Adve'tisets on Page 387 



Micro, February 1983 • 79 



The GAMER'S CAFE 



by Rodney Gambicus 



Out of 
Vegas and 
into Asylum 



Las Vegas doesn't like the unlucky. 
Mad Max and I had been walking the 
Strip for three days, trying to set up a 
mini-Cafe with a card table, the PMC, 
and Galaxy Invasion, and getting chased 
away from all the best places. Our hotel 
biU was overdue, and the van was lost at 
the Prairie Sunset Rest Home. We were 
about to gamble our last $3.70 at the 
MGM Grand when the bouncers threw 
the 10-year -old girl out in front of us. 

' ' I was not card counting ! ' ' she 
yelled. "This is another system al- 
together! You take probability theory 
and—" 

Max and 1 didn't listen to the rest, 
partly because she started shouting dif- 
ferential equations and partly because 
we'd never seen a child with battleship- 
gray hair. It wasn't battleship gray ex- 
actly, it was — 

''Mercedes Silver," she introduced 
herself. "1 dyed it when I was into 
punk, but I outgrew that now I'm in 
college." Max was gaping, but I man- 
aged to shake hands. "Did you see 
those guys at the casino? I was just try- 
ing a blackjack analysis I worked out on 
aTRS-80attheHop— " 

At the words "TRS-80" we were all 
ears. "The Hop?" 

"Johns Hopkins Center for Mathe- 
matically and Scientifically Precocious 
Youth," Mercedes said. "I've got a 
B.S. there; I'm supposed to go back for 
a master's this semester. My dad's a 
Radio Shack dealer in Baltimore. He 
sent me to Suzuki programming school 
when I was 3." 

Max interrupted. "You say you have 
this gambling system — " 

"Sequential forecasting. Probability 
analysis. Geez, don't you guys know 
from calculus or anything?" 

"You can play cards," Max con- 
tinued. "There's this nurse at a rest 
home outside of town who won this van 
full of TRS-SOs that belongs to us, and if 
you could challenge her to a game. . . " 

80 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




We climbed over the fence at Praino 
Sunset and found the van in the staff 
parking lot. "Geez," Mercedes said 
again. "I was expecting something, you 
know, with bright colors and maybe a 
mural." 

"There's some more mail here for- 
warded from Peterborough," Max 
said. Considering where we were, the 
letter was appropriate: 

/ need help gelling past Ihe guard at 
the beginning of Asylum. Are you sup- 
posed lo trade with him? Or kill him? 
He keeps catching me and putting me in 
a strait jacket. And what do you do 
with the invisible inmate by the guard? 
What key do I need to open the doors 
where the inmates giggle or say ' 'Let me 
out and I'll kill you"? What do I need 
to get into the officers ' wing and stay 
there? And where do I gel that? 

Tom Abelson 

6537 N. Keating 

Lincolnwood, IL 60646 

This letter started our usual argu- 
ment. Max insisted we leave Tom to his 
fate — Max is an adventure Darwinist — 
and I wanted to help the readers and 
boost our image. A pay-phone call to 
William Denman, Med Systems presi- 
dent and cameo player in Asylum II, 
brought a compromise. 

Fight, trade, or whatever, said Den- 
man, you cannot get past the first 
guard; he'll always put you in the room 
with the burning straitjacket. Roll 
around if you find yourself on fire. If 
you slide a newspaper under the door 
and poke the keyhole to retrieve the 
key, you'll be able to tiptoe out and face 
a second guard; punch him and knock 
him out, and then frisk him to get 
enough keys and items to keep you go- 
ing for a long time. 

Past that, Med Systems sells hint 
sheets for $1. Remember Max's motto: 



■'Uieie cue no invisible inmates, only 
inmates' voices coming from behind 
doors." 

Speaking of Med Systems (or what- 
ever they'll call themselves; there's talk 
of a merger and a name change), Den- 
man revealed that Randall Don Mas- 
teller, author of the Warrior of Ras tril- 
ogy, has six more games due in early 
'83. A second, advanced trilogy will 
load characters from the first, which is 
recommended {"The odds are that, if 
you try any of these games as a Level I 
warrior, you will not come out alive"). 
A Wizard of Ras trilogy, while it won't 
load warrior characters, lets you do 
everything from throw stones to cast 
spells. Both feature better graphics than 
Dunzhin, Kaiv, and The Wylde; when 
you're attacked by monsters, the dis- 
play zooms in on your immediate area, 
letting you see whom you're hacking 
and who's sneaking around for a flank 
attack. 






"Mr. Max, is it?" came a voice from 
behind us. "Thinking of stealing back 
the truck?" 

"Van," Max corrected, smiling back 
at the figure in white. "Actually, 
Nurse — " 

"Lovelace. Ada Lovelace." 

" — my friend here was hoping you'd 
agree to a rematch." 

"Blackjack," Mercedes smiled by 
way of introduction. "You look like a 
woman who stands on 17." 



Sf * * * * 



It was no contest. On the first hand. 
Nurse Lovelace lost the Color Comput- 
er and Astro-Blast. Next, Mercedes 
claimed the Models Is and our adven- 



ture collection; next, two Ills and the 
Melbourne House library. The van and 
everything else took another half hour, 
during which I read some Gamer's Cafe 
feedback or input or whatever they call 
that section in the front of the 
magazine: 

Michael Johnson (3138 Doggitt 
Drive, Spring Arbor, MI 49283) writes 
to say that Jim Daniel's patch in the 
November 1982 issue, adapting the 
Alpha Products joystick to Voyage of 
the Valkyrie, works on the Model I but 
leaves Mod III owners out in the cold. 
Jim wonders whether the two PEEK 
statements (16458 and 16459) in line 
10000 would be hardware-specific. Any 
Model III Wagnerians out there with a 
patch for the patch? 

***** 

"On the road again," bellowed 
Max — who usually prefers the Doors to 
Willie Nelson and who sings Uke the 
cassette port voice in Panik — as we 
headed out of town on Route 93. "Time 
to set up the awning and get computers 
on the sidewalk again, do the Johnny 



Appleseed of games bit. Anybody beat 
my score on Sea Dragon?" (No one has 
yet; send in those scores and screen 
photos, all games welcome.) 

"I ought to trade in the Pocket Com- 
puters and get us a printer," Mercedes 
said, watching my monthly struggle 
with Scripsit. That "I" and "us" made 
Max and me turn around in the middle 



of driving and writing. "I own all this 
stuff now, you know. It's a kick." 

Well, she's right. First my partner 
Winthrop goes Color Berserk and ends 
up in a rest home, and now we men are 
working for a 10-year-old. We're sup- 
posed to be taking her to Baltimore. 
Maybe her dad can get us a copy of 
Poltergeist. ■ 



Apple Panic 


Mad Max 


51,400 


Armored Patrol (AI) 


Winthrop 


81,000* 


Cosmic Fighter (Big 5) 


Winthrop 


103,980 


Demon Seed 


Mad Max 


52,400 


Eliminator 


Winthrop 


88,950 


Galaxy Invasion (Big 5) 


Winthrop 


1,000,000** 


Sea Dragon 


Mad Max 


147,910 + 


Swamp Wars 


Winthrop 


39,200 + 



* Method I. Winthrop racked up 281 ,000 points using Method II. 
' *' Winthrop still had six ships left, but he got bored. 

+ Novice mode. Max got 69,480 in the expert mode, 
+ + Winthrop got through all nine swamps, too. 

Gamer's Cafe readers are invited to submit ikeir high scores, for these and other TRS-80 
games. We'll prim unvalidated scores, but validated scores fa photo of the screen) will, of 
course, rank higher in prestige. 



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-See List of Arjveriisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 81 




If you just bought another computer, 
boy are you gonna be sorry 



Epson. 



82 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



The new Epson QX-10 is unlike any per- 
sonal computer you've ever seen. It's a com- 
puter for people who don't have the time to 
learn computers; a computer you can be 
using within minutes. 

And fortunately, you don't have to take 
our word for it. Here's how Byte, one of the 
computer industry's most prestigious maga- 
zines, describes the QX-10. 

The first anybody-can-use-it computer. 

"The Epson QX-10 (is) a computer for less 
than $3000 that may well be the first of a new 
breed of anybody-can-use-it 'appliance' 
computers ... In addition to being a highly 
integrated word processing /computer sys- 
tem that offers as much usable processing 
power as almost any existing microcompu- 
ter, the QX-10 . . . system is designed to be 
used by people with minimal technical 
knowledge. We've certainly heard that 
claim before, but Epson has delivered on 
this promise in a way and to an extent that 
no microcomputer manufacturer has done." 
That's nice to hear from a magazine like 
Byte, of course, but it doesn't surprise us. 
It's just what we intended the QX-10 to be 
all along. 

More computer. Less money. 

But useability isn't the only thing the QX-10 
has going for it. As Byte says, "the QX-10 
gives you a great deal for your money. 

"Help is available at any time through the 
HASCI (Human Application Standard 
Computer Interface) keyboard Help key . . . 
Text can be entered at any time just as you 
would in a conventional word processor. 
The Calc key turns the system into a basic 



4-function calculator. Graphics can be cre- 
ated via the Draw key. The Sched (schedule) 
key gives you access to a computer-kept 
appointment book, a built-in clock/timer/ 
alarm, and an event scheduler." 

Advanced hardware for advanced 
software. 

As for hardware. Popular Computing, 
another industry leader, says: "The QX-10 
includes ... a number of advanced hardware 
features . . . The basic components of the 
system are a detachable keyboard, a high 
resolution" monochrome display, and a sys- 
tem unit containing two 5V4 inch disk 
drives. The drives use double-sided, 
double-densit}' disks (340K bytes per disk) 
and are amazingly compact . . . The QX-10 
uses an 8-bit Z80A microprocessor. The sys- 
tem contains 256 bytes of RAM, Some of the 
RAM is . . . battery powered . . . which lets 
the computer retain information when the 
power is off." 

You won't have to wait much longer. 

The new Epson QX-10 may very well be the 
computer you've been waiting for. And for- 
tunately, you won't have to wait much 
longer — it will be appearing soon in com- 
puter stores all across the country. In the 
meantime, write Epson at 3415 Kashiwa 
Street, Torrance, CA 90505, or call (213) 
539-9140. We'll be happy to send you copies 
of our reviews. 

After all, as Popular Computing puts it, the 
QX-10 will "do for computing what the 
Model T did for transportation." 

And we couldn't have said it better 
ourselves. 




►^97 



EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA. INC. 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 



' 3415 Kashiwa Street 
Torrance, California 90505 
(213) 539-9140 



P-See Us! ol Adverlisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 83 



c^WINNERS^ 



Contest 

1982-1983 




We've known for some time that kids make 
up a significant portion of the TRS-80 pop- 
ulation. Still, we weren't ready for the response 
we got to our first annual Young Programmer's 
Contest. 

The number of entries— nearly 200— was, by 
itself, impressive. But what struck us was the am- 
bition, skill, and creativity shown by the entrants. 
Even some of the programs that didn't win are 
good enough to be published, and will appear in 
future issues. 

Our three-man panel of judges scored the en- 
tries in five categories: 

Programming elegance. Here we looked at how 
well the program was written and performed its 
task, and how attractive the screen displays were. 
We also considered the ease with which the pro- 
gram could be used. 

Documentation. First, we looked for descrip- 
tions of how to use the program and how it 
worked. We gave extra points for when flow- 
charts, variable lists, program listings, and tables 
were included. 

Originality. This was a tough one to measure, 
since little software under the sun is entirely new. 
We finally decided to measure originality by how 
much creative thinking went into designing the 
program. 

Error-trapping. How tough was it for us to 
crash the program? 

Usefulness. In the case of a game, we measured 
usefulness by how entertaining it was. 

The Grand Prize 

The grand-prize winner turned out to be 
16-year-old David Schmidt's Quest for the Key of 
Nightshade, an adventure game for the Model I. 
Quest is one of the better adventure games we've 
seen in a while, and it scored high in every 
category. 

What impressed us the most about Quest was 



the fascinating and internally consistent world it 
paints. David gives the land of Nightshade so 
much detail that it seems almost three-dimension- 
al. And what greater praise can be given to a fan- 
tasy than that it seems real? 

Quest was one of four games that won prizes. 
But games aren't all you'll find in the next 78 
pages. Here's a quick look at our other winning 
entries: 

Project Deep Dive, by Michael John Lake, won 
first place in the 14-18 category. The game puts 
you in a submarine, which must fight its way 
through a tunnel to get to its base. First prize in the 
11-13 category went to Carl Huben for his sub- 
mission Music Composer, which tells you how to 
turn your computer into a piano keyboard. And 
topping the 10-and-under category was Terry 
Myerson's program Super-Draw, which lets you 
draw and save figures on your Model III. 

Larry Brackney's TRS-Turtle took second prize 
in the 14-18 group. It lets you use your Model I to 
exploresomeof the features of Logo. In the 11-13 
group, second place was won by Beth Norman for 
her adventure game Lair of Kraken. And Nathan 
Miller's joystick game Byte-Cycles was runner-up 
in the 10-and-under category. 

Lloyd Kupchanko's Boxing Game, a machine- 
language arcade game for the Model I, finished 
third in the 14-18 group. We had a tie for third in 
the 11-13 category— Jennifer Neidenbach's For- 
eign Flag Quiz and Scott Steele's bulletin board 
program CASS-80. And third place in the 10-and- 
under group was won by Adam Wells for his sub- 
mission countdown. 

If you're interested in seeing what kids are 
doing with their computers these days, by all 
means check out the Young Programmer's Con- 
test wirmers. 

And if you're 18 or under, start working on 
your entry for our next competition. This year's 
contest set some pretty high standards to match. ■ 




84 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 

Quest for the 
Key of Nightshade 



LOAD 80 



by David Schmidt 
Grand Prize 



The objective of Quest for the Key of 

Nightshade is threefold. First, the ad- 
venturer must attempt to increase the 
size and strength of his army. Next, the 
adventurer must try to collect five pieces 
of a key that lay scattered throughout 



The Key Box 
Model I or III 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 
Assembly Language 
Editor/ Assembler Opt. 



the Land of Nightshade. Once all pieces 
have been collected and the adventurer 
has a large and powerful army, he can 
attempt to capture Castle Nightshade. 
The purpose of this is to rescue the good 
king who is held prisoner by the evil em- 
peror currently ruling the land. 

The Display 

The screen display is divided into five 
sections. The uppermost section merely 
displays the game's name. The section 
furthest to the left displays the status of 
the entire army. In the middle of the 



screen is a graphic map depicting the 
terrain around the player. The lower- 
most section is used as a communica- 
tions box. Its purpose is to display 
warnings and other necessary messages. 
The section furthest to the right displays 
the current options available to the 
player and requests a command. The 
display always depicts the status and 
options pertaining you, the player, and 
your army. 

The Map 

The land of the nightshade is 30 by 30 



Living Beings 



Crimson Reaper 

Domain: Castle 

Fighting Ability: 15 
Special A ttributes: None 

The Crimson Reaper is a highly 
trained warrrior. He wears partial 
plate armor and a helm. The Reaper 
is armed with a bastard sword and a 
spiked shield. 

The Crimson Reaper has awesome 
strength and speed. Pain has no ef- 
fect on him. So, to remove him from 
battle, he must be killed. 

These warriors guard the treasures 
of Castles Death Shadow and Gray 
Stone. The Reapers never talk and 
are rarely seen outside of a castle. 
Because of their great fighting 
power , they are feared by all . In fact , 
many people believe the Reaper is 
not a human at all, but a disciple of 
the beast. 



Firedrake 

Domain: Castle 
Fighting Ability: Variable 
Special Attributes: None 

The firedrake is the true dragon. It 
stands about 10 meters tall and has a 
wingspread of over 20 meters. This 
beast has immense claws and fangs, 
and it breathes fire. 

The dragon is located in Castle 
Nightshade. Its purpose is to protect 
the imprisoned king. The fighting 
ability of the dragon is determined 
by the skill level you choose. 

Jo-Toe 

Domain: Water areas 
Fighting Ability: 4 
Special Attributes: None 

The jo-toe is 2 meters tall and 
looks like a cross between a wingless 
bird and a reptile. It has very large 
webbed feet. The powerful tail is 
used for balance and propulsion in 
the water. The jo-toe has a long neck 
and a small head which is mostly 
beak. 



The creature can run at speeds of 
over 60 kilometers per hour. This is 
its main defense, because it is a terri- 
ble coward. When cornered, it will 
fight by kicking with its large clawed 
feet and by jabbing with its beak. 

The jo-toe is a herbivore and sca- 
venger. It spends most of the day 
wading through the swamps looking 
for tender shoots of grass. It does en- 
joy a dead carcass when available. 

The creature is basically timid and 
need not be feared if you are careful. 

Kathake 

Domain: Desert 

Fighting Ability: 5 
Special Attributes: Treasure 
carrying 

The kathake is a female warrior 

from the desert tribe of the Thake. 
This human is armed with a large 
curved sword called a kantana. She 
wears a cloak and has little or no 
armor. 

The kathake, though not a good 
sword fighter, is very quick and 

continues on page 86 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 85 



units. Each unit is one possible location 
you can occupy. The display shows a 
small portion of the map with your par- 
ty in the center. The map depicts the 
terrain for four units in each direction. 
As you move you stay stationary rela- 
tive to the display while the map moves 
under you. Small graphic characters on 
the map symbolize conditions present at 
that location. The meanings of the 
symbols are in Table 1 . 

Landmarks such as rivers, lakes, 
mountains, and deserts are in the same 
positions during each game. The loca- 
tions of man-made objects like bridges, 
towns, cities, castles, and tombs, vary 
however, from game to game. 

Marketplace 

In the marketplace you can buy all 
items for yourself and your army. 
Marketplaces can be found in any 
human settlement. Items will cosl more 
in a smaller settlement than in larger 
cities. When you buy an item, you buy it 
for the entire army. Certain items such 
as weapons, armor, and men always re- 
quire you trade in present equipment. 
The medium for trade in the market- 
place is gold fashioned into small 
pieces. 

Weapons and Armor 

Weapons and armor make an army 
more powerful. The greater the number 
of weapons, the greater the fighting 
strength. The fighting ability is a 
number representing fighting strength. 
You can find this number by adding the 
armor class and sword class, plus one. 
The higher the number, the greater you 
are in battle. Fighting ability is subject 



■ Mountains 

J^a Desert 

? ' Water 

■■H Bridge 

^^ City 

■^fc Town 

^^ Castle Death Shadow 



Castle Grey Stone 

Uj Castle Nightshade 

jfL - Tomb 

■ Marsh 

Table 1. Symbols 
86 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



i-unlinued from page &5 

therefore she is not to be taken light- 
ly. The greatest danger is that they 
will use any means to win at battle. 
For example, females will approach 
a male seductively, only to kill him 
once close enough . 

The kathake's primary form of 
liveUhood is piracy. The women 
travel in nomadic bands across the 
desert in search of a prize. The males 
of the tribe stay near the camp, while 
the females become the warriors. 

Kathakes always carry the trea- 
sures of their victims with them. 



Kilgard 

Domain: Open 
Fighting Ability: 7 
Special Attributes: Edible 

The kilgard is a 6-meter long, fur- 
covered serpent. The fur of the beast 
is a greenish-brown, which helps it to 
hide well in long grass and trees. The 
snake has very large venemous fangs 
that can pierce most types of armor. 
Large folds of pointed skin protrude 
from the head, helping directional 
hearing. 

The kilgard is a quick and agile 
fighter for its size. The snake will 
lunge at an enemy with its immense 
fangs while its tail whips around, 
striking a blow on the opponent. 
This beast will attempt to smother 
the hfe out of an enem}- by coiling 
around him and then constricting. 

The kilgard is a nocturnal crea- 
ture. It can be found in shady knolls 
during the day. The kilgard's favor- 
ite place is a large tree limb. 

The flesh of the kilgard has an en- 
joyable taste; if fact, many humans 
consider it a delicacy. 



Merlad 

Domain: Water areas 
Fighting Ability: 11 
Special Attributes: Treasure 
carrying 

The merlad is an amphibious 
humanoid. The creature is covered 
with scales and has a membrane pro- 
truding from the rear parts of its 
body. The merlad has gills and can 
also breath air directly. It has large 
fangs and claws. 

The primary weapon of the am- 



phibian is a trident. The beast can 
throw the weapon as far as 40 yards 
with great accuracy. The trident is 
also used Hke a lance at close hand- 
to-hand combat. When not armed 
with a trident, the merlad is still very 
dangerous, using its fangs and claws 
to fight. 

Merlads Uve in small, partially 
submerged cities. A merlad's pri- 
mary food source is fresh water 
clams, crawfish, and fish. The crea- 
tures will kill humans who get too 
close to their cities, and reap the 
benefits from their purses. 

Metore 

Domain: Water areas 
Fighting Ability: 8 
Special A ttributes: Edible 

The metore is a cross between a 
shark and an aUigator. The fish is 
about 3 meters long and looks very 
much Hke a shark. The skin of the 
fish is very rough and thick. It has 
massive saw-edged teeth and an ex- 
tremely powerful jaw. Its fins have 
bones in them and can be used Hke 
feet. 

The fish fights like a shark in the 
water and like an alligator on land. 
The fish will attempt to rub its skin 
against its prey because its skin is like 
coarse sandpaper. The fish also 
thrash with its tail. The metore is 
driven into a frenzy by the presence 
of salt in the water. 

The fish hunts for food — it is a 
total carnivore. With the boned fins, 
the metore can make excursions onto 
land to hunt or to sun itself. The fish 
Hve in deep underwater caves. Their 
fiesh is edible and tastes much like 
pork. 

When entering the water, you'd 
better hope a metore isn't swimming 
silently under you. 

Quandar 

Domain: Mountains 
Fighting Ability: 5 
Special Attributes: Treasure 
carrying 

The quandar is a I'/z -meter taH 
feHne humanoid. It is an intelligent 
social animal armed with a small 
sword. Although it is the same size as 
a human, it possesses far greater 

conunue.'i on pa^e 88 



the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply scaled. Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
fuil-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by Ihe 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



. . . one of !he best programs for the ( 'olor 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter, Not just belis and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter -64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to pul all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 X 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 X 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display Is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for Ihe large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and Formatling: Drives anv printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-iOO/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Cenironies, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith -Corona. 
Terminei. etc). 

Embedded control eodes give full dynamic access to 
mtelligent primer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, doi- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as; 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
10 your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs. Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk; print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR, 



. , . truly a slate of Ihe art word prnce.ssor. . . 
oulsianding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan, 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is Ihe lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59,95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation, (The step- 
by-slep tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 In a matter of minutes,) 
To order, send check or money order to: 



Cognitec 

704 Nob Ave. 

Del Mar, CA 92014 



^ 121 



Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add S2 for shipping. Californjans add 6".'o ilatc la\. Allo« 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send «lf-addresscd stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Mkro. 80-U,S, Telewriter owners; send SASE or eall for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Coiorcom/E) also available. Call or wriie for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Compiiier, Int.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-SO is a trademark ol" Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 ii a trademark of Epson America. Inc, 



^ 

w 



c«^ 




Attache-style cases for carrying and pro- 
tecting your complete computer set-up. 
Accommodates equipment in a fully oper- 
ational configuration. Never a need to 
remove equipment from case. Simply 
remove lid, connect power, and operate. 

AP101 Apple il with Single Drive $109 
AP102 Apple 11 with TWO Disk 

Drives 119 

AP103 Apple II, 9 Inch Monitor & 

Two Drives 129 

AP104 Apple III, Two Drives & 

Silentype Printer 139 

AP105 13" Monitor with 

Accessories 99 

AP106 AMDEK Color Monitor 119 

RS201 TRS-80 Model I, Expansion 

Unit & Drives 109 

RS204 TRS-80 Modellll 129 

AT301 ATARI Computers with 

Peripherals 109 

P402 Centronics 730/737 & 

Radio Shack Printer 89 

P403 Epson MX70/80 or 

Microline 82A 89 

P404 Epson MX100 Printer 99 

P405 IDS 560 or Prism 

132 Printer 109 

P406 Starwriter/Printmaster 

F-10 Printer 119 

P407 Okidata Microline 

83A or 84 Printer 99 

P408 Prowriter 2 Printer 99 

P409 Prowriter (Apple Dot Matrix) 

Printer 89 

IB501 IBM Personal Computer 129 
IB502 IBM Monitor 99 

HP601 HP41 with Accessories 99 

CM703 Commodore Model 64 

with Drives 119 

CM704 Commodore Model 64 

withDataset 109 

NS010 North Star Advantage 139 

CC80 Matching Attache Case (5) 85 
CC90 Matching Attache Case (3") 75 
CCgi Matching Accessory Case 95 
CC92 5.25" Diskette Case 49 

compurercasQcompanv 

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Columbus, Ohio 43213 
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V. 



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to change by fatigue and randomness. 
A list of sword classes and armor classes 
is in Table 2. 

Food, Water, and Potions 

Food, water, and potions are re- 
quired to play the game. You use food 
and water to feed your army, and can 







Armor 


Leather 

Chain 

Plate 




1 

3 

5 

Swords 


Short 
Long 
Broad 
Two-Handed 


2 
3 
5 

7 


Table 2 


Armor and Weapon Classes 



only carry 25 units of each. One unit is 
consumed during each turn. The sup- 
plies can be bought in the marketplace 
or they can be acquired in the wilder- 
ness. Food supplies are replenished each 
time you kill an edible beast. Water 
stores can be refilled by entering any 
body of water (either a lake or a river). 
You can carry only 10 potions at any 
time. When consumed, they refresh you 
and return the fatigue number to per- 
cent. Potions cannot be found in the 
open — they must be bought in the mar- 
ketplace. If an army is out of food and 
water (represented by a negative num- 
ber on the status display) for several 
days, all members will die from starva- 
tion or dehydration. 

Fatigue 

As you move and fight across the 
land, you are bound to become tired. 
This factor is displayed in the status list 



conlinued from page 86 

strength. The coat of the animal is so 
fine that it is often illegally hunted 
just for this purpose. 

Quandars are not very good 
fighters. Their tactics consist of run- 
ning whenever possible. If this is not 
plausible, they will attempt to disarm 
their opponent so that they can use 
their strength advantage in hand-to- 
hand combat. 

Quandars are generally a thieving 
race. Because their ancestory is 
feline, they are very stealthy. For this 
reason they can enter a dwelling and 
burglarize it before the occupants 
even know of their existence. Most 
quandars become outlaws, but some 
live in harmonious coexistence with 
man. They carry the prizes from 
their crimes. 

Sand Devil 

Domain: Desert 

Fighting A bility: 8 
Special Attributes: None 

The sand devil appears to be 2 
meters tall and part man, part beast. 
Actually the beast is as far removed 
from a man as is a sneeth. It has no 
intelligence and acts purely on in- 
stinct. A horn protrudes from the 
top of its head, and long claws sit on 
the end of its fingers. The sand devil 
has awesome strength but is rather 
slow. 

The sand devil will fight every- 



thing it encounters; this is simply its 
nature. The animal doesn't use its 
horn or its claws as weapons, but it 
attempts to crush its victim between 
its bare hands. Upon seeing an ani- 
mal's movement, the beast will 
charge directly at it, not giving the 
enemy time to think. Once the ani- 
mal has been killed, the sand devil 
will devour it, human or not. 

The sand devil spends all its time 
wandering around the desert looking 
for food. It has a voracious appetite 
and will eat anything. The only thing 
the sand devil can offer the adven- 
turer is danger. 

Scorch 

Domain: Desert 
Fighting Ability: 6 
Special Attributes: Edible 

The scorch is a vicious, meter -long 
sand lizard. A long poisonous spike 
is connected to the end of the 
scorch's tail. Scorches also have 
small blunt teeth and long sharp 
claws. The scorch has thick scaly 
skin and a dorsal membrane. 

Its teeth are ineffective as wea- 
pons, so the scorch uses its poison- 
ous tail spike as its major defense. 
The potent poison on the tail will kill 
a man in about 5 minutes unless an 
antidote of jo-toe blood is con- 
sumed. The scorch's greatest asset is 
the advantage of surprise. The skin 
of the beast so closely matches its 



88 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



as a percent. The lower the percent the 
less tired you are; the higher the percent 
the more tired you are. This factor can 
be affected by a number of things: ter- 
rain, equipment, army's state of health 
and the battles fought. 

If the fatigue number reaches 100 
percent, men may begin to die. The 
dead men's supplies will automatically 
be distributed evenly among the re- 
maining crew. In these situations you 
will die last. Fatigue percentage is the 
average fatigue percent of the en- 
tire army. 

Encounters 

As you enter tombs or castles, or just 
wander across the land, you are bound 
to run into other living beings. When 
this happens, you may retreat. The 
fighting abilities of beings will vary as 
much as their domain. Killing these be- 
ings can be beneficial: survival, trea- 



sure, key piece, and entrance to a tomb 
or a castle. The outcome of a battle is 
determined by the relative fighting 
numbers of the beings and your army, 
and by the numbers of each. The only 
exception to this rule is when the army is 
in the water — then they can't defend 
themselves. A detailed list of the beings 
is in the sidebar. 

Castles and Tombs 

Castle Death Shadow, Castle Grey 
Stone, and tombs are the locations of 
treasures and possibly key pieces. You 
can attempt to conquer a castle or a 
tomb by killing the beings defending 
them. In this case you gain the entire 
treasure. You can also attempt to bur- 
glarize a castle, gaining only part of the 
treasure. To do this a thief must be pres- 
ent in the ranks of the army. After you 
and your party have left the structure, it 
will be reinhabited. 



Castle Nightshade 

Castle Nightshade is the final objec- 
tive of the game. It is three large con- 
nected towers with no windows. The 
only entrance to the castle is through a 
locked door that can only be opened 
with a completed key. A den of fire- 
drakes protect the castle and its con- 
tents. Only when the king is free is the 
game finished. 

Skin Level 

The skill level option is added to 
always make the game a challenge. The 
greater the number you enter, the 
tougher the resulting game will be. This 
number has an effect on randomness of 
encounters, number of beings per 
encounter, and the fighting ability of 
certain beings. ■ 

David Schmidt, age 16, can be 
reachedat6513 W. 32ndSt., Loveland, 
CO 80537. 



surroundings that an adventurer can 
step on it before he even perceives it. 
The animal spends most of the day 
motionless to avoid exertion in the 
heat. At night the animal hunts small 
rodent-like creatures called podoms. 
Scorches are often domesticated and 
herded like cattle to be used as a meat 
source. 

Shadow Beast 

Domain: Tomb 
Fighting Ability: 12 
Special Attributes: None 

The shadow beast is a large pan- 
ther-like animal. The coat of the 
creature is a sleek black color. It has 
large white gleaming teeth. The eyes 
of the shadow beast glow red with an 
intensity that far surpasses the mere 
reflection of light. 

Few people have ever seen how the 
beast fights and lived to tell about it. 
Legend claims that the beast only has 
to look at a person to kill him, but 
the shadow beasts actually fight Uke 
any other cat. 

Because they live in tombs and be- 
cause their eyes glow red, it is com- 
monly believed the beasts are appari- 
tions from hell. They are never seen 
outside of a tomb and no one knows 
what they eat. This legend of the 
shadow beast coming from hell 
seems to have a very solid factual 
basis. 

comi'iues on p. 92 



Program Listing 

10 CLEAR100:RANDOM:DEFINTA-Z:DEFDBLP:DIMH(31,31) ,M$(11) ,T$(11) ,F 

T%(il) ,WM%(11) ,H0S(11,3) ,H0%[11,3) 

12 CLS:PRINT@464,""; :INPUT"ENTER DIFFICULTY FACTOR ( 1-20) " ; CT% : I 

F(CT%<1ORCT%>20)THEN12ELSECLS:PRINT@46 0,CHRS(23) ;"** INITIALIZIN 

G **":F0RA=1T03 

17 RESTORE: B=RND( 10) : F0RC=1T0B: READD, E: NEXT: IFM(D,E) =4THEN17ELSE 

M(D,E) =4 : NEXT: RESTORE :FORA=lTO20: READS: NEXT :FORA=1TO3 0:READB: FOR 

C=1T0B:READD,E,F:IFF-3THENF0RG=D-1T0E+1:F0RH-A-1T0A+1:IFM{G,H) -0 

THENM(G,H) =11 : NEXT :NEXTELSENEXT: NEXT 

30 F0RG=DT0E:1FM(G,A) <>4THENH(G,A) =F : NEXT; NEXT : NEXTELSENEXT: NEXT 

iNEXT 

35 F0RA=1T04 

5 B=RND(30) :C=RND(30) :IF{M(B,C) >2ANDH[B,C) <11) THEN5 0ELSEM {B,C) = 

5:NEXT:FORA=1TO10 

80 B=RND(30) :C=RND(30) :IF(M(B,C) >2ANDM(B,C) <11) THEN30ELSEM (B , C) = 

6:NEXT:F0RA=7T09 

110 B=RND(30) :C=RND(30) : IF(H!B,C) >2ANDH(B,C) <11) THEN110ELSEM ( B,C 

) --A:CX%(A-6)=B:CY%[A-6) =C :NEXT: F0RA=1T05 

116 B=RND(30) ;C=RND(30) :IF[M(B,C) >2ANDH(B,C) <11) THEN116ELSEM (B,C 

) =10:TX%(A) =B: TY%{A) =C : NEXT: C=0 : D=0 : F0RA=1T05 

118 B=RND[4) :IF(B=C0RB=D)THEN118ELSEIFB=1THENC=1ELSEIFB=2THEND=2 
ELSEIFB=3THENLH%=LH%+1 

119 L(A) =B:NEXT:FGRA=0TO10:FORB^1TO3:READC:HS(A) =MS(A) +CHRS[C) :N 
EXT:NEXT:MS(11) =" . " : FORA=0TO3 : F0RB=1T03 : READA$,C:MOS ( A,B) =A$:M 
O%(A,B)=C:MO$(11,B)=A$:MO%(11,B)=C:NEXT:NEXT:FORA=0TO11:READA$:T 
$(A) =AS:NEXT:F0RA=1T07:READARS(A) ,FA%(A) ,FB%(A) ,P{A) :NEXT:DEFDBL 
G,JK 

150 X=RND(30) :Y=RND(30) :IFH(X,Y) >0THEN150ELSEWR%=1 ; F0% =25 : WA%=25 

:SW$="SHORT " : ARS = "I.EATHER " : G=10000 : FT% = 15 : FT% (1) =10:FT% (2) =5: 

FT%C11)=2:WM%(1)=1;FB%=4:PO%=10:TG%=1:TL%=1:CLS 

160 PRINT(a0,STRING$(63,131) ; : PRINT@128 , STRINGS ( 63 , 176) ; :PR1NT@78 

5, STRINGS (46, 131) ;: PRINT@960 , STRINGS { 63 ,176) ; : FQRA=0TO96 0STEP6 4 : 

PRINT@A,CHRS(191) ; : PRINT@A+6 2 ,CHRS ( 191) ; : IFA>128THENPRINTiaA+17 ,C 

HR$(191) ;:IFA<7 6 8THENPRINT@A+45,CHR$(191) ; 

180 NEXT:PRINT@65,STRINGS(14, " = ■■), -"QUEST FOR THE KEY OF NIGHT SH 

ADE"; STRINGS (15,"=") ; : FORA=194T08 9 8STEP64 : READAS: PR1NT@A,AS ; :NEX 

T 

190 GOSUB200:GOTO210 

200 PRINTia200,X; :PRINT@206 ,Y; : PRINT@209 ,CHRS [ 191) ! : : PRINT(a267 ,T$ 

(M(X,Y) ) ; :PRINT@3 3 3,K; : PRINT@3 91 , " " ; : PRINTUSING" **#,######" ;G; : P 

RINT@45 8,T; : PRINT@523 ,WR% ; : PRINT@585 ,SWS ; : PRINTia6 49 , ARS ; :PRINTl37 

14,FA%;"% "; : PRINTia775 ,F0% ; : PRINT@840 ,WA% ; : PRINT(a906 ,P0% ;: RETURN 

210 C=210;PRINTia210,""; : FORA=Y-4TOY+4 : FORB=X-4TOX+4 : IF(A<1ORA>30 

ORB<1ORB>30) THENPRINT" + " ; ELSEPRINTHS (H ( B , A) ) ; 

220 NEXT:C=C+64:PRINT(aC,""; :NEXT 

222 rF(H(X,Y)=50RM{X,Y) =6) THENa00ELSEIFM (X , Y) =3THENWA%=2 5 : FT% (3) 

=2*FT%:PRINT@859,"* WATER SUPPLIES REFILLED *" ; :GOSUB8500 :G0SUB2 

00 

225 IFM(X,Y)=7THENA?="CASTLE DEATH SHADOW" : GOSUB2490ELSEIFM (X ,Y) 

=8THENA5="CASTLE GREY STONE" : GOSUB2490ELSEIFH(X ,Y) =9THENGOSUB290 

Listing conlinues 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 89 




First in 

Its Class 

and 

Looking 

for 

Work. 



TRS-80 Mode) I, II, III 

Five multiple regression procedures 
(inciuding stepwise, backward elimination, all 
subset, and ridge), 24 transformations, com- 
prehensive data base manager (with search 
and sort), descriptive statistics, hypothesis 
testing (7 tests), time series analysis (7 
models), random variate generation, discrete 
probability distributions, sampling distribu- 
tions, nonparametrlcs (5 tests), and com- 
plete documentation. 

Complete package with manual — $125 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping 
and handling to; 

Quant Systems 

P.O. Box 628 

Charleston, S.C. 29402 

803-571-2825 

S.C, residents add 4% sales tax 

Overseas orders add $7 for shipping 



,-194 



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Both for $199.95 ^^55 



Z3J.SASAJ.I3VdV3aOUV-1SH3XSASAJ.O 

90 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



:PRINT@926,"- FATIGUE 
';:PRINT@369,"W ";CHR$( 



Listing conlinued 

0ELSEIFH(X,y) =10THENGOSUB260B 

226 IFRND(3-(-INT(CT%/5) ) -1THENGOSUB6005 

227 FORA=16 438TO16 441:POKEA,0:NEXT 

228 IFFA%>b9THENPRINT@867 ,"** WARNING **' 
LEVEL HIGH -" ; : GOSUB8500 

230 GOSUB400 0:PRINT@245,"N"; : PRINT@309 , " | 
93);" + ";CHRS(94) ;" E" ; : PRINT@437 ,CHRS ( 92) ; : PRINT@501 , "S" ; : IFH( 
X,Y) =3THEKI-6 27:GOSUB17 50:GOTO250ELSEPRINT0562,"(R) EST"; 

235 IFPO%>0THENPRINT@623 ,"(T)AKE POTION"; : 1=7 56 :GOSUB1750ELSEI=6 

92:GOSUB1750 

25 IFA$-"N"THEN260ELSEIFA$="E"THEN270ELSEIFA$="S"THEN280ELSEIFA 

$-"W"THEN290ELSEIF(AS="R"ANDM(X,Y) <>3) THEN300ELSEIF ( A$="T"ANDPO% 

>0ANDM(X,Y) <>3)THEN340ELSEGOSUB50 

252 GOSUB2000:GOTO250 

260 IFY-1<1THEN310ELSED=0:E=-1:GOTO320 

27 IFX+1>3 0THEN310ELSED=1:E-0:GOTO320 

280 IFY+1>30THEN310ELSED^0:E=1:GOTO320 

290 IFX-1<1THEN310ELSED=-1:E-0:GOTO320 

300 PRINT@86b/'<< REST >>" ; : GOSUB8500 :D=0 : E=0 : FA%=FA%-30-FT%-FT% 

{H(X,Y) ) :IPFA%+FT%-1-PT% (M(X,Y) ) <0THENFA% = 0-FT%-FT% (M(X,Y) ) :GOT032 

0ELSE320 

310 PRINT@850,"- EXPLORATION INTO AND BEYOND THE PERIMETER" ;: PRI 

NT@922,"WILL AVAIL YOUR QUEST NOTHING, "; :GOSUB8500 : GOT0226 

320 FA%=FA%+FT%+FT% (H(X,Y) ) : F0%=F0%-1 :WA%=WA%-1-WM% (H(X,Y) ) :IF{F 

0%<1ANDA$-"R") THENFA%=FA%+3ELSEIFPO%<lTHENFA%=FA%+6 

325 IF(FO%<lANDA.$="R")THENFA%=FA%-(-2ELSEIFWA%<lTHENFA%=FA%-l-5 

326 IFWA%-0THENPRINT@863,"- WATER SUPPLY GONE -" ; : GOSUB8500 

327 IFFO%-0THENPRINT@863,"- FOOD SUPPLIES OUT -" ; :GOSUB8500 
330 X=X-f-D:Y=Y-HE:IFWA%<-4THEN360ELSEIFFO%<"7THEN350 

335 IFFA%>9 9THEN37 

337 IFA$="R"THENGOSUB200:GOTO2 27ELSE190 

340 PO%=PO%-l:FA%=0:PRINT§861,"-t- ELIXIR POTION TAKEN +";:PRINT@9 

17,"- YOU ARE NOW RESTORED TO % FATIGUE. ";: GOSUB8500 : GOSUB200 : 

GOT0227 

350 PRINT§865r"** STARVATION ** " ; : PRINT@932 , "- ALL DIE -"; 

355 GOTO8700 

360 PRINT@865,"** DEHYDRATION **" ; : PRINTia932 , "- ALL DIE -"; 

365 GOTO8700 

370 FA%-95:PRrNT@B66,"** EXHAUSTION **" ; : IFM (X,Y) =3THEN700ELSEA= 

RND{WR%+T-I-1) :IFA=WR%+T+lTHEN3 90ELSET=T-A:IFT<0THENWR%=WR%+T:T=0 

375 IFWR%-0THEN400 

380 F0%=F0%+FO%*A/(WR%+T) :WA%=WA%+WA%*A/ {WR%+T) : PO%=PO%^■PO%*A/ (W 
R%+T) 

381 IFF0%>25THENF0%=25 

382 IFWA%>25THENWA%=25 

383 IFPO%>10THENPO%=10 

385 IFA=1THENPRINT@930,"- 1 HAN DIES -";:GOT0387 

386 PRINT@930,"-";A;"MEN DIE -"; 

387 GOSUB8500^GOTO190 

390 PRINT@931,"- NONE DIE -" ; : GOSUB8500 :GOTO190 

400 PRINT@932,"- ALL DIE -"; 

410 GOSUB8700 

500 PRINT@864,"-= INPUT ERROR =~" ; :GOSUB8500 : RETURN 

700 PRINT@931,"- ALL DROWN -"; 

710 GOSUB8700 

800 PRINT@857,"- YOU HAVE JUST ENTERED A " ; : IFH(X, Y) =5THENPRINT" 

CITY -";ELSEPHINT"TOi™ -"; 

810 GOSUB8500;GOSUB4000:PRINT@239,"- DO YOU WISH" ; :PRINT@303 , "TO 

GO TO THE"; :PRINT@367, "MARKET PLACE?" ;: I=499:GOSUB1740 

820 GOSUB1610:IFA$^"y"THEN83 0ELSE23 

830 PRINTe856,"- WHAT DO YOU WISH TO PURCHASE?" ; :GOSUB8500 :GOSUB 



40 00: :PRINT@240,"(A)RMOR"; 
{I)NFO"; :PRINT@43 2," (H) EN"; 
8:35 PRINT@560," (P)OTIONS"; 



:PRINT@3 04," (F)OOD UNITS"; :PRINT@368," 
'; :PRINTia496," (S) WORDS"; 

:PRINT@62 4,"(W)ATER UNITS"; :I=7 56!GOSU 
B17 50:IFA$="A''THEN840ELSEIFAS="F"THEN880ELSEIFA$="I"THEN980ELSEI 
FA$="H"THEN920ELSE:IFA$="S"THEN90 0ELSEIFA$="P"THEN890ELSEIFA$="W" 
THEN885ELSEGOSUB500:GOTO835 

840 GOSUB6000:PRINT@367,"(L)EATHER"; : PR1NT@431 , " (C) HAINMAIL" ; :PR 
INTia495 , " (F) ULLPLATE" ;: 1=6 28 : GOSUB17 50 : IFA$="L"THENTG%=1ELSEIFA$ 
="C"THENTG%=2ELSEIFAS="F"THENTG%=3ELSEGOSUB50 0:GOTO840 
850 P=P(TG%) :P=P*(WR%-HT) : GOSUB1100 : H#=P:GOSUB23 00 ; IFP=H#THENGOSU 
B140 0ELSEGO3UB1200 

860 GOSUB1600:IFA$-"N"THEK1700ELSEIFP<=GTHENG=G-P:AR$=AR$(TG%) :G 
OTO1700ELSE1800 

870 GOSUB3000:IFN+E>DTHEN3050ELSEIFN=0THEN1700ELSEP^F*N*(WR%+T) : 
GOSUB1100:GOSUB1400:GOSUB1600:IFA5="N"THEN1700ELSEIFP>GTHEN1800E 
LSEG=G-P: IFE<0THENE-N: RETURNELSEE=E+N: RETURN 
880 D=25:E-FO% : F=3 :GOSUB870 : FO%=E:GOTO17 
885 D=25:E=WA%:F^1:GOSUB87 0:WA%=E:GOTO170 
890 D=10:E=PO%:F=20:GOSUB87 0:PO%=E:GOTO170 

90 GOSUB6000:PRINT@367," (S) HORTSWORD" ; : PRINT@431 , " (L) ONGSWORD" ; 
:PRINTia4 95,"{B)ROADSWORD"; :PRINT@55 9," (T) WO-HANDED" ; :I=6 92:GOSUB 
17 50: IFA$="S"THENTL%=4ELSEIFAS^"L"THENTL%=5ELSEIFA$="B"THENTL%=6 
ELSEIFA$="T"THENTL%=7ELSEGOSUB5 00:GOTO90 

905 P=P(TL%) :P=P*(WR%-i-T) : GOSUB1100 :H#=P :GOSUB2400 : IFP=H#THENGOSU 
B140 0ELSEGOSUB120 
910 GOSUB1600:IFA$="N"THEN17 00ELSEIFP<=GTHENG=G-P:SW$=AR$(TL%) :G 

Listing continues 



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80 Micro, February 1983 • 91 



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Sneeth 



Domain: Open 

Fighting Ability: 10 
Special Attributes: None 

The sneeth is 2 meters long and 
closely resembles a terrestrial badger. 
The creature's torso is covered with a 
5-centimeter thick calcium carapace. 
Two large tusks protrude from the 
lower jaw. The animal has a long 
powerful tail that resembles the tail 
of a rat. 

The sneeth's main attack strength 
lies in its ability to teleport from 
location to location. The creature 
will use its tusks to thrust up and 
gore the opponent in battle. The 
sneeth will also use its tail as a 
weapon, flailing it about like a mace. 

The sneeth is primarily a subterra- 
nean creature with poor eyesight and 
superb hearing. Ground hogs and 
other small rodents are the sneeth's 
primary sustenance. The animal is 
attracted to shiny or curious objects 
and will fight if necessary to obtain 
them. 

Terolt 

Domain: Open 

Fighting Ability: 6 
Special A ttributes: Treasure 
carrying 

The terolt is a meter-tall humanoid . 
Its body is covered with black hair, 
while the head of the beast is covered 
with long white hair. A vicious-look- 
ing pug face frames two rows of 
small razor-sharp teeth. The beast 
has long arms and fingers tipped 
with large claws. The terolt is armed 
with nothing but a celebus, a small 
sharp knife. Although small and 
squat in stature, the terolt is still very 
strong. 

The greatest fighting strength of 
the creature is its ability to move with 
silent speed. It can remain motion- 
less, hiding in bushes or trees, for up 
to three hours. Once the victim has 
almost stepped on it, the terolt will 
launch itself towards the prey. Land- 
ing on the prey, the terolt will plunge 
its celebus into the victim's body 
many times. Although experts at am- 
bush, the beasts can't fight well when 
confronted in the open. 

The terolt is nocturnal, sleeping 



during the day in caves and hunting 
at night. It hunts for three reasons: 
treasure, food, and sport. The heads 
of its kills adorn the walls of its cave. 

Wolfaut 

Domain: Mountains 

Fighting Ability: 7 
Special Attributes: None 

The wolfaut looks hke a 2-meter 
tall horse, although it is actually 
more like a wolf. The beast is black 
in color and is very heavyset. Being a 
carnivore, it has numerous sharp 
teeth. The wolfaut also has a horn in 
the middle of its forehead. 

The wolfaut fights using its horn 
and its teeth. Given the chance, the 
beast will also attempt to trample its 
prey. The creature is powerful in bat- 
tle and eats everything that it kills. 

The wolfaut usually hunts in 
packs. Humans and humanoids are 
natural prey, as are other creatures. 
Although resembling a horse, wol- 
fauts are far too dangerous to be 
used as a mount. 

Xantau 

Domain: Mountains 

Fighting Ability: 14 
Special Attributes: Edible 

The xantau is a 5-meter long carni- 
vore that resembles a terrestrial tiger. 
This beast has large front teeth and 
an extremely powerful set of jaws. 
When standing on its hind legs, the 
xantau can attain a height of over 8 
meters, allowing it to see over the 
tops of most smaller trees. 

The xantau is one the most dan- 
gerous beasts in the Land of Night- 
shade. Even though the creature is of 
tremendous size, it still possesses 
great speed and agility. The coat of 
the xantau is so thick that most 
swords can't even penetrate it. In 
battle the creature fights with his 
teeth and claws. 

Xantaus Hve in caves far removed 
from settlements of human beings. 
They are extremely protective of 
their families and will fight to all 
ends to protect them. They primarily 
eat wolfauts and other large forest- 
dwelling beasts. 

The flesh of the xantau produces 
no ill effects when eaten by man; in 
fact, it is often used for medicinal 
purposes. ■ 



92 • 80l\4icro, February 1983 



Lis ling continued 

OTO1700ELSE1800 

920 GOSUB6000:PRINT@368,"(T)HIEVES"; : PRIKTia432 , " ( W) ARRIORS" ; : 1=5 

64:GOSUB1750: IFA5="T"THENP=675!E=lELSEIFA$="W"THENP=550: E=2ELSEG 

OSUB500:GOTO920 

93 GOSUB3000:IFN=0THEN1700ELSEP=P*N;H#=P:GOSUB2300:GOSUB2400:IF 
P=H#THENGOSUBi40 0ELSEGOSUB120 

940 GOSUB1600:IFA5="N"THEN1700ELSEIFP<=GTHENG=G-P:SW$="NONE " 
:ARS="NONE " : TG%=0 : TL% = : F0%-^ ( F0%* (WR%+T) ) / ( WR%+T-(-N) :WA% = (WA%* 
(WR%+T) )/(WR%+T+N) :PO%=(PO%*(WR%+T) )/(WR%+T+N) : FA%=( FA% * {WR%+T) } 
/(WR%+T+N)ELSE1800 

94 5 IFi;=lTHENT=T+N:GOTO17 00ELSEWR%=WR%+N:GOTO17 

980 P=100:GOSUB1100:GOSUB1400:GOSUB1600:IFA$-"N"THEN1700ELSEIFP> 

GTHEN1800ELSEG=G-P:PRINT@851,"- ONE MOMENT PLEASE. I WILL ASK A 

ROUND TO"; :PRINT@915,"SEE IF ANYONE KNOWS WHERE A PIECE IS.";:FO 

RA=1TO3000:NEXT:GOSUB8500 

982 P=2000:GOSUB1100:IFRND(5) >1THEN990ELSEB=RND( 5) : IFL(B) =4THEN9 

90ELSEIFL{B) =3THENC=RND{LH%) :E=TX% (C) :F=Ty% (C) :P=P+500 

984 PRINT@851,"~ I HAVE FOUND THE LOCATION OF A KEY PIECE."; :GOS 

UB140 0:GOSUB1600;IFAS="N"THEN170 0ELSEIFP>GTHEN1800ELSEG=G-P:IFL( 

B) =3THENPRINTia851,"- A PIECE LAYS IN A TOMB LOCATED" ; ;GOSUB5050 : 

FORA=1TO1500:NEXT:GOSUB8500:GOTO170 

986 IFL(B) =1THENA$="DEATH SHADOW"ELSEA$="GREy STONE" 

988 PRINT@851,"- A PIECE OF THE KEY LAYS IN THE TREASURES" ;: PRIN 

T@915,"OF THE CASTLE " ; A?; " . " ; : FORA=lTO1500 :NEXT:GOSUB8500 :G0T01 

700 

990 PRINT@851,"- I AH SORRY, I CAN NOT FIND THE LOCATION" ;: PRINT 

@915,"OF A KEY PIECE .";: FORA=1TO1500 :NEXT: GOSUB8500 iGOTO1700 

1100 IFM{X,Y) =5THENRETORNELSEP=INT(P+(P/3) ) ;RETURN 

1200 PRINT@862,"-= WITH TRADE IN =-" ; : IFP<1THENP=0 :GOSUB1500 : RET 

URNELSEGOSUB140 : RETURN 

1400 PRINT@922,"* COST =";P;"GOLD PIECES *"; :GOSUB8500 : RETURN 

1500 PRINT@923,"* THERE WILL BE NO COST *"; :GOSOBa500 : RETURN 

1600 GOSUB4000!PRINT@238,"- DO YOU ACCEPT" ;: PRINT@304 , "THE OFFER 

?"; :I = 435:GOSUB1740 

1610 IF(A$="Y"ORA$="N")THENRETURNELSEGOSUB500:GOSUB2000:GOTO1610 

17 FT%=FA% (TG%) +FA%(TL%) +15:FB%=FB% (TG%) +FB% (TL%) +1 :GOSUB200 : G 
OSUB4000:PRINT@238,"- WILL THERE BE" ;: PRINT@303 , "ANYTHING ELSE?" 
; :I=435:GOSUB1740:GOSUB1610 
1710 IFA$-"N"THEN230ELSE830 

17 40 PRINTil," (Y) ES"; : PRINT@I+64 , " (N)0"; : 1=1+192 
17 50 PRINTgl, "COMMAND-"; : 1=1+8 : GOSUB200 : RETURN 

1800 PRINT@856,"-= YOU DON'T HAVE ENOUGH GOLD =-" ; : GOSUB8500 :G0T 
017 

2000 A$=""!PRINT@I,CHR$(32) ; :PRINT@478 ,STRING$ ( 2 ,191) ;CHRS{14 9) ; 
: FORA=1TO50 : AS=INKEYS ilFASO" "THENRETURNELSENEXT: PRINT@I ,CHRS {14 
3) ;:PRINT@478,M$(M(X,Y)} ; :FORA=1TO50 : A$=INKEY$: IFA$<>" "THENRETUR 
NELSENEXT:GOTO20 00 

2300 A$=LEFTS(AR$,1) : IFA$="H"THENRETURNELSEIFA5="L"THENP=P-3 5* (W 
R%+T) :RETURNELSEIFA$="C"THENP=P-150*(WR%+T) :RETURNELSEP=P-275* (W 
R%+T) : RETURN 

2400 A$-LEFT$ISWS,1) : IFA$="K"THENRETURNELSEIFA$="S"THENP=P-30* {W 
R%+T) :RETURNELSEIFA$="L"THENP=P-65*(WR%+T) :RETURNELSEIFA$="B"THE 
NP-P-180*{WR%+T) :RETURNELSEP=P-200*(WR%+T) :RETURN 
2490 GOSUB2800 

2500 GOSUB400 0:GOSUB27 00:PRINTia432," (A)TTACK"; : IFT>0THENPRINT@49 
6," (B)URGLARIZE"; : PRINTia560 , " (C)ONTINUE ON"; : I=6 92ELSEPRINT@496 , 
"(C)ONTINUE ON";: 1=628 

2510 GOSUB17 50:IFA$="A"THEN2520ELSEIF{A$=''B"ANDT>0)THEN2530ELSEI 
FA$="C"THENRETURNELSEGOSUB500:GOTO2500 

2520 B$=" SOLDIER" :N=RND(CT%*5)+CT%*5:B=15:GOSUB700 0:PRINT@86 6,"* 
BATTLE! *"; :GOSUB8500 : GOSUB7500 : J=RND(N*3000) +N*1000 :C=0 : F0RA=1 
TO5:IFL(A)=M(X,Y)-6THENC=1:L(A}=0:GOSUB7600:GOTO5020ELSENEXT:GOS 
UB7600:GOTO6020 

2530 IFRND{3)=1THENPRINT@850,"** YOUR THIEF HAS BEEN CAUGHT AND 
KILLED **"; : GOSUB8500 : T=T-1 :GOSUB200 :GOTO2500ELSEIFRND ( 5) MTHEN2 
550ELSEPRINT@851,"- YOUR THEIF STOLE THE TREASURE AND RAN";:PRIN 
T@915,"OFF WITH IT. " ; :GOSUB8500 : T=T-1 

2540 FORA=1TO5:IFL(A}=M(X,Y)-6THENL(A)=4:GOSUB200:GOTO2500ELSENE 
XT:GOSUB200!GOTO2500 

2550 PRINT@851,"- YOUR THIEF STOLE THE TREASURE AND" ; : PRINT@915 , 
"RETURNED IT TO YOU. " ; :GOSUB8500 : J=RND (N*3000) +N*1000 : C=0 : F0RA=1 
TO5:IFL(A)=M(X,Y)-eTHENC=l:L(A)=0:GOSUB7600:GOSUB200:RETURNELSEN 
EXT : GOSUB76 00 : RETURN 

2600 AS="AN ANCIENT TOMB" :GOSUB2800 :GOSUB4000 :GOSUB2700 : PRINT@43 
2," (C)ONTINUE ON"; :PRINTia496," (E)NTER TOMB"; 

2610 I=628:GOSUB17 50:IFA$="C"THENRETURNELSEIFA$="E"THEN2620ELSEG 
OSUB500:GOTO2610 

26 20 B$="SHADOW BEAST" : N=RND(CT%*4) +CT%*4 :B=12 : G0SUB7 00 : PRINT@8 
61,"* YOU ARE ATTACKED! *" ; : GOSUB8500 : GOSUB7500 : J=RND (N*2000) +N* 
750:C=0 

263 F0RA=1T05:IFL(A) <>3THENNEXT:GOSUB7600 :GOTO60 20 : RETURNELSEFO 
RA=1T05 : IF ( TX% ( A) =XANDTY% ( A) =YANDA<=LH% ) THENF0RB=AT04 : TX% ( B) =TX% 
(B+1) :TY%{B)=TY% (B+1) : NEXT: LH%=LH%-1 : L(A) =0 : C=l :GOSUB7600 ;GOTO60 
20ELSENEXT:GOSUB760 0:GOTO6 020 

2700 PRINT@239,"- WHAT DO YOU" ;: PRINT@303 , "WISH TO DO?";:RETURN 
2800 PRINT@851,"- YOU HAVE COME UPON " ;A$; " 1 " ; :GOSUB8500 :RETURN 

- Lisling conlinues 



SFINKS 
3,0 

CHESS 
PROGRAM 


, 1 


ri 


i- -i 


PRIZEWINNER 

1981 Paris , 
World 
Microcomputer 

Chess 
Championship 


the 

finest 

available! 

See 80 U.S. 
June 1982 


•32 book openings 
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opponent's time 
•infinite levels 


32K 

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or Model 3 

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SFINKS 
1.81« 

Plays Chess'%;^S;' 
Pre-Chess and'^^tf^lii 
Transcendental ^^-^ 
Chess 


PRIZEWINNER 

1980 San Jose 
U.S. 

Microcomputer 

Chess 
Championship 


•nine levels 
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32K 

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SFINKS 

CHESS 
TUTOR 

Learn to 
play chess 


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disk only 
only 

$19.95 


Please specify 

lapc or disk and 

Model I or 3 

Include $2.{X) 

Shipping 

WILLIAM FINK 

SUITE 24B 

1105 N. MAIN ST. 

GAINESVILLE. FL 

32601 


EXCEPTIONAL 

DEALER 

DISCOUNTS 

(904) 377-4847 



^See UsI of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 93 



MICROSETTE 



DISKETTES CASSETTES 




We now offer 5'/4-inch single sided, 
soft sector, single or double density 
diskettes, in addition to our quality 
short length cassettes. 

Our Prices Include 
Boxes and Shipping 



CASSETTES 


Item 


10 Pack 


50 Pack 


C-10 


$ 7.50 


$ 32.50 


C-20 


9.00 


39.00 


C-60 


11.00 


50.00 


C^90 


15.00 


70.00 


DISKETTES 5V4-inch | 


MD-5 


$25.00 


$110.00 



UPS shipment in continental 

U.S.A. only. 

We cannot ship to P. O. Boxes. 



Item 


Qty- 


Price 


Total 


















SUBTOTAL 




Calif. Cust. add Sales Tax 




TOTAL 





Shipping address enclosed 
Check or money order enclosed 
Charge to: Visa D MasterCard 

Account No. __„^_^ 

Expiration Date 



Signature 



MICROSETTE CO, 

475EmsSt., Mt. View, 
CA 94043 (415)968-1604 



94 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Listing continued 

2900 A$^"CASTLE NIGHT SHADE" :GOSUB2800 :GOSUB4000 : PRINT@239 , "- DO 
YOU WISH"; :PRINTia303,"TO ENTER THE" ;: PRINTia367 , "CASTLE?" ;: 1=499 
:GOSUB17 40:GOSUB1610:IFAS="N"THENRETURN 

2910 IFK<5THENPRINT@851,"- YOU NEED A COMPLETED KEY TO GAIN ENTR 
ANCE"; :PRINT@915,"TO CASTLE NIGHT SHADE. "j; FORA=1TO1500 :NEXT:GOS 
UB8500:RETURNELSEPRINT@851,"** YOU HAVE SUCCESSFULLY GAINED ENTR 
ANCE **"; :GOSUB8500: 

2 92 B$="FIREDRAKE":N=CT%*2:B=CT%*20+RND(20) :GOSUB7000 : PRINT@866 
,"* BATTLE! * " ; :GOSUB8500 :G0SUB7 500 : PRINT@855 , "** YOU HAVE COMPL 
ETED YOUR QUEST! ** " ; : PRINT@915 , "- THE KING IS SAVED AND THE LAN 
D IS FREED!" ; 

2930 GOTO8700 

3000 K{1) — 1:K(2} =-l:GOSUB6000:PRINT@239,"- HOW MANY DO";:PRINT@ 
3 06, "YOU WISH?" ; : PRINT@431 , " <ENTER> ENTERS"; : PRINT@495 , " <CLEAR> 
ERASES"; :PRINT@6 30," ";: 1-63 

3 010 GOSUB2 00:IF( (ASC{A$) >47ANDASC ( A?) <5 8) ORA$=CHR$ (13) ORA$=CHR 
S(31) )THEN3020ELSEGOSUB500:GOTO3010 

3 020 IFI<63 2THEN3 03 0ELSEIFAS=CHR$(31) THEN3 00 0ELSEIFA$=CHR$ ( 13) TH 

EN3040ELSE3010 

3 030 IFA$=CHR$(31) THEN3 0ELSEIFAS=CHRS { 13) THEN30 4 0ELSEPRINT@I ,A 

$;:I=I+1:K( 1-630) =VAL(AS) :GOTO3010 

3040 IFK[2) =-lTHENN=K(l) :RETURNELSEN=K { 1) *10+K[2) : RETURN 

3050 PRINTia854,"<< A MAN CAN'T CARRY MORE THAN";D;" >>";:GOSUB85 

00:GOTO870 

4000 FORA=233TO750STEP64:PRINTiaA,CHRS(207) ; :NEXT: RETURN 

5050 PRrNT@915 ,"AT MAP X:"!E;" Y: " ; F; : FORA=1TO3000 : NEXT :GOSUB850 

0: RETURN 

6000 GOSUB4000:PRINT@239,"- WHICH TYPE?" ;: RETURN 

6005 E=RND[3) :B$=MO$(M(X,Y) ,E) : IFBS=" "THENRETURNELSEN=RND (CT% *5) 

:B=HO(M(X,Y) ,E) :GOSUB7000: IFM(X,Y) =3THENPRINT@a61,"* YOU ARE ATT 

ACKED! *"; : GOSUB85 00 :G0SUB7 50 : GOSUB20 : RETURN 

6010 GOSUB4000: :PRINT@239,"- DO YOU WISH" ; : PRINT@303 , "TO ENGAGE? 

"; : 1-435 ;G0SUB17 40 :GOSUB1610:IFA$="N"THENIFRND(7) MTHENRETURNELS 

EPRINT@852,"* ATTEMPT TO DISENGAGE IS UNSUCCESSFUL * " ; : GOSUB8500 

6015 PRINT@866,"* BATTLE! *"; : GOSUB85 00 :GOSUB7 50 : C=0 : IFE-2THENP 

RINT@858,"* FOOD SUPPLY REPLENISHED *" ; :GOSUB8500 : FO%=25ELSEIFE- 

3THEN6020ELSEJ=N*D*(RND{300)+100) :F=RND(5) : IF ( L( F) =4ANDRND ( 3) =1) 

THENC=1:L(F) =0 : GOSUB7 600ELSEGOSUB7 6 00 

60 20 FA%=FA%+30:IFFA%>99THENFA%=99:GOSUB200:RETURNELSEGOSUB200:R 

ETURN 

7000 PRINT@863,"-= ENCOUNTER =-" ; ;GOSUB8500 : PRINT@863 , " * TYPE: " 

;B$; :PRINT@927 ,"* NUMBER: ";N; : FORA=1TO1500 :NEXT: GOSUB8500 : RETURN 

7500 C=FB%+RND(3) -INT(FA%/45) : D=B+ ( 2-RND ( 3) ) :F=INT(N*D/C) :H=INT{ 

(WR%+T) *C/D) ;IFM(X,Y)-^3THENH=0ELSEIFF>(WR%+T)THENF=WR%+T 

7510 IFH>NTHENH=N 

7520 T=T-F:IFT<0THENWR%=WR%+T:T=0 

7530 PRINT@a63 ,"HEN KILLED: "; F ;: PRINT@927 ,BS ; "S KILLED: " ;H ;: FORA 

=1TO1000:NEXT:GOSUB8500:IFWR%>0THENPRINT§860,"* YOU ARE VICTORIO 

US! *"; :GOSUB8500:RETURNELSEPRINTia861,"* YOU ARE DEFEATED *"; 

7540 GOTO8700 

7600 G=G+J:PRINTia852,"* TREASURE COLLECTED: "; J; "GOLD PIECES *";: 

IFC=1THENPRINT@923 ,"* AND A PIECE OF THE KEY *" ; :K=K+1 : GOSUB8500 

: RETURNELSEGOSUB8500 : RETURN 

85 FORA=1TO1200:NEXT:PRINT@850,CHR$(23 6) ; : PRINTg914 ,CHRS { 236) ; 

: RETURN 

8700 GOSUB8500:GOSUB4000:PRINTia239,''-" DO YOU WISH" ; : PRINT@303 , "T 

O PLAY AGAIN?"; :I=435:GOSUB1740 

8710 GOSUB1610:IFA$="Y"THENRUNELSENEW 

90 DATA21, 1,2 2, 5, 24, 9, 22, 12, 22, 16, 26, 20, 20, 23, 16 ,2 4, 18, 28, 27, 2 

8 

10000 DATA3, 8, 10, 2, 15, 18, 1,21, 21, 3, 3, 10, 11, 2, 14, 19, 1,21, 21, 3, 3, 9 

,9,2,14,19,1,21,22,3,3,8,9,2,15,18,1,21,24,3,5,6,8,3,9,10,2,17,1 

7,1,22,22,3,24,24,3,4,5,9,3,10,11,2,22,22,3,24,24,3,3,4,9,3,10,1 

2,2,22,24,3,3,4,10,3,11,11,2,24,24,3,3,5,9,3,10,10,2,24,24 

10010 DATA3, 4, 6, 6, 3, 7, 10, 2, 15, 17, 3, 24, 24, 3, 3, 6, 8, 2, 16, 18, 3, 22, 24 

,3,3,6,6,2,16,16,3,22,22,3,2,7,8,2,21,22,3,2,8,9,2,21,23,3,2,8,1 

0,2,21,22,3,2,8,8,2,22,22,3,3,8,10,2,22,22,3,24,24,2,3,7,7,2,9,1 

0,2,22,26,3,3,9,9,2,23,2 5,2,26,26,3,4,8,9,2,13,14,1,23 

10020 DATA24, 2, 26, 26, 3, 4, 9, 10, 2, 13, 15, 1,22, 24, 2, 26, 26, 3, 5, 11, 11, 

2,13,14,1,16,20,3,23,24,2,2 5,26,3,6,11,11,2,13,13,1,15,17,3,20,2 

0,3,23,23,2,25,25,3,4,9,10,2,12,14,1,16,16,3,20,27,3,5,8,9,2,10, 

15,1,16,17,3,23,23,2,27,27,3,4,9,11,2,12,15,1,17 

10 03 DATAl 8,3,27,28,3,4,9,10,2,11,14,1,18,18,3,27,28,3,4,8,9,2, 

10,14,1,18,18,3,27,27,3,4,10,11,2,13,15,1,18,18,3,26,27,3,4,8,10 

,2,11,16,1,18,19,3,25,28,3,128,128,128,144,132,129,152,137,144,1 

53,162,132,17 9,17 9,145,152,156,144,184,172,144 

10040 DATA191,140,148,189,173,149,180,181,148,184,173,144,TEROLT 

,6,KILGARD,7,SNEETH,10,KATHAKE,5,SAND DEVIL, 8 ,SCORCH , 6 ,QUANDAR, 5 

, XANTAU ,14 ,WOLFAUT , 7 ,MERLAD ,11, HETORE , 8 , JO-TOE , 4 

10050 DATA "OPEN ", DESERT, "HTNS . ", "WATER ", BRIDGE, "CITY ","T0 

WN ", CASTLE, CASTLE, CASTLE, "TOMB ", "MARSH ", "LEATHER ",2,1,80," 

CHAIN ",5,3, 350, "PLATE " , 10 , 5 ,600 , "SHORT " , 1 ,2 ,75 , "LONG 

",2,3,150," BROAD ",3,5,250, 2-HANDED ,5,7,450 
20000 DATA"MAP-X: Y: ", "TERRAIN: ", "KEY PIECES :", "GOLD :", "THIEV 
ES: ", "WARRIORS: "," SWORD: "," ARMOR: ", "FATIGUE: ","FOOD: ", "WATER- "," 
POTIONS : " 



Word Processing 

Software 

for TRS-80* 

Model I 




World's most popular word 
processing package. Fully 
proven Electric Pencil* now 
enhanced and offered in 16K 
cassette version only. 

• Easiest to learn 

• Simple to operate 

• Full screen editing 

• Global search & replace 

• Powerful insert/delete 

• Dynamic print formatting 

• No control key mod. 

Send check or MO for $24.00 
plus sales tax for Calif, 
oust. UPS shipping in USA 
prepaid. 



^24.00 

$10.00 for manual only 

'Electric Pencil licensed to PMC 
Software by Michael Shrayer. 
TRS-80 trademark of Tandy Corp. 



PMC SOFTWARE 

475 Ellis St. "^^s 

Mtn. View, Orders: (415) 968-1604 

CA 94043 



JWC 



SOFTWARE^ 



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Tenis fOR FAST DELIVERY scr.d nprtified rhBrlC) mont; oriicrs. VISA or MaMiZiiO number and a.piralion date Pefsonal checks require 3 we>;<s 
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^See Lisl of Advertisers on Page 387 



Micro, February 1983 • 95 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



Project Deep Dive 



by Michael John Lake 

First Place 

14-18 



Project Deep Dive is an aicade-style 
game with sound in which you com- 
mand a submarine going down a long 
winding tunnel. You gain points for 
destroying other objects, and for dock- 
ing at the end. After docking you start 
over again until you are destroyed. 

Project Deep Dive will run on the 
Model I or III with 16K or Disk Basic 
with 32K. 

About the Program 

The original version of Deep Dive 
had only a slow speed, no sound, slower 
graphics, and less action. After realizing 
the potential of game programming, I 
quickly expanded the original game into 
what it is now. 

This program contains machine lan- 
guage, so be careful when typing it in. 
Be sure to save copies before running it, 
or you may experience full Basic crash, 
resetting your system and destroying the 
program in the process. (It is a good 
idea to save any program with POKEs 
or machine language before running it.) 



To save time, and memory, you can 
leave out all the remarks and the in- 
structions occupying lines 1020-1090. 

To hook up the sound, either put the 
large gray plug for the cassette recorder 
into the input jack of an amplifier, or 
use your cassette recorder directly with 
an earphone or speaker. 

To set up your recorder first take out 
any tape and press record and play 
while holding down the record tab 
micro switch in the top left corner inside 
the cassette compartment. Then remove 
all the plugs from their jacks and put the 
large gray plug into the auxiliary jack. 
Then take an earphone or speaker and 
plug it into the ear jack. You will now 
be able to hear sound when the game 
is run. 

To control your ship, use the greater- 
than and less-than keys (<and>) to 
move left and right. To shoot, use the 
numeric keys 1-6 on the numeric key- 
pad or top row. Keys 2 and 5 fire 
straight down, 1 and 4 fire left, and 3 
and 6 fire right. (They line up on the nu- 



Program Ltsling 

4 GOTO8800 

8 '10-30: SCAN KEYS & JUMP TO SHIP CONTROL ROUTINES 

10 A=PEEK(15136) : B=PEEK ( 15120) : C=C+1 : IFC<GTHENIF0=A+BTHENl0ELSE3 



20 GOTO40 

3 IFA=16THEN20 0ELSEIFA=6 4THEN300ELSEIFE<1THENC=C+1:GOTO10ELSEIF 

B-4THEND=6 4:GQTO410ELSEIFB=2THEND=6 3 ;GOTO410ELSEIFB=8THEND=6 5 :G0 

TO410ELSEIFB=16THEND=-1:GOTO4 5 0ELSEIFB=6 4THEND=1:GOTO4 5 0ELSEIFB- 

3 2THEMD=6 4:GOTO410ELSEIFB-1THEN15 0ELSEC=C+2:GOTO10 

38 '40-70: COMPUTE TUNNEL WALLS i. CHECK SHIPS STATUS 

40 E=E+1:IFE>40THENE=40 

50 I-I+RND(0)/7: J=J+RND(0)/a:K=SIN(I) *10+14;L=SIN(J) *10+26:POKEM 

+26,K:POKEH+28,L:POKEM+77,E:IFO-lTHENDEFUSR=&HBB9DELSEPOKE16526, 

29 

Liiiifif; cominuL'.', 



meric keypad in the directions you are 
shooting.) Key produces a force field, 
which vaporizes the objects immediate- 
ly around you. For continuous move- 
ment or fire, keep the key pressed down. 

When you start, you have 40 units of 
energy (displayed at the top of the 
screen). Each dme you shoot you lose 
one unit of energy, but gain one unit 
each time you move down a line. The 
force field uses 10 units of energy, 
which means you should use it sparingly. 

After reading the directions you will 
be asked if you want to start with fast 
speed. Press N to start with the slow 
speed, which is best for beginners. 
When playing at fast speed, you obtain 
double the points you would obtain 
with slow speed. 

The first things you will come across 
are mines {ff). They are worth two 
points. Next are torpedo launchers (A), 
which shoot torpedos (!) at you. They 
are worth 10 points. Then there are the 
sidemovers (H), which move sideways 
randomly. These are worth 20 points. 
Finally are the quick bombs, either up- 
arrows or left brackets, which pop up 
all over the screen. They are worth 10 
points. 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 
16, 32K RAM 

Cassette or Disk Basic 
Cassette Plug Amplifier Opt. 



96 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




Save more money (and data) with our hard disk drive 

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Each drive comes complete with controller board. ST-506 
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Manufactured from the finest components, the A.M. 
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five years when used 50% of the time. 

Power consumption is unusually low: typically one amp 
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"^ ■■ ' THE POWER 8EHIND THE DRIVES'" 



,^38 



Listing conlinueil 

6 C=PEEK(S+64) : B=PEEK CS+65) : A=PEEK (S+6 6) :PRINT@S-F/' "; : PRINT 
096 0,"":PRINT@S-F,"+O+"; :X=USR(X) 

7 PRINT@0, "ENERGY: "; : PRINT@48 , "POINTS : ";P; : POKES+1 ^7 9 : 1FA=32AND 
B=32ANDC=32THENC=0:GOTO84ELSE160 

7 8 '80-120: JUMP TO PROPER ENEMY WEAPON ROUTINE FOR PHASE 

80 N^N+1:GOTO10 

84 IFO=lTHENDEFUSR=6.HBB81ELSEPOKE16526 ,1 

90 C=0:IFN>309THENI20ELSEIFN>20 8THEN800ELSEIFN>127THENIFN=12 8THE 

N760ELSE700 

100 IFN>48THENH=H+1:IFH=1THEN6 00ELSEIFH=2THEN610ELSEIFH<9THEN6 3 

ELSEH=0:GOTO100 

110 IFN>40THEH680ELSE510 

120 IFN>319THEN920ELSEIFN=319THEN914ELSEIFN>314THEN90 0ELSEIFN>31 

2THEN910ELSE900 

148 '150-160: FORCE FIELD 

150 IFE<10THENC=C+2:GOTO10ELSEA$=CHRS(131) : BS=CHRS ( 140) :PRINT@S- 

F-7 ,CHR5(191) " +0+ "CHRSiigi) ; : PRINT@S-F+57 ,A$BSCHR$(1 

76)STRING$(11,32)CHR$(17 6)BSA$;:PRINT@S-F+124,A$B$STRING$(7,176) 

BSAS; 

16 FORA-0TO9:OUT255,l:OUT255,2:NEXT:PRINT@S-F-7," +0+ 

"; :PRINTias-F+57,STRING5[17,3 2) ; : PRINT@S-F+124 , STRING$ ( 11 , 32) ; 
:E=E-10:POKES+1,7 9:C=C+21:FORA=0TO9:NEXT:GOTO10 
198 '200-300: MOVE SHIP LEFT-RIGHT 

20 S=S-1:T=PEEK(S) : PRINT@S-F , "+0+ " ; : POKES+1 , 79 : IFT=32THENC=C+1 
:GOTO10ELSE1600 

300 T=PEEK(S+3) :PRINT@S-F," +0+" ; : POKES+2 ,7 9 : S=S+1 : IFT=32THENC=C 
+1:GOTO10:ELSE1600 

408 '410-440: SHOOT AT LOW ANGLE 

410 E=E-1:W=S+D+1:POKEM,40:T=USR(8) :T=PEEK(W) : POKEW , 46 : IFT032TH 
EN4 24 

420 F0RA=1T013:W=W+D:T=PEEK(W) : POKEW-D, 32 : POKEW, 46 : IFT=32THENNEX 
T : POKEW , 32 : C=C+21 : GOTOl 

424 IFT=46THENP=P-9ELSEIFT=3 5THENP=P-8ELSEIFT=7 2THENP-P+10 
430 IFT=153ORT=166THEN440ELSEPRINT@W-F-1, "***"; : P=P-H0 : C=C+21 : X= 
RND(255) :Y=256/X*(14-A) : POKEM,X: T=USR{ Y) : PRINT@W-F-1 , " "; :GOTO 

10 

440 POKEW,42:OUT255,1:FORT=0TO9:NEXT:C=C+21:A=A*10: POKEW, 32: FORD 
^RTO130:NEXT:GOTO10 

448 '450-490: SHOOT AT WIDE ANGLE 

450 E=E-l:W=S+65+D+D:PQKEM,44:T=USR(8) :T=PEEK(W) : POKEW, 46 : IFT03 
2THEN474 

460 FORA=lT013:W=W+6 4+D+D:T=PEEK(W-D) : IFT<>3 2THENW=W-D: POKEW-64- 
D,32;GOT0474 

47 T^PEEK(W) : POKEW-64-D-D ,32 : POKEW, 46 : IFT=32THENNEXT: POKEW, 32 : C 
=C+24:GOTO10 

47 4 IFT=46THENP=P-9ELSEIFT=35THENP=P-8ELSEIFT=72THENP=P+10 
480 IFT=153ORT=16 6THEN4 90ELSEPRINT@W-F-1, "***"; : P=P+10 :C=C+22 : X= 
RND(25 5) :Y=256/X*{i3-A)+l:POKEM,X:T=USR(Y) : PRINTiaw-F-1 , " " ; : GO 

TO10 

4 90 POKEW, 42 :FORT=0TO9:NEXT:C=C+22:A=A*20:POKEW,32:FORD=ATO130:N 
EXT: GOTOl 

508 '510: MIKE ROUTINE 

510 FQRT=1T02:P0KERND(L) +K+95 9+F, 35 : NEXT: FORT=0TO9 : NEXT: GOTO80 
540 ■ (C)1981-HICHAEL J.LAKE 

598 '600-680: TORPEDO ROUTINE 
600 U=RND(L/2-4) *2+K+963+F : V=RND(L/2-4) *2+K+963+F: IFU=VTHEN600EL 
SEPOKEU,65:POKEV,65:U=U-6 4:V=V-64:GOTO80 

610 POKERND(L)+K+95 9+F,46:T=PEEK[U) :U=U-12 8 : IFT=65THENPOKEU+64 ,3 
3 

620 T=PEEK(V) :V=V-128:IFT=65THENPOKEV+64,33:GOTO80 

630 POKERND(L) +K+959+F , 46 : T=PEEK ( U) : IFT-=33THENA=PEEK {U-6 4) : IFA=3 
2THENP0KEU , 32 : POKEU-6 4,33 

640 T=PEEK(V) :IFT=33THENB=PEEK(V-64} : IFB=32THENPOKEV, 32: POKEV-64 
,33 

650 U=U-128:V=V-128:GOTO80 
580 POKERND{L) +K+959+F,46:GOTO80 
698 '700-760: SIDEMOVER ROUTINE 

700 POKERND{L) +K+959+F , 46 : IFO=lTHENDEFUSR=&HBBE9ELSEPOKEl6526 ,10 
5 

710 FORU=0TO3:V=A% (U) :V=USR(V) : IFV>127+FTHEN730ELSET^PEEK ( V) : IFT 
=3 2THEN7 30ELSEIFT<>72THEN730ELSEIFV<STHENA=lELSEA=-l 
720 F0RB=1T08:V=V+A:T=PEEK(V) : IFT=43THENB=8:NEXT:GOTO1600ELSEPOK 
EV-A ,32: POKEV ,72: NEXT 

730 IFV<F+64THENPRINT@K+96 0, STRINGS (L, 32) ; : V=INT(L* . 5) +K+960+F:P 
OKEV,7 2 

7 40 V=V-6 4:A%(U)=V:NEXT:N=M+l:IFO=lTHENDEFOSR=&HBB81ELSEPOKE1652 
6,1 

750 GOTO80 

7 60 A% ( 0) =16320 :A%(1) =16064 :A%( 2) =1580 8 :A% (3) -15552 :GOTO80 
798 '800-820: QUICK BOMB ROUTINE 
800 PQKERND(L) +K+959+F,46 

810 V=RND(824}+196+F:T=PEEK(V) : IFT=32THENPOKEV, 91 : ELSE810 
820 GOTO 80 

898 '900-970: END OF TUNNEL - DOCKING ROUTINE 
900 FORT=0TO9:NEXT:GOTOa0 

910 PRINTia960+K,STRING5(L,PEEK(16610) ) ; :GOTO80 
914 POKERND ( L-10) +K+962+F , 89 :GOTO80 
920 PRINT@960+K, STRINGS {L, 151) ; : IFN<>332THEN80ELSET=PEEK (S+65) :P 

L.isnng conliniiei 



After going through the quick 
bombs, you must blast through a wall 
and dock. This is tricky, but you could 
use the force field to make a quick, easy 
opening. To dock with the docking port 
(Y), be sure you are centered directly 
above it. You get 200 points for docking 
and five points for each unit of energy 
you have left. You can then start again, 
keeping your score and gaining more 
points. 

Your game ends when you crash or 
miss docking. If you have a high score, 
you will asked for your name. Then you 
will be asked if you want a printout of 
your score; if so, press P, get your 
printer ready, and press Y. 

You can press E to end the game, D 
to see the directions, or another key to 
start you playing again. 

Correcting Errors 

If, while you are playing the game, 
the computer suddenly displays 
Memory Size?, reboots the DOS, or 
hangs up, then something is wrong with 
the data statements, USRs, POKEs, or 
other related function. This also might 
be the problem if the sounds don't work 
correctly, the tunnel is drawn strangely 
or the sidemovers don't work. To cor- 
rect these problems start by checking 
lines 2000-8800 for errors. If you spot 
no problems, check the rest of the pro- 
gram starting from the beginning. 

How This Game Works 

By looking at the listing you might 
think this program is poorly structured. 
When it was first written, it was correct- 
ly structured, but because of upgrades, 
some of the design logic was lost. 

I have included comments in the 
listing that describe what various lines 
do. All the single-letter variables are 
used for the program, as well as varia- 
bles, A%, H%, H!, XX, A$, and N$. 

1 included some machine-language 
subroutines in the program to speed up 
a few functions. These routines draw 
the walls, show the energy, move the 
sidemovers, and make the music. 

To protect the routines in high mem- 
ory without answering the memory-size 
question, I POKEd the address of 
where the machine language is to start 
into locations 16561 and 16562. Then to 
reset other internal Basic registers I used 
a clear statement. Then the routines are 
POKEd into protected memory. ■ 



Michael John Lake, age 15, can be 
reached at 5486-F Jamison St., Fort 
Knox, KY 40121. 



98 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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=P+E*5:R-R+1 

930 FORU=0TO9:PRINT@256,CHR$(31)CHR$(23) "YOU HADE IT! " ; : POKEM, 44 

:A=USR(80) : PRINTCHR$ ( 28) ;: FORV=0TO9 : NEXT: NEXT: PRINT@280 , "- BUT D 

IDN'T DOCK, SORRY."; :IFT-89THENPRINT@280,"- AND DOCKED SAFELY TO 

!"!:P=P+200 

940 IFG=22THENPRINT@384,"YOUR SCORE IS DOUBLE AT FAST SPEED.";:? 

=P*2 

950 PRINT@54,P; :Q=Q+P:PRINT@512,"Y0UR TOTAL POINTS SO FAR ARE -" 

;Q; "AFTER" ;R; "RUNS"; :GOSUB140 

950 IFT<>a9THENl640 

970 PRINT(a896, "PRESS 'S' TO STOP, ANOTHER KEY TO CONTINUE ," :GOSU 

B1200: IFAS="S"THEN1640ELSE1100 

998 '1004-1010: PROGRAM SIGN ON 

1004 ONERRORGOTO0:CLS:GOSUB8400:PRINTCHR$(28) ; :S=158 

1006 F0RP=lT014:PRINT@S-64," "; : PRINTias , "+0+" ; :0UT255 , 1 :OUT255 

,2;FORB=0TO99:NEXT:S=S+6 4:NEXT:S=990:FORP=lTO14:S=S-6 4:PRINTias+6 

4," "; :PRINT@S,"+0+"; : 0UT255 , 1 :OUT255 , 2 : FORN=0TO99 :NEXT:NEXT 

1010 GOSUB8410:GOSUB1110:PRINT@896,"DO YOU WANT TO SEE THE DIREC 

TIONS ?" ; :GOSUB1200:IFA$="N"THEN1096 

1018 '1020-1090: DIRECTIONS 

1020 PRINTia388,CHR$(31) "YOUR MISSION IS TO GO DOWN A WINDING TUN 

NEL, DESTROY ALL THEWEAPONS YOU COME ACROSS, AND DOCK WITH THE D 

OCKING PORT AT THE BOTTOM SO A TEAM OF TRAINED PERSONNEL CAN DE 

STROY THE EVIL BASE. " :GOSUB1110 

103 PRINT@64,CHRS(31) STRINGS ( 62 , 140) ; : PRINT@704 ,STRING$ ( 62 , 140) 

; :PRINT@194,STRING$(40,45) " "STRINGS ( 15 , 45) ; 

10 40 FORP=5TO33:SET(0,P) :SET(1,P) :SET(86,P) :SET(87,P) :SET(122,P) 

:SET(123,P) :NEXT;PRINT@130 , "DISPLAYED OBJECTS : " ; ; PRINT@173 , "CON 

TROL KEYS :"}ih$=" - VJORTH ":B5=" POINTS " 

1050 PRINT@258,"'#' MINE"A$"2"B5"SHOT" ; : PRINTia322 , " ' ! ' TORPEDO"A 

?"10"B$; :PRINT@3 86," 'A' TORPEDO LAUNCHER"A$"10 "BS ; :PRINT@45 0," 'H 

' SIDE MOVER"A$"20"B$;:PRINTia514,"' [' QUICK BOMB"A$"10"B$ ;: PRINT 

13578,"'.' MINI HINE"A$"1"BS; 

1054 PRINT@642," 'Y' DOCKING PORT-WORTH 200"BS"DOCKED" ; 

1060 PRINT@301,"< - HOVE LEFT" ; : PRINT@365 , " > - MOVE RIGHT";:PRIN 

T@429,"0 - FORCE FIELD" ;: PRINT@493 , "FIRE DIRECTIONS"; 

1070 PRINT@56I,CHR$(176) "4 5 6 "CHR$ ( 176) ; : PRINT@622 ,CHR$ ( 176) CHR 

$(140)CHR$(13i)CHRSC160)"l 2 3''CHR$ ( 144) CHR$ (131) CHR$ ( 140) CHR$ ( 1 

76) ; :PRINT@6 85,CHRS{131) " "CHRS ( 152) CHR$ ( 129) " "CHR$(191) " "C 

HR$(130)CHRS(164) " "CHRS (131) ; 

1074 PRINT@772,"LO0K AT THE DATA ABOVE. IT SHOWS HOW TO CONTROL 

YOUR SHIP &SHOWS THE DIRECTIONS YOUR GUN FIRES ( KEY 6 FIRES RI 
GHT-DOWN ) . YOU START WITH 40 UNITS OF ENERGY, AND EACH SHOT USE 
S UP ONE.";:GOSUB1110 

1080 PRINT"YOU GAIN 1 UNIT OF ENERGY PER SECOND, SO PLAN YOUR SH 
OTS. THE FORCE FIELD USES UP 10 UNITS OF ENERGY, USE IT SPARIN 
GLY. YOUR SHIP,'+0+', WILL BE DESTROYED IF YOU CRASH, SO BE CAR 
EFUL,"; :GOSUB1110 

1090 PRINT"FOR SOUND CONNECT THE LARGE GRAY PLUG TO AN AMPLIFIER 
. YOU CAN START PLAYING. GOOD LUCK ! " ; : GOSUB1110 
1094 '1096-1100: START TUNNEL RUN 
1096 F=15360!G=44:Q=0:R=0:XX-0:CLS:PRINT"WOULD YOU LIKE TO START 

WITH FAST SPEED ?" ; : GOSUB1200 : IFA$="Y"THENG=22 
1100 E=40:S=90+F:N=0:I=0: J=0:P=0:H=0:POKE16 610,46:CLS:PRINT@0,ST 
RINGS (64, 95) ; : FORA=0TO23 : PRINT@A,CHRS (95) ". "STRINGS ( 4 ,188) CHR$ ( 1 
91) CHRS (157) ;:PRINT@A+66," +0+"; : FORB=1TO20 :OUT255 ,RND( 2) :NEXT:N 
EXT:FORA=0TO999:NEXT:GOTO80 
1108 '1110-1210: INKEYS ROUTINES 

1110 PRINT@975," PRESS ANY KEY TO GO ON ";:A$=INKEY$ 

1120 A$=INKEYS:IFAS=""THENX=RND(255) : POKEH,X : Y^USR( 8) :GOTO1120EL 

SEPRINT@76a,CHR$(31) ; : RETURN 

1200 AS=INKEYS 

1210 AS=INKEYS:IFAS=""THEN1210ELSERETURN 

1398 '1400-1580: GAME COMMENTS 

1400 IFQ<500THENPRINT@640 , "MAYBE YOU SHOULD READ THE INSTRUCTION 

S! "; 

1410 IFQ>499ANDQ<1000THENPRINT@640,"GOOD START FOR A TRAINEE!"; 

1420 IFQ>999ANDQ<2000THENPRINT@640,"YOU ARE DOING OK. ..SO FAR!"; 

1430 IFQ>1999ANDQ<4000THENPRINT@640,"TRY TO MAKE 4000, AND HEAR 

SOME MUSIC.";ELSEIFXX=-1THENFORA=0TO9 9:POKERND(6 4) +15 999 ,RND( 255 

) :0UT255,RND(2) : NEXT: FORA=0TO999 iNEXT: PRINT@640 , STRINGS ( 64 ,32) ; 

1440 IFQ>15999THENIFXX=0THENPRINT(a640,"DIVE, DIVE, DIVE TO THE B 

OTTEM OF THE SEA ;":PRINT"SO YOU MIGHT HAVE VICTORY -":PRINT"PRO 

JECT DEEP DIVE IS ITS NAME ;":PRINT"AND ITS GONNA DRIVE YOU INSA 

NE !"; 

1450 IFQ<4000THENRETURNEL£EXX=XX+1:IFXX<>1THEN147 0ELSEXX=-1:REST 

ORE :FORP=0TO163:READB: NEXT: FORP=0TO3 0:READX,B:V=40:IFINT(X/2) OX 

/2THENX=X-1:V=80 

146 Y=256/X+V: POKEM, X:Y=USR(Y) : FORV=0TOB*2 : NEXT: NEXT: PRINT@6 40 , 

CHRS (31) ; 

1470 IFQ>5999ANDQ<10000THENPRINTia640,"YOU ARE DOING GREAT! LETS 

TRY FOR 10,000!"; 

1480 IFQ>9999ANDQ<16000THENPRINTia640,"LETS GO FASTER NOW!";:G=22 

1490 IFQ>19999ANDQ<30000THENPRINT@640,"YOU MUST HAVE PRACTICED B 

EFORE ! " ; 

1500 IFQ>29999ANDQ<50000THENPRINTia640,"KEEP ON GOING, TRY FOR 1, 

LiMing conlinues 



100 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



GEMINI- 

FOR PRINTER VALUE THAT'S 
OUT OF THIS WORLD 




~:,.:^iiiS:iis*^iii&i 






Over thirty years of down-to-earth experi- 
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enabled Star to produce the Gemini series 
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than the best selling competitor. 

The Gemini 10 has a 10" carriage and 
the Gemini 15 a 151/2" carriage. Plus, the 
Gemini 15 has the added capability of a bot- 
tom paper feed. In both models, Gemini 
quality means a print speed of 100 cps, high- 
resolution bit image and block graphics, 
and extra fast forms feed. 

Gemini's flexibility is embodied in 
Its diverse specialized printing 
capabilities such as super/ 
sub script, underlining, back- 
spacing, double strike mode 
and emphasized print mode. An- 
other extraordinary standard micron 



m 



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feature is a 2.3K buffer. An additional 4K 
is optional. That's twice the memory of lead- 
ing, comparable printers. And Gemini is 
compatible with most software packages 
that support the leading printers. 

Gemini reliability is more than just a 
promise. It's as concrete as a 180 day war- 
ranty (90 days for ribbon and print head), a 
mean time between failure rate of 5 million 
lines, a print head life of over 100 million 
characters, and a 100% duty cycle that 
allows the Gemini to print continuously. 
Plus, prompt, nationwide service is readily 
available. 

So if you're looking for an Incredibly 

A high-quality low-cost printer 
1^ that's out of this world, look 
^j?^ to the manufacturer with its 
feet on the ground — Star and 
® the Gemini 10, Gemini 15 dot 



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MAKING A NAME FOR OURSELVES 

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For more information, please call Bob Hazzard, Vice President, at (214) 631-8560. 



NEW SOFTWARE 

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■ Church Contribution System 

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designed to help organize all your data and pro- 
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At lascl A really FAST 
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1510 IFQ>49999ANDQ<75000THENPRINT@640 ,"THIS IS INSANE!"; 

1520 IFQ>74999ANDQ<100000THENPRINT@640,"yOUR FRIENDS WILL BE SUP 

RISED! "; 

1530 IFQ>99999ANDQ<250000THENPRINT@640,"VERY FEW PEOPLE GET THIS 

FAR ! " ; 
1540 IFQ>249999ANDQ<50000 0THENPRINT@6 40, STRINGS {30, 33) :FORP=0TO9 
99:NEXT:PRINT@640 ,"THIS MIGHT BE A RECORD SCORE!"; 

1550 IFQ>499999AKDQ<1000000THENFORP=33TO42:PRINT@640,STRING$(52, 
P) :FORB=0TO99:NEXT:NEXT:PRINT@640,"I THINK YOU CAN HAKE IT TO 10 
00000 - A RECORD SCORE!"; 

156 IFQ>9999 99THENFORP=33T01 91 :PRINTia6 40, STRINGS (1 28, P) STRINGS ( 
128,P) ; :X=25 5-P:POKEM,X:Y:=256/X*4:Y=USR(Y) :NEXT: GOTO15 80 

157 RETURN 

1580 PRINTia540,CHR$(31)CHR$(23) "YOU HAVE MADE A RECORD SCORE!":P 
RINT"y0U HAVE OVER 1,000,000 POINTS ! "CHR$ ( 28) ;: FORP=0TO999 : NEXT: 
GOTO16 40 

1598 '1600-1630: SHOW SHIP CRASH 

16 IFO=1THENDEFUSR=&HBB81ELSEPOKE16526,1:POKE165 27,125 
1604 S=S-F:AS=CHR$(191) : PRINT@S ,CHRS ( 138) ASCHRS { 133) ; :POKEM,40:Y 
=USR(8) :B$=STRING$ (2,191) : PRINT@S ,CHRS ( 175) A$CHR$ { 159) ; :POKEM,80 
:Y=USR(20) :PRINT@S-1, STRINGS (5, 191) ;: PRINTias+64 , STRINGS ( 3 , 131) ;: 
POKEM,100:Y=USR(40) : PRINT@S-2 , STRINGS ( 7 , 191) ; 

1610 PRINT@S+6 2,CHRS(130)CHR$(13 9) STRINGS ( 3 , 143) CHR$ (135) CHRS [ 12 
9) ; :POKEM,120:Y=USRC80) : PRINTias-3 , STRING? ( 9 ,191) ; : PRINT@S+61 ,CHR 
$(130)CHRS(139>CHRS(17 5) ASB$CHRS(15 9)CHRS(135)CHR$(129) ;:P0KEM,1 
60:Y=USR(60) 

16 20 PRINT@S-3,BSSTRINGS(2,157) A$STRINGS{2,17 4)BS;:POKEH,200:Y=U 
SR(8) : PRINT@S-3, CHR$ ( 157 ) CHRS (1 53 )CHRS[ 157 )CHRS( 153) ASCHRS ( 166) C 
HR$(17 4)CHRS{166)CHR$(17 4) ; : PRINTias+63 ,CHR$ ( 167) CHR$ ( 182) ASCHRS ( 
185)CHRS(155) ; : POKEM, 2 50 : Y=USR( 8) 

1630 PRINT@256,CHRS(31) "WATCH OUT FOR OBJECTS, ONE JUST DESTROYE 
D YOUR SHIP ! "; :T=0:GOTO940 

1638 '1640-1650: END OF GAME - HIGH SCORE 

1640 PRrNT@960,CHRS(23) "HIGH SCORE: "CHRS { 28) ;: PRINT@982 ,NS" -";H 
!; "POINTS";HR; "RUNS"; :IFQ>H!THENPRINT@768, "YOUR SCORE IS THE HIG 
HEST, WHAT IS YOUR NAME" ; : INPUTNS:H ! =Q:HR=R 

16 50 FORU=0TO9: PRINT @96 ,CHRS(31) ; : FORB=0TO99 : NEXT: PRINT@96 ,CHR 
$(i^3) "HIGH SCORE: "CHR$(28) ; : PRINT@9 82 ,NS" -";H! ; "POINTS "; HR; "RUN 
S"; :POKEM,16 0:Y-USR(8) ;NEXT 

1658 '1660-1680: SCREEN PRINTOUT (CHANGES GRAPHICS & PRINTS) 
1660 PRINT@896, "PRESS 'P' TO HAKE A PRINTOUT, ANOTHER KEY TO CON 
TINUE"; : GOSUBl 200 :IFA$<>"P"THEN1 6 90 ELSEPRINT 0896, "PRINTER READY? 
"STRINGS (38,32) ; : GOSUBl 200 : IFAS<>"Y"THENl660ELSEPRINT@896 , STRING 
5(52,32) ;;T=0:FORP=0TO1023 

1670 B=PEEK(P+F) : IFB=13 3THENB=73ELSEIFB=15lTHENB=84ELSEIFB>127TH 
ENB=88ELSEIFB<32THENB=B+6 4 

1680 LPRINTCHRS(B) ; :T=T+1: IFT=64THENLPRINT: T=0 :NEXT: GOTO1660ELSE 
NEXT 

1690 PRINT@896, "PRESS 'E' TO END,'D' FOR DIRECTIONS, ANOTHER KEY 
TO PLAY AGAIN";:GOSUB120 0:IFA$="E"THENPOKE163 96,2 01:ENDELSEIFAS 
="D"THENI004ELSE1096 

1998 '2000-2260: MACHINE LANGUAGE & MUSIC DATA 

2000 FORX=0TO225:READB:A=A+B: NEXT :IFA<>21201THENPRINT: PRINT" ERRO 
R-CHECK DATA'':POKE16396,201:END 

2010 RESTORE: FORX=0TO163:READB:POKEM+X-4,B:NEXT:GOTO1004 
2200 DATA 205,127,10,14,4,65,62,1,211,255,181,62,2,16,251,43,65, 

6 2,2,211,2 55,124,181,16,252,32,23 4,2 01 

2210 DATA 217,6,4,14,4,62,1,211,255,30,64,5 8,226,64,33,192,63,11 

9,35,29,16,251,54,32,35,29,13,32,249,119,35,29,32,251,33,226,64, 

214,153,40,4,54,153,24,2,5 4,166 

2220 DATA 6,57,33,7,60,62,4,230,255,40,7,54,138,35,5,61,32,249,5 

4,32,35,16,251,62,2,211,255,217,201 

2230 DATA 205,127,10,126,214,72,32,25,237,95,230,3,40,19,71,237, 

95,230,1,40,15,54,32,43,126,214,32,32,21,54,72,16,244,195,154,10 

,5 4,3 2,35,126,214,3 2,3 2,11,5 4,7 2,16,244 

2240 DATA 24,239,35,54,72,24,234,43,54,72,24,229 

2250 DATA 189,40,189,40,189,40,146,40,170,40,19 8,0,206,4 0,146,2 

,17 0,20,2 07,80,135,40,146,40,171,40,100,40,135,0,146,0,2 07,80,10 

0,0,6 6,40,135,40,101,40,134,40,18 8,4 0,67,80 

2260 DATA 135,40,189,40,170,40,101,40,147,40,101,0,67,255 

6998 '7000-8030: CHECK FOR DISK BASIC AND SET MEMORY SIZE VALUE 

7 00 ONERRORGOTO7010:DEFUSR=SHBB81:O=1:GOTO8030 
7010 O=0:POKE165 26,1:POKE16527,125:RESUHE8030 

8030 POKE16 610,O:IFO=1THENPOKE16 561,128:POKE16562,187ELSEPOKE165 

61,0:POKE16562,125 

8038 '8040: SET UP PROGRAM VARIABLES 

80 40 CLEAR40 0:DEFINTA-H,K,L,N-P,R-Z:C=0:B=0:S=0:T=0;U=0:V=0:F=15 

360:O=PEEK(16610) : IFO=1THENM=-17531ELSEM=32005 

8050 GOTO2000 

8400 PRINTCHR$(23) " (((( PROJECT DEEP DIVE ))))"; :RETURN 

8410 PRINT@448," (C) COPYRIGHT 1981 — MICHAEL JOHN LAKE ++";:RET 

URN 

8420 'FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CALL (502) 942-0722 OR WRITE: 

MICHAEL JOHN LAKE 

5486 P JAMISON ST. 

FORT KNOX, KY. 40121 

880 CLS:RANDOH:POKE16396,17 5:POKE16397,201:GOSUB8400:GOTO7 000 



102 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



SCRINPUT 

(outline *I in a series) 

SCRINPUT, (SCReen IPiFUT), is a fully relocatable 908 byte machine language 
routine that replaces the BASIC iriFUT statement. Instead of entering data one 
item at a time, SCRinPUT allows you to create a video form on the screen of your 
disk based Radio Shack TRS-80 Nodel 1 or 3. Data entry, is then a simple, matter 
of filling in the blanks. Up to 80 "data fields " can be created on one video screen. 
Each field is assigned a length, screen position and one or more data types: 
Upper case alpha, lower case alpha, numeric or punctuation. Only characters 
matching type specifications can be placed in the field. 

After defining data fields and specifying screen information, (Caps lock. Case 
reversal, cursor symbol and initial cursor location are among the features that 
can be activated), SCRIPiFUT is called via the BASIC USR function. 
A flashing cursor symbol indicates where keyboard entered data will appear. As 
each character is entered, the cursor moves right one position. At the end of a 
data field, SCRinPUT repositions the cursor to the start of the next field. 
Keystrokes of invalid type are ignored. 

Arrow keys can be used to move the cursor from one data field to another. Error 
correction is a simple matter of overtyping the bad characters with new data. The 
whole process is very similar to traditional screen oriented word processors. 

SCRinPUT assigns all data fields to standard BASIC variables. These can be 
handled by your BASIC program in the same manner as information gathered by 
inPUT. You can even include error checking to insure that information is within 
reasonable bounds. 

Be warned! SCRinPUT is only a utility and is designed for use within BASIC pro- 
grams. If you cannot program, you can't use SCRinPUT. SCRinPUT works with any 
Disk Operating System (DOS) and comes with a 65 page manual containing 
sample programs, instructions and suggestions. Flow charts and source code 
are also included. 

SCRinPUT has a 15 day money back guarantee: If you are not satisfied for Anv 
reason, return the package in good condition for a full refund. This is an en- 
hanced version of the original SCRinPUT reviewed in the 4/82 issue of 80 Micro. 
Features added since that review include character insert and delete, user 
defined cursor character, a completely revised manual and alterations to allow 
easy use of SCRinPUT in the editing of existing data files. 

SCRinPUT 5.0 is priced at $49.95 plus 5.00 shipping, CHECKS, VISA and MASTER- 
CflARGE are accepted. We cannot accept AnY purchase orders — including 
government agencies! Phone orders are welcome. Call (702) 367-2055 for prompt 
service or use the order blank below. 



So f Touch 

3200 Polaris, Suite 3 
Las Vegas, NV 89102 

Please Send Me: 

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-See Lisi ot Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 103 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



Music Composer 



by Carl Huben 

First Place 

11-13 



The lack of programs using the Color 
Computer's sound function is very dis- 
appointing. But I've come up with a 
program to use this interesting capabili- 
ty. This program is easy to use — it's 
even simpler than playing Beethoven's 
Fifth on a touch-tone telephone. 

My program allows you up to 200 
notes, with features such as save on 
tape, retrieve from tape, forward or 
backward play, editing, and the 
highlight of the programs, three 
keyboards. 

How It Works 

When first run, you are presented 
with four options. The first lets you 
recall sound from the tape, while the 
others specify the three keyboards. 

The first of these keyboards, the 
piano keyboard, is set up like a real one, 
except in three rows. 



On this scale, the letter T is middle C. 
This keyboard allows you five octaves, 
excluding sharps and flats. The first oc- 
tave uses the keys E to O, going across. 
The next octave is from keys P to H. 
The keyboard continues in this manner. 
(You use the semi-colon, comma, and 
period keys to produce notes.) 

One major drawback of this key- 
board is its slowness. There is a delay 
between when you press a key and when 
the note is produced. The delay is most 
apparent in the highest octaves. When 
you press a key, the program searches 
through data to locate it, and then reads 
the number that represents that key. 
After that, it will produce a tone of the 
desired pitch. It will take the computer 
longer to reach the last keys than the 
first keys, because that is the order they 
are in in the data statements. This delay 
is not present on the replay. 



Program Listing 



10 CLS:PRINTTAB(9) "MUSIC COMPOSER" 

20 PRINT iPRINT : PRINT : PRINT" (1} LOAD MUSIC FROM TAPE" : PRIN 

T"(2) PIANO KEYBOARD" : PRINT"(3) A-Z SCALE KEYBOARD" : PRINT"{4 

) a-A slale keyboakd" 

30 PRINT@64,: : INPUT"ENTER CHOICE";A 

40 ON A GOTO 60,190,340,470 

50 GOTO 3 

60 CLS : PRINT : INPUT"HOW MANY FILES OF MUSIC PRIOR TOTHE DESIR 

ED ONE";B: IFB=0THEN 120 

70 PRINT : PRIKT"PRESS PLAY ON THE TAPE-DECK" 

80 F0RC=1 TO B : OPEN "I" ,-1 , "MUSIC" 

90 IP E0F(-1} THEN RUN 100 

100 INPUT #-l,AS 

110 GOTO 90 : NEXT 

120 DIM T(200) ,S(200) :PRINT"LOADING SOUND" 

130 OPEN "I" r-l, "MUSIC" 

140 INPUT#-1,L 

150 INPUT#-1,XX 

160 IF EOF(-l) THEN 500 

170 INPUT #~1,T( a) ,S(Z) 

180 Z=Z+1 : GOTO 160 

190 GOSUB 680 ! CLS : XX=0 

200 TIMER=0 

210 M5=INKEY$ : IF HS="" THEN 210 



Listing con tin lies 



An advantage of this keyboard is its 
order, which can be helpful. 

The next two keyboards are essential- 
ly the same. These are the A-Z and Z-A 
keyboards. These are much faster than 
the first, but lack the order present in 
the other. You only use the letter keys 
for these scales. 

After typing out your great composi- 
tion, you'll want to play it back. Just 
press the space bar . After entering 
whether you want forward or reverse 
play, your song will be played back, 
note for note (including the pauses be- 
tween each note). 

The program will ask if you want to 
edit the music that you've created. If 
you decide to, you will be asked the 
tones you want replayed. This is offered 
as a convenience for those who want to 
track down the sour note. Afterwards, 
you are presented with three choices; 
make changes, replay previously 
selected tones, or respecify replay 
numbers. 



Variable 


Description 


L 


Note length 


SO 


Pause between stored notes 


T() 


Stored notes 


XX 


Present keyboard mode 


z 


Current number of note 




Table 1. Variables 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
16KRAM 
Color Basic 



104 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



P?(KRI£5SIVI: lsl.lSCi?()NIC5 



PRESENTS 



!! AFFORDABLE EXPANSIONS !! 



FOR 



TRS-80 MODEL- 1 

READY to RUN 32K MODEL-1 
MDX-2 EXPANSION INTERFACE 
$469 .00 



TRS-80* MODEL- III 



* MODEL-3 COMPUTERS with 48K MEM 
2 DISK DRIVES (no RS-232) 



$1699 .00 



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DOUBLER Double Density for MOD- 1 or MDX-2 ;.$99.95 

MOD-1 CHARACTER GENERATOR ( TRUE .L . CD ESCEND ERS ) $18.95 

PE-IOOO DIRECT CONNECT PHONE MODEM (NO EXPANSION INTERFACE 
NEEDED) USES 40 PIN TRS-80* BUSS (KIT) $129.95 



MICRO-DESIGN 

*MDX-2 . .Board & Manual. .$ 7 4 .9 5 

PARTS KIT. $199.95 

ASSEMBLED BOARD $39 9 .9 5 

MDX-2. .MOD-1 Expansion with... 
Disk Controller ,32K RAM, 
Printer Port, Serial Port, 
and Direct Connect Modem. 



BOARDS 

*MDX-3 . .Board & Manu al . . $ 74 .9 5 

PARTS KIT $169.95 

ASSEMBLED BOARD $299.95 

MDX-3..MOD-3 Expansion with... 
Disk Cont roller , S erial Port, 
and Direct Connect Modem. 



*MDX-4 . .Board & Manua 1. . $ 29 .9 5 

PARTS KIT $40.00 

ASSEMBLED BOARD $99. 00 

MDX-4 . .Direct Connect Modem 
to 300 Baud 



*MDX-5 . .Board & Manual. .$ 49 .9 5 

PARTS KIT $79.95 

ASSEMBLED BOARD $159. 95 

MDX-5 . .MOD-3 . .S erial Port & 
Direct Connect Modem 



» *MDX-6 Upgrade for MODEL-3.. A COMPLETE FIRST DRIVE INSTALLATION 
1,40 track 5ms. step Disk Drive,. .MDX-6 ..Disk Cont roller and 
All Mounting B ra ck et s , C able s and Hardware $399.00 

» *TEC 40 Track Disk Drives 5ms. Step Double Den $180.00 

COMPLETE with Case and Supply $234.95 

» *"CURE"a Double Density Data Seperator $34.95 

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PROGRESSIVE ELECTRONICS ^143 

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PHONE 614-687-1019 MASTER 

TRS-80 is TRADEMARK of TANDY CORP. 



CARD & VISA ACCEPTED 

ZX-81 TRADEMARK of SINCLAIR 



-See Usi of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 105 



fT 



Krell's College Board 

SAT* 

Preparation Series 

NEW FOR 83 



^ 



A COMPREHENSIVE PREPARATION 
PACKAGE/ MORETHAN 40 PROGRAMS / 8299.95 

1. Diagnostic analysis 

2. Prescription at individual study plans 

3. Coveraga al all SAT' skills 

4. Unlimited drill and practice 

5. SAT* Exam IJuestion simulator 

6. All queslions in SAT* format and 
al SAT* dllficulty level 

7. Instafflanaous answers, explanalions 
and scaring for problems 

8. WorkstiflBt generation and performance 
monitoring - {optional) 

9. A complete record management system - 
(optional) 

1G. Systematic instruction in pertinent matli. 
verbal and test laking skills - (optional) 
Krell's unique logical design provijes 
personalized inslructian lor each student 
according to individual needs. 



Shelby ^^ 
Lyman IK^ 
Chess ^"^ 

Shelby's Socrates Chess Tuloriai Series usas Ihe latest 
Al techniqufls to cuslomiiB tach lasson far you. 
Constructian modules cover every aspacl ot Ihe game, 
for all micro's. Call or write for delails. 

Amazing Ben 

The Royal Road to 

Artificial Intelligence. 

$79.95 

Connections 

A complete game system. Learn the 
principles ot scientific reasoning In your 
clioice of game formats. Expand minds 
at all ages. Subject areas include: 
Geograptiy, Biology, Everyday Objects, 
e(c. 

Game System $99.95 

Data Base, $24.95 per subject, 
3 lor $50 

Isaac Newton + F.G. Newton 

Perhaps tha most fascinating and valualile sducational 
game ever devised - ISAAC NEWTON clialleiiges the 
players to assemble evidence and discern ihe underlying 
"Laws of Nature". FULL GRAPHICS NEWTON - 
presents all data in graphic form. This game Is suitable 
lor children. Players may select difficulty lavels 
challenging Id the most skilled adulls. 

Both Games $49.S5 



ALSO AVAILABLE 

Time Traveler / Oityssey in Time 

Competency Prullciency Series 

Pytbaguras and tfie Oregon 

Batllcalli / Micro Dautsch 

Super Star Baseball / Sword of Zadek 

War of Ihe Samurai 
CALL FOR DETAILS AND PRICES 



^51 



V 



KREUE 

SOFTWARE CORR 

T*m Him ly DM jrt M (tficjaoAjf cncifiuong 

1120 Sior^ Bniaa RoM f Siony Broo* NY nrw 

Iiltonan* ill7it ilia 

trtti Sgli'iit Lwii nis no Qiliiii< wt: .-in rnr LaMut 

Rr#ti ii fnowffv t ^pcri-n 0' ^»JutlS IQ iJv* \ ^ 

« \ S miCCiiEl *W iiln m I ^aI 

Prims Slightly Highif OulsiOg J S, L^W- 



J 



Lislm% continued 



220 IF ASCCM$)=32 THEN 500 

230 StZ)=TIMER 

240 READ Y$,Y : IF Y5=MS THEN 270 

250 IF Y5="." THEN RESTORE : GOTO 200 

260 GOTO 240 

270 T(Z)=y : RESTORE 

280 ?RINT@128,Z; "NOTES PLftYED, " ; 200-Z; "NOTES" :PRINT"REMAINIKG" 

290 IF Z=199 THEN 480 

300 Z=Z+1 

310 SOUND Y,L 

320 GOTO 200 

330 DATA Q, 5, W, 32 r E, 58, R, 7 8, T, 89, Y, 108, U, 125, 1, 133,0, 147, P, 159, A 

, 159, S, 170, D, 176, F, 185, G, 193, H, 197, J, 204, K, 210, L, 216,; ,218, Z, 223 

, X, 227, C, 229, V, 23 2, B, 236, N, 238, M, 23 9, ",",2 42,., 244 

340 GOSUB680 : CLS : XX=1 

350 TIMER=0 

360 MS=TNKEYS : IF M$="" THEN 360 

370 IF ASC(M$)=32 THEN 500 

380 S(2)=TIHER 

390 IF M$>"Z" OR M$<"A" THEN 350 

400 IF XX=2 THEN E=255-( (ASC(MS) -65) *9.a) ELSE E= ( (ASC(M$) -65) *9 

.8)+l 

410 SOUND E,L 

420 T(Z)=E 

430 2-Z+l 

440 PRINT@128,Z;"NOTES PLAYED"; 200-Z; "NOTES ": PRINT"REMAIKING" 

450 IF Z=200 THEN 480 

460 GOTO 350 

470 GOSUB 680 : CLS : XX=2 : GOTO 350 

480 PRINT"YOU HAVEN'T ANY MORE NOTES" 

490 FOR B=l TO 800 : NEXT 

500 CLS : PRINT : INPUT"DO YOU WANT FORWARD OR BACKWARDS PLAYBACK 

(1 OR 2)";J : OK J GOTO 510,530 
510 FOR N=0 TO Z-1:PRINT@128, "NOTES #"N+1:S0UND T(N) ,L : FOR K=l 

TO 7.6666*StN): KEXTK,N 
520 GOTO 540 

530 F0RN=Z-1 TO STEP -1 : PRINTiai28 , "NOTE #"N+1:P0R 0=1 TO S(N 
)*7.6666 : NEXT O: SOUNDT(N) ,L:NEXT N 

540 CLS : PRINT : INPUT"DO YOU WANT IT PLAYED BACK";PS : IF PS="Y 
ES" THEN INPUT"FORWARD OR BACKWARDS" ;Q$ ELSE 560 
550 IF Q$="FORWARD" THEN 510 ELSE530 

560 INPUT"DO YOU WANT TO EDIT IT";XS : IP XS="YES" THEN 740 
570 INPUT"D0 YOU WANT TO SAVE THE MUSIC T0TAPE";DS ; IF US="YES" 

THEN 580 ELSE RUN 
580 CLS : PRINT : PRINT"PRESS PLAY AND RECORD" :PRINT : PRINT"HIT 

ANY KEY TO SAVE SOUND" 
590 IP INKEYS="" THEN 590 
600 OPEN "0",-l, "MUSIC" 
610 PRINT#-1,L 
620 PRINT #-l,XX 
630 FOR H=l TO Z 
640 CLOSE -1 

650 PRINT : PRINT"FINISHED" 
N" 

660 IF INKEY$="" THEN 660 
670 RUN 

680 CLS : PRINT : DIMS( 200) ,T( 200) 
690 CLS : PRINT:INPUT"ENTER TONE DURATION 
)";L 

700 IF L<1 OR L>255 THEN 690 

710 PRINT : PRIKT"PRESS ANY ANY KEY TO START MUSIC" 
720 IF INKEYS^"" THEH 720 
730 RETURN 

740 CLS : PRINT : IKPUT"SPECIFY START NUMBER AND END 
F T0KES";X1,X2 

750 IF XKl OR X2>Z THEN 740 

760 FOR X=Xl-l TO X2-1 : PRINT@128 ."NOTE #"X+1 : SOUND T(X),L 
FOR P=l TO 7.6666*S(X) : NEXT P,X 
770 PRINT@256,"{1) MAKE CHANGES" : 
RINT"(3) RESPECIFY REPLAY NUMBERS'' 
UMBER";YY:ON YY GOTO 780,760,740 ; 
780 PRINT9256,"(1) CHANGE A NOTE"i 
(3) DELETE NOTES "; PRINT(ai92 ,;: INPUT" ENTER NUMBER" ; YY: ON YY GOTO 
820,790,810 : GOTO 780 

790 CLS ! PRINT@128, "PRESS ANY KEY TO START" 
800 IF INKEY$=""THEN800ELSE ON XX+1 GOTO 200,350,350 
810 CLS : PRINT :INPUT"NUMBERS TO DELETE" jQl ,Q2:Q2=Q2+1 :F0RJ=Q2 TO 

ZjT(Ql+(J-Q2) )=T(J) jS(Q1+(J-Q2) )=S{J) :NEXT: Z=Z- ( Q2-Q1) :GOTO490 
820 CLS : PRINT:RESTORE : IKPUT"NUHBER TO CHANGE";W : IF XX=1 TH 
EN 890 

830 FOR T=l TO 29 : READ A$,X : PRINT@206,T 
840 SOUND X,l :ZS=INKEYS : IF Z$=""THEN840 
850 IF ASCtZS)=32 THEN 870 ELSE NEXT 
860 RESTORE :G0TO 830 

870 T(W)=X : INPUT"DELAY (1-10)";P : S(W)=8*P 

880 INPUT"DO YOU WANT TO EDIT ANOTHER";QS j IP QS="YES" THEN740 
ELSE 500 

890 FOR T=l TO 26 
900 PRINT @206,T 
910 SOUND T*9.8,l 

920 IF ASC(ZS)=32 THEN 940ELSENEXT 
930 GOTO 890 
940 T(W) =T*9.8 

950 INPUT"DELAY (1-10)";R : S(X)=R*8 
960 PRINT : INPUT"CARE TO EDIT ANOTHER";LS 
970 CLS : GOTO 770 



PRINT #-l,T(H) ,S(H) : NEXT 



PRINT : PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO RETUR 



;i FOR EVERY. 06 SECOND 



NUMBER 



PRINT" (2) REPLAY NUMBERS" : P 
: PRINT9192,; : INPUT"ENTER N 
GOTO 770 
:PRINT"(2) EXTEND MUSIC" :PRINT" 



ZS=INKEYS : IF ZS="" THEN 910 



IF LS="N0" then 5( 



Line 


Purpose 


10-50 


Set up menu and input choice 


60-180 


Sound-loading routine 


190-330 


Piano keyboard function 


340-^70 


A-Z and Z-A keyboards 


480-^90 


Indicate no more notes 


500-550 


Play back music 


560-570 


Ask to edit and save 


580-670 


Save function 


680-730 


Subroutine to enter tone duration 


740-970 


Edit function 




Table 2. Line Fundions 



Choosing to make changes gives you 
another three options: change a note, 
extend the music, or delete portions of 



your song. The program explains the 
extension and deletion of notes in 
your music. 

The change-a-note function asks for 
the number of the note to change. You 
will then hear the lowest note in the 
keyboard you were in. Each time you 
press a key, the note gets higher, until 
you find the desired replacement note. 
Press the space bar, and it will be re- 
placed. It will then ask the delay you 
want between this note and the next. 
You will then be forwarded to the play- 
back mode so it can be played back. 

Now you have your composition. 
You certainly don't want to lose the 
work of 10 or 20 minutes, so use the 
save-on-tape feature. When you're in 
the playback mode, say no to every 



question until it asks if you care to save 
on tape. Position your tape, and enter 
yes, then press any key to save. 

After saving music on tape, you can 
use yet another feature, the loading 
function. When you enter this mode, 
you will be asked how many files of 
music are before the one you want. The 
program searches for your file, and 
loads it into memory. 

The many options and features 
should provide hours of fun compos- 
ing. Enjoy! ■ 



Carl Hubert (age 1 1) can be reached 
al 6929 Lee Crest Drive, West Bloom- 
field, MI 48033. 



GAMESTER SOFTWARE 



16K COLOR COMPUTER 

#402 SPIDER a fast-action $19.95 T 

graphic arcade game! 
by Chromatic Software 

#403 PAC-DROtDS the best $19.95 T 

color game available! 
by The Programmers Guild 

#404 DRAGONQUEST challenging $19.95 T 
adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#405 TOWER OF FEAR a classic $19.95 T 

adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#406 THUNDER ROAD a FUN $19.95 T 

adventure! Ext. tiaslc req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#407 LOST DUTCHMAN'S GOLD an $19.95 T 
adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

16K COLOR MISADVENTURES 

extended basic not needed 
#501 MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE $15.00 T 
PARLOR 
Fun! Slightly risque' 

#502 WET T-SHIRT CONTEST $15.00 T 

Wet and Wild Adventure! Fun! 

#503 SEWERS OF MOSCOW $15.00 T 

Challenging Misadventure! 

#504 CASINO OF PLEASURE $15.00 T 

Take the ultimate gamble! 

H505 NAKED NIGHTMARE $15.00 T 

ready 1-10-83 NEW! 

#506 SUPER HERO MISADVENTURE $15.00 T 
ready 2-16-83 NEW! 



DOHNE' BUGG is our best-selling ADVEN- 
TURE-DECODER! Are you STUCK in a 
machine-language ADVENTURE GAME? This 
program will display on the screen all VERBS 
that interact in the game, all LOCATIONS & 
OBJECTS you will find, and all ACTIONS that 
result! A MUST FOR THE SERIOUS ADVEN- 
TURER! 



LEAPER: now with voicei newi 



Joystick compatable! 1 
MACHINE LANGUAGE! 
available! 



or 2 players. Fast-action 
Best 1-board "frog-game" 



9 Southmoor Circle, Kettering, Ohio 45429 (513] 294-3383 
Mail & Phone Orders [from 12-6| accepted |COD, VISA/MASTER CARD, Checit]. 
Usually same-day shipment! Dealer inquiries invited. We pay postage! 

16K MODEL I AND IN 

#301 DOHNE' BUGG $15.00 T 

an ad venture- decoder! 

#302 BLOCK BREAKER $14.95 T 

by Cedar Software 
best "break-out type game" 
available! 

#303 LEAPER $15.95 T 

by Cedar Software 

Now with VOICE! NEW! $19.95 D 

This is the best single- board 
~frog" game available! 

#304 DEMON SEED $19.95 T 

by Computer Shack - NEW! 
arcade fun - amazing game! $24.95 D 

#305 CYBORG by Computer Shack $19.95 T 
The galaxy's ultimate sport! $24.95 

#306 B0UNCE01DS $15.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
Crazy Fun... go for it! $19.95 D 

#307 FROGGER by Comsoft Group $19.95 T 
Authorized version! $21.95 D 

GREAT MUSIC! 

#308 CRAZY PAINTER $19.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
What else can we say 
but WOW! $21.95 D 

#309 MICRO CORD $19.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
Easy! Two-tone harmony! Make 
your own t>eautiful music - and 
save it on tape or disk! $24.95 D 





fw±i^'i^ii^''^^ik -m:^ 




Our MISADVENTURE SERIES consist of 
CHALLENGING and FUN "adventure-type" 
programs that may occasionally be a bit 
naughty! 

MISADVENTURE SERIES 

$15.00 each 16K Model I or III 

#1 MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

#2 WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

#3 SEWERS OF MOSCOW 

#4 CASINO OF PLEASURE 

#5 NAKED NIGHTMARE ^379 

#6 SUPER HERO ADVENTURE 

#7 coming soon! 

NOTE: Radio Shack refused to include our 
first Misadventure [MADAM ROSA'S 
MASSAGE PARLOR] in their Sourcjbook 
due to our description of the game! We 
appreciate the publicity - thanks! 



^See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 107 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



LOAD 80 



Super-Draw 



by Terry Myerson 

First Place 

10 and under 



Program Listing 

REM *** A DRAWING PROGRAM CALLED SUPER-DRAW 

5 REM *** BY TERRY JAY MYERSON KNOWN AS T.J. 

7 REM *** AGE 10 

8 REM *** 233 PINE CONE TRAIL ORMOND BEACH, FLORIDA 32074 
10 POKE 16395, 175:POKE 15397,77 

20 CLS 

30 FOR X=0 TO 127:SET{X,44) :NEXT X 

40 PRINT@960,"HODE: SKETCH"; 

50 FOR R=l TO 221 

6 READ X,Y 
70 SET(X,Y) 

80 FOR L=l TO 5:NEXT L 

90 NEXT R 

100 PRINT@920,"by Terry Myerson" 

110 FOR X=l TO 15:IF S=0 THEN PRINT@960+21 , "P RESS ANY K 

EY TO BEGI N"; ELSE PRINT(a960+21 , " 

120 A$=INKEYS:IF A$<>"" THEN GOTO 260 

13 NEXT X 

140 IF S=0 THEN S=l ELSE S=0 

150 GOTO 110 

160 A$=INKEY5:IF A$="" THEN 160 ELSE GOTO 260 

170 DATA 32,8,31,7,30,6,29,6,28,5,27,5,26,5,25,5,24,6,23,7,23,8, 

2 2,9,22,10,23,11,24,11,2 5,11,26,11,27,11,28,11,29,11,30,11,31,12 

,31,13,30,14,30,15,29,16,28,17,27,17,26,17,25,17,24,17,23,15,22, 

16,21,15,20,14 

180 DATA 37,11,36,12,35,13,35,14,35,15,35,16,36,17,37,17,38,17,3 

9,17,40,17,40,16,41,15,42,14,43,13,43,12,43,11,43,15,43,16,44,17 



190 DATA 4 

8,20,48,21 

,56,13,56, 

16 

20 DATA 6 

9,14,68,13 

,61,16,62, 

210 DATA 7 

4,12,75,12 

220 DATA 3 

9,26,39,27 

,31,30,31, 

23 DATA 4 

5,26,46,26 

240 DATA 5 

5,26,54,26 



8,11,48,12,48,13,48,14,48,15,48,15,48,17 
,48,22,4 9,12,50,11,51,11,52,11,53,11,54, 
14,55,15,56,16,55,17,54,17,53,17,52,17,5 



14,61,14,6 
7,12,66,11 
,63,17,64, 
11,73,11,7 
6,11,77,11 
22,33,22,3 
9,28,38,29 
,31,28,31, 
25,42,27,4 
7,26,48,26 
25,59,27,5 
3,27,53,28 



2,14,63,14 
,65,11,64, 
17,55,17,6 
3,12,73,13 
,78,11,79, 
4,22,34,23 
,37,30,36, 
27,31,25,3 
2,28,42,29 
,49,27,50, 
9,28,59,29 
,53,29,53, 



,64,14,65,14,65,14 

11,63,11,52,11,61, 

6,17,67,17,68,17,6 

,73,14,73,15,73,16 

11,80,11,81,12,82, 

,35,23,36,23,37,23 

30,35,30,34,30,33, 

1,25,31,24,31,23,3 

,42,30,42,31,43,27 

28 

,59,30,60,31,58,27 

30,54,31,55,31,56, 



,48,18,48,19,4 
11,55,11,56,12 
1,17,50,17,49, 

,67,14,68,14,6 

12,60,13,50,15 

9,16 

,73,17,74,13,7 

13,82,14 

,38,24,39,25,3 

31,32,31,31,31 

1,22 

,44,27,44,26,4 

,57,25,56,26,5 
31,57,31,58,30 



250 DATA 67,26,57,27,65,28,65,29,65,30,66,31,67,31,68,31, 

0,29,71,28,71,27,71,26,5 9,30,6 9,31,70,31,71,31,72,31,73,3 

,75,28,75,27,75,26 

260 CLEAR 10000 

270 ON ERROR GUTO 2110 

280 CLS 

290 PRINTTAB(20) "CHOOSE SKETCH SCREEN" 

300 PRINTTAB(i5) "USE ARROWS" 

310 PRINT@448+32-3,"? " ; CHR$ (143) ; " ?" ; 

320 PRINT@448+32-54,"?"; 

330 PRINT@448+32+64,"?"; 

340 N=PEEK(14440) 

350 IFNAND8THENS=1 



58,30,7 
0,74,29 



Listing conlinues 



Super-Draw will make you and your 
TRS-80 creative. It lets you draw on the 
CRT, reproduce figures several times 
on the same screen, and save and recall 
drawings. 

1 wrote this program on a Model III 
with 48K and two disk drives. Only one 
disk drive is necessary to run the pro- 
gram, though, and you can use a 
joystick. 

How to Use It 

After the introduction to Super- 
Draw is finished, you can choose your 
sketch pad. The six possibilities are in 
Fig. 1. 

For screen A, press the up arrow; for 
screen B, press the down arrow; for 
screen C, press the left arrow; and for 
screen D, press the right arrow. 

For screens A-D, just press the arrow 
pointing to the part of screen you want 
white. For screen E, press any arrow, L 
(load), and then (load 0). For screen F, 
press any arrow, L (load), and then 
(load 0). When the computer is done, 
press C (convert). 

Simple Drawing Techniques 

To move the sketcher, use the arrow 
keys or the joystick. Hold down two ar- 
row keys to draw diagonals. 

To choose a new sketch screen or re- 
start your drawing, press the space bar 
or the red button on the joystick. 



The Key Box 

Model 1 or III 
48KRAM 
Disk Basic 
One Disk Drive 



108 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



Finally, a Spelling Checker that can SPELL! 



Electric 
Webster 

The ''Cadillac'' of Spelling Checkers! 

80 Microcomputing, 9/82 



FAST and ACCURATE — No other spelling checker 

comes close! 
INTEGRATED — Proofs and corrects from 

within all these popular word processing 

programs: Scripsit, Newscript, Lazy Writer, 

Electric Pencil. Superscript, and Copy Art. 
SMART — Finds and displays correct spellings instantly — no more clumsy dictionaries! 
HYPHENA TES automatically — inserts discretionary hyphens with 100% accuracy, (optional) 

COMPLETE — One step proofing system with integrated Grammatical and Hyphenation 

features, (optional) 

No other program can claim even one of these features. 




EASY TO USE: Type your text using any of a number of 
popular word processing programs. When you are done, hit 
the appropriate key, and ELFXTRIC WEBSTER proof- 
reads your document, displaying misspellings and typos 
on the screen. 

Then, Correcting Electric Webster can display each error 
separately, requesting you to enter the correct spelhngs for 
each. You are given the options of disphiying errors in 
context, adding words to ELECTRIC WEBSTER's 50,000 
word dictionary, or even displaying the dictionary to find 
the correct spelling. If you think you know the correct 
spelHng, Electric Webster will verify it for you. 

Finally, Electric Webster CORRECTS YOUR TEXT, 
automatically inserts discretionary HYPHENS (optional), 
and points out GRAMMATICAL errors (optional), all with 
remarkable speed! 



LOW PRICES: Standard Electric Webster is available for 
$H9.r>0 {TRS-80™ Model I & III, or Apple™) or $149.50 
(CP/M™, TRS-80™ Model II and all others.) The optional 
Correcting Feature can be added at any time ($60) as can 
Hyphenation ($50) and Grammatical ($40). During the 
closing months of 1 982 on ly , we are offering 6 W/P integra- 
tion programs FREE (reg. $35 each) with the purchase of 
Correcting Electric Webster. 



The Ultimate PROOFING SYSTEM 



.yone 



REVIEWS OF MICROPROOF (EW's predecessor): 

"There is simply no finer program available . . ." 
Creative Computing, March 1982 

"This is a very useful product and should be obtained by any' 

who uses a word processor." 

SO Microcomputing, August 1981 

"The summary review of this program? One word — Excellent." 
Computronics. September 1981 

"In a comparative review of proofreading programs (with smaller 

dictionaries) MICROPROOF was found to be considerably faster 

than all the others, when tested against a 400 word sample 

document." 

BYTE Magazine. November 1981 

"'A 1500 word document took 26seconds toload, process and proof 
. , , it is very friendly and any prson able to use a word processing 
program can master it in moments." 
InfoWorld. January 1982 

"By far, the most capable and efficient of these spelling checker 

programs." 

Microcomputing. June 1982 

AND NOW ELECTRIC WEBSTER: 

"Actually, Klectric Webster is faster than its predecessor (Micro- 
proof) . . . and spelling corrections are immediately verified 
against the dictionary before being accepted . . ," 
Microcomputing, June 1982 

"Electric Webster is the Cadillac of vocabulary programs." 
80 Microcomputing, September 1982 




CORNUCOPIA SOFTWARE 

Post Oficc Box 6111 Albany, California 94706 • (415) 524 8098 



1^ 



•See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 109 



To find out where the sketcher is, 
press enter and the sketcher will start 
blinking. To stop the blinking, press 
break. 

Advanced Drawing Techniques 

To erase or move to another place on 
the screen, press clear. Then move the 
eraser with the arrow keys or joystick. 
To exit, press enter or the red button on 
the joystick. 

To change everything black to white 
and everything white to black, press C. 
To save a drawing, hit S and the draw- 
ing number (1-9). To load a drawing, 
liit L and the drawing number (1-9). 

Creating and Using Functions 

To create a function, type E while in 













1 **»«»****»«*««« 1 
! ♦***♦+**♦+♦***♦! 




1 »,,*»:f;^»»:,:^*»:^* J 




I It******' 
! It******! 






Figure 1. Six Screens 



Liiling conlinued 

36B IFNAND16THENS=2 

370 IFNAND32THENS=3 

380 IFNAND64THENS=4 

390 OUT236,16 

400 A=255-INP{0) 

410 IFAAND1THENS=1 

420 IFAAND2THENS-2 

430 IFAAND4THEHS=3 

440 IFAAND8THENS=4 

450 IFS=0ORS>4THEN340 

460 CLS 

470 IFS-1THENFORX-0TO7 ; PRINT@64*X, STRINGS ( 64 , 191) ; :NEXTX 

480 IFS=2THENFORX=aT014:PRINTia64*X,STRINGS(64,191) ; :NEXTX 

490 IFS=4THENFORX=0TO15:PRINT@64*X+32,STRING$(32,191) ; :NEXTX 

500 IFS=3THENFORX=0TO1 4 :PRINT@6 4*X, STRINGS (32, 191) ; :NEXTX: 

510 FORX=0TO127:SET(X,44) :NEXTX 

520 PRINT@960,"HODE : SKETCH" ; STRING? ( 20 ,128) ; 

530 IFS=10RS^3THENX=64:Y=24 

540 IFS=2THENX=64:Y=23 

550 IFS=4THENX=63:Y=23 

560 SET(X,Y) 

570 POKE16396,175:POKE16397,201:N=PEEK(14440) , 

580 IFN=128THEHGOTO 260 

590 AS=INKEY$ 

600 IF A$-"S" THEN GOTO 1100 

610 IFA$="L"THENGOTO1300 

620 IF A$="C" THEN GOTO 1790 

630 IF A$="P" THEN GOTO 1990 

640 IF A$-"E" THEN GOTO 2130 

650 GOSUB 1670 

660 IFA=0ANDN=0THEN570 

670 IFNAND8THEMy=y-l 

6 80 IFNAND16THSNy=Y+l 

690 IFNAND32THENX=X-1 

700 IFNAND64THENX=X+1 

710 IFKAND1THEN3000 

720 IFNAND4THENPOKE16396,195:POKE16397,77:GOTO 760 

730 IFNAND2THEN910 

740 GOSUB 1600:GOSUB 1530 

750 GOTO570 

760 PRINT@960,"HODE :FUNCTION LOAD", "TYPE FUNCTION FILE NAME"; 

770 E1^X:F=Y 

780 E=Y+11 

790 AS=INKEY5:IF A$="" THEN 790 

800 POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,77 

810 0PEN"I",3,"FUNC"+AS+"/FUC" 

IF XX127-35) THEN WQW 

IF YX47-11) THEN GOTO 570 

FOR X=X TO X+36:FOR H=Y TO E 
850 INPUT#3,P 
860 IF P=l THEN SETCX,H) 
87 NEXT H,X 
880 CLOSE 
890 X=E1:Y=F 
900 F 



820 
830 
840 



ELSE RESET(X,H) 



910 PRINTia961 
920 



970 
980 
990 
100( 



"MODE :SKIP & ERASE" ; STRINGS ( 20 , 128) ; 
F=PEEK(14440) : A=255~INP ( 0) 
930 IFF=0ANDA=0THEN920 

940 IFFAND1ORAAND16THENPRINT@960,"MODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 20 , 128) ; 
:GOTO17 60 
950 GOSUB1020 

960 IFFAND80RAAND1THENY=Y-1 
IFFAND160RAAND2THENY=Y+1 
IFFAND320RAAND4THENX^X-1 
IFFAND640RAAND8THENX-X+1 
) GOSUB1600 

) GOSUB153 0:GOTO920 ' ' 

1 IFS=1THENIFY<24SET(X,Y) ELSERESET{X, Y) 
I IFS=2THENIFY>23SET(X,Y) ELSERESET(X,Y} 
1 IFS=3THENIFX<64SET(X,Y) ELSERESET(X, Y) 
I IFS=4THENIFX<64RESET(X,Y) ELSESET(X,Y) 
1060 IF S=5 THEN SET(X,Y) 
1070 IF S=5 THEN RESET(X,y) 
10 80 RETURN 
1090 E=X:F-Y 

1100 PRINTia960,"MODE : SAVE" ; STRINGS ( 20 ,128) ;: L=PEEK (15360) :POKEl 
5360,35 

1110 AS=INKEYS 
1120 A=VAL(AS) 

IFA<1ORA>9THEN1110 

PRINT@960,"MODE : SAVE DRAWING #";AS; 

POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,77 
1160 OPEN "0",1, "DRW" +AS+"IG"+"/DAT" 
1170 PRINT#1,S; 
1180 PRINT#1,X; 
1190 PRINT#1,Y; 
1200 POKE15360,L 
1210 FORX=1536aTOl6383 

Listing continues 



1131 
114[ 

list 



110 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



For serious business microcomputing, 

only one operating system 

exactly fits. 



Whether you're in business and do 
microcomputing, or in computing 
and sell to business, you'll like OASIS* 
Not a hobby or scientific system warmed- 
over for business use, ^^^^^^ 
OASIS is the only operating 
system designed from the 
ground up for business. 

SERIOUS BUSINESS 
COMES IN ALL SIZES. 

Whatever your business 
need, OASIS has the 
operating system to match: 
8-bit or 16-, single-user or 
the multi-user system that 
professionals tell us makes 
micros run like minis. And 
that's even truer now with 
new OASIS-16.** (OASIS 
exact business fit #7; 
choice.) 



available, type 'HELP' and the command 
function title — OASIS displays the syntax 
and options available. 
Of course it's all in your language — 
not computerese. (OASIS 
exact business fit #5; 
user-friendliness.) 



AND, AND, AND... 



Some of the best, most 
extensive documentation 
in the industry; a packed 
Applicatior^oftware 
Direct|^PWljlti-level train- 
ing; din^l^hone support; 
orldwUPal eg^ service; 
itions li^^^n~ROL 
Jatia^NKta Bas^ 
ment Syster 
MASTERBWitfinani 
Modelir 



bugfi #12.) 




why there's 
n to struggle trying 
to put a square peg in a 
round hole. For serious 
business microcomputing, 
there is one operating system that 
exactly fits: OASIS. Call or write us 



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for high- 
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!ity business application 
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OASIS is custom-fitted to manufac- 
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ap plication sof tware p ortabilit y is 
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Device independence allows various 
printers and terminals to be used — 
with no modification to application 



ata integrity — a challenge for any 
multi-user system — is insured by 
OASIS File & Automatic Record Locking. 
With it, normally all users can view a 
record at the same time. BUT, if the record 
is being updated by one user, other users 
are automatically denied access unti 
the update is complete. That means 
data is always accurate and up-to-date. 
It's still anoth er O ASIS exclusive. 

For system security there's OASIS 
Logon, Password & Privilege Level. 
User Accounting keeps track of who used 
the system, when. ('OAS/Sexacfjbus/ness 
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A FRIENDLY SYSTEM IS 
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For user-friendliness, OASIS sets new 
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■ STRICTLY business™ 

PHASE ONE SYSTEMS, INC. 

7700 Edgewater Drive, Suite 830 

Oakland, CA 94621-3051 

Telephone 415/562-8085 TWX 910-366-7139 

I'm serious about my business- 
please send me : 
n OASIS-16 Manual, $75 
G OASIS Manual, $60 
n Free Application Software Directory 
and put me on your mailing list. 

(Add S3 for shipping, California residents add sales tax ) 



Name 

St. (No Box#) 

City_ . — 



State- 



Zip. 



□ Check enclosed □ VISA D Mastercharge 
n UPS CO.D. D American Express 



Card No._ 
Signature. 



Exp. date. 



Micro, February 1983 -111 



TRS-80* 

Models 
l&lll 




Discount 
Prices! 



Do you have these bestsellers? 

YouT Cost 

Entertsinnwnt Tape /Disk 

The Eliminator (Adv. Int.) 19.90/19.90 

Reign. . . Red Dragon (Adv. Int.) - /19.90 

Star Fighter (Adv. Int.) 19.90/23.90 

Defense Command (Big Five) 12.70/15.90 

Robot Attack (Big Five) 12.70/15.90 

Bounceoids (Comsoft) 1 2.70/1 5.90 

Panik (Fantastic) 15.90/19.90 

Venture (Horizon) 11.90/15.90 

Dunzhin {Med Systems) 23.90/23.90 

The Institute (Med Systems) 15.90/15.90 

Laser Defense (Med Systems) 12.70/15.10 

PenetratorV (Melbourne) 21.20/21.20 

Business 

Lazy Writer (ABC Sales) - /148.75 

Postman Mailing System (SSM) - / 99.95 

Maxi Manager & Util. (Adv. Int.) - /119.90 

Personal Check Mgr. (Adv. Int.) - / 19.90 

GL/Cash Journal (Taranto) - / 60.00 

Electric Webster (Prosoft) - /119.60 

Newscript7.0(Prosoft) - / 99.90 

Newscript7.0 + Labels (Prosoft) - /111.90 

Programming Tools 

BASIC Editor (Comp. Appl.) 23.90/ - 

Free gift with order! 
RIMES COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

262 Tracey, Dept. 2A 
Grand Island, N.Y. 14072 

[716)773-2519 '-"Si 

Add $1.50 for U.S. shipping. Add $1 .50 for COD. 

Add S4,50 for Canada or Mexico 

For faslest service send M.O. or cert, check. 

Mastercard/Visa also accepted 

Allow 2 weeks for personal checks. 

New York Residents add sales tax. 

'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 




For 

the 
Model II 
48 K RAM 
2 Disk Drive 
Computer. 

TRS DOS 

120 day warranty 

[^Out of state 

buyers pay no tax 



1-606-325-2210 
Mon.-Fri. 10-6 EST 



ASHLAND COMPUTER 

1716 Wilshire Blvd. 
Ashland, Ky. 41101 



Liil'mi: conlinued 

1220 N=PEEK(X) 

1230 PRINT#1,N; " , "; 

1240 NEXTX 

1250 PRINT@960,"HODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 20 ,128) ; 

1260 CLOSE 

1270 POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,201 

1280 X=E:Y=F 

1290 GOTO570 

1300 PRINT@960,"HODE : LOAD" ; STRINGS { 20 ,128) ;: L=PEEK { 15360) 

1310 POKE15360,35 

1320 A$=INKEYS 

1330 A=VAL(A$) 

1340 IFA<0ORA>9THEN1320 

1350 IF A-0 THEN IF A$<>"0" THEN 1320 

1360 POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,77 

137 0PEN"I",2,"DRW"+AS+"IG"+"/DAT" 

1380 INPUT#2,S 

1390 INPUT#2,X 

1400 INPUT#2,Y 

1410 CLS 

1.420 IFEOF{2)THEN1500 

1430 ZX=ZX+1 

1440 INPUT#2,W 

1450 IFZX=961THENGOTO1470ELSEPRINTCHR$(W) ; 

1460 GOTO1420 

1470 GOSUB1650 

1480 GOSUB1600 

1490 ZX=0 

1500 CLOSE 

1510 POKE 16396, 175:POKE 16397,201 

1520 GOTO570 

1530 IFS=1THENIFY<24RESET(X,Y) ELSESET{X,Y) iRETURN 

1540 IFS=2THEHIFY<24SET(X,Y) ELSERESET( X, Y) :RETURN 

1550 IFS=3THENIFX<64RESET(X,Y)ELSESET(X,Y) :RETURN 

1560 IFS=4THENIFX<64SET{X,Y)ELSERESET(X,Y) :RETURN 

1570 IF S=5 THEN RESET(X,Y) 

1580 IF S=6 THEN SET{X,Y) 

1590 RETURN 

1600 IFY>=44THEI]Y=0 

1610 IFY<=-1THENY=43 

1620 IFX<=-1THENX-127 

1630 IFX>=128THENX=0 

1640 RETURN 

1650 PRINT@960,"MODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 20 , 128) ; 

1560 RETURN 

1670 OUT236,16 

1680 A=255-INP(0) 

1690 IFA=0THENRETURN 

1700 IFAAND16THENG0T0 260 

1710 IFAANDlTHENV=Y-i 

1720 IFAAND2THENy^Y+l 

1730 IFAAND4THENX=X-1 - 

1740 IFAAND8THENX=X+1 

17 50 RETURN 

1760 A=255-INP(0) 

1770 IFA=16THEN1760ELSEPRINT@960,"MODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 20 ,128) ; 

1780 GOTO570 

1790 PRINT@960,"HODE :CONVERT SKETCH SCREEN" ;: E=X: F=Y 

1800 FOR Y=0 TO 43 

1810 FOR X=0 TO 127 

1820 IF PQINT{X,Y) THEN RESET{X,Y) ELSE SET{X,Y) 

1830 NEXT X,Y 

1840 X=E;Y=F 

1850 ON S GOTO 1870,1890,1910,1930,1950,1970 

1860 PRINT@960,"HODE: SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 20 , 128) ;: GOTO 570 

1870 S=2 

1880 GOTO 1860 

1890 S=l 

1900 GOTO 1860 

1910 S=4 

1920 GOTO 1860 

1930 S=3 

1940 GOTO 1860 

1950 S=6 

1960 GOTO 1860 

1970 S=5 

1980 GOTO 1860 

1990 E=X:F=Y 

2000 PRINTia960, "MODE iPRINT HI - RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ON OKIDA 

TA 83A"; 

2010 FOR X=0 TO 127:FOR Y=0 TO 5:G0SUB 27 40:NEXT Y:LPRINT CHR$(Z 

) ; :Z=0:NEXT X 

2020 FOR X=0 TO 127:FOR Y=6 TO 11:G0SUB 2740:NEXT Y:LPRINT CHR$( 

Z) ; : Z=0:NEXT X 

2030 FOR X-0 TO 127:FOR Y=12 TO 17:G0SUB 2740:NEXT Y:LPRINT CHRS 

(Z) ; :Z-0:NEXT X 



112 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




JPC PRODUCTS CO. 



Poor Man's 
Floppy 

HIGH SPEED CASSETTE SYSTEM 



Now for the TRS-80 Color Computer 



The JPC Products High Speed Cassette System, 
in operation for over 4 years, is now available 
for all versions of the Radio Shack Color Computer. 
• TC-8C 

The TC-8C plugs directly into the expansion 
port of your TRS-80 Color Computer. It is fully 
compatible with all versions of the Color Computer 
from the Standard 4K up to the Extended 
32K systems. 

• FAST 

The TC-8C saves and loads files at more than 
twice the speed of the built in Color Computer 
system. 

• RELIABLE 

All of JPC Products high speed cassette systems 
have a proven reliability of less than one 
error in a million bits. 

• TWO DRIVES 

The TC-8C fully supports two cassette 
drives. Save and load through either drive by 
simple software selection. You can use 
standard Radio Shack CTR-80A tape recorders 
or their equivalent. 

• ALL FILE TYPES 

The CCCOS operating system allows you to 
save, load, verify or run both BASIC and 
machine language files. Data files are 
also supported. 

• MOTOR CONTROL 

On board relays are provided for both cassette 
ports on the TC-8C. 

• SPARE EPROM SOCKET 

The TC-BC has a spare EPROM socket on 
the board. You can install either 2716 or 2732 
EPROM's. This memory space can be used for 
any of your application programs or you 
could install the optional JPC Products 
monitor program - JBUG. 

TC-8C 

JBUG (EPROM) 

JBUG (CASSETTE) .. 



• JBUG MONITOR 

The JBUG Monitor is a 2K relocatable monitor 
program with fantastic features for the Color 
Computer user. 

• ASSEMBLER 

Line assemble any machine language program 
directly into memory using standard 6809 
assembly language mnemonics. 

• DIS-ASSEMBLER 

Dis-assemble any memory resident program 
(ROM or RAM) directly on the screen. 

• MEMORY MODIFY & LIST 

Modify memory directly or list memory in both 
HEX and ASCII. 

• BREAK POINT TRAPS 

Set, clear or continue from break points. 

• CASSETTE OR EPROM 

The TC-8C is not required in order to use the 
JBUG Monitor. It is available on cassette 
or a 2732 EPROM. 

• SUPERB DOCUMENTATION 

The TC-8C and the JBUG Monitor come with 
complete and extensive user manuals 
{JPC's documentation is praised almost as 
highly as our hardware and software). 
Complete command descriptions and 
background information are provided. 
Examples and sample programs are provided 
to help the novice and experienced 
individual take full advantage of the TC-8C 
and the JBUG Monitor. 

• READY TO GO 

The TC-BC comes completely assembled 
and tested with the CCCOS operating system. 
It is backed with a 30 day Money Back 
Guarantee and a 90 day Full Warranty. 

$129.95 

$34.95 



$29.95 



Terms: Cash, Master Card or Visa 

Shipping & {Handling $ 3.50 (US) 
$5.50 (Canada) $15.00 (Foreign) 

Technical Inquiries: Phone 5:00 - 6:00 PM MST 




JPC PRODUCTS CO. 

Phone (505) 294-4623 
12021 Paisano Ct. N.E. 
Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 



^ 42 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 113 



sketch mode. Start creating your func- 
tion with the arrow keys or joystick. To 
convert the sketch screen, press C. To 
restart function drawing, press the 
space bar or the red button on the 
joystick. 

To save a function hit enter, then S, 
then name the function (using one 
character). To load a function, hit 
enter, L, and the name you used (using 
one character). To exit the sketch pad, 
press enter and then E. 

To load your function into the sketch 
pad, position the sketcher where you 
want the top left corner of your func- 
tion, press break, and then the function 
name (using one character). 

To draw your function again on the 
same sketch pad, repeat the instructions 
in the last paragraph. To exit the pro- 
gram hit the orange key. ■ 



Terry Myerson (age 10) can be 
reached at 233 Pine Cone Trail, Or- 
mond Beach, FL 32074. 



Listing conlinued 



Introduction 

Variable Purpose 

R ■ Number of points to light up on screen 

X How far over each point should be 

Y How far down each point should be 
L Timer loop between each lit point 

S Whether to blink "Press any key to begin" 

A$ The letter entered 

Main Program 
Variable Purpose 

N Input bytes entered from keyboard 

A Input bytes entered from joystick 

S Sketch pad 

X Position of sketcher across 

Y Position of sketcher down 

AS Command entry from keyboard 

E Takes place of X when X is being used for 

something else 
F Takes place of Y when Y is being used for 

something else 
P Input byte taken from function file 

ZX Counter when bytes are taken from file 

Z Bytes sent to printer 

O Number taken from data statement 

Function Creator 

Variable Purpose 

X Position of sketcher across 

Y Position of sketcher down 

N Input byte entered from keyboard 

A Input byte entered from joystick 

AS Command entered from keyboard 

P Byte taken from function file 

Table 1. Variables 



2040 
(Z); 
2050 

(Z); 
2060 

2070 
(Z); 
2080 
2090 
2100 
2110 
2120 
2130 
2140 
2150 
2160 
2170 
NGS( 
2180 
2190 
2200 
2210 
2220 
2230 
2240 
2250 
2250 
2270 
2280 
2290 
2300 
2310 
2320 
2330 
2340 
2350 
2360 
2370 
2380 
2390 
2400 

2410 
2420 
2430 
2440 
2450 
2460 
2470 
2480 
2490 
2500 
2510 
2520 



FOR X=0 TO 127!FOR Y=18 TO 23:GOSUB 2740:NEXT Y:LPRINT CHRS 
:Z=0:NEXT X 

FOR X=0 TO 127:F0R Y=24 TO 29:G0SUB 2740:NEXT Y:LPRINT CHRS 
:Z-0iNEXT X 

FOR X=0 TO 127:FOR Y=30 TO 35:G0SUB 2740:NEXT YiLPRINT CHR$ 
:Z=0:NEXT X 

FOR X^0 TO 127:F0R Y=35 TO 41:G0SUB 2740:NEXT y:LPRINT CHRS 
:Z=0:NEXT X 

FOR X=0 TO 127:Y=42:GOSUB 2740:LPRINT CHR? ( Z) ; : Z=0 :NEXT X 

PRINTia960,"HODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS (35 , 128) ; 

X=:E:Y=F:GOTO 570 

CLOSE:PRINT@960,"MODE : SKETCH" ; STRINGS ( 51 ,128) J 

RESUME 570 

POKE 16396, 175:POKE 16397,201 

POKE 16409,1 

CLS 

ON ERROR GOTO 2710 

PRINT STR1NG$(15, 179) ; "SUPER - DRAW iFUNCTION CREATOR" ; STRI 
15,179) ; 

PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

FOR Y=25 TO 40 : SET( 40 rY) : SET( 80 ,Y) :NEXT Y 



FOR X=40 TO t 

Y=33:X=60 

SET(X,Y) 

N=PEEK{14440) 

IF INKEYS="C' 

IF N AMD 

IF N AND 



i:SET{X,25) :SET(X,40) :NEXT X 



:QUT 236,16:A=255-INP(0) 
THEN 2690 

1 OR A=16THEN 2380 

2 THEN 2610 
IF N AND 128 THEN 2130 

IF N AND 8 OR A AND 1 THEN Y=Y~1 

IF N AND 16 OR A AND 2 THEN Y=y+1 

IF N AMD 32 OR A AND 4 THEN X=X-1 

IF N AND 64 OR A AND 8THEN X=X+1 

GOSUB 2330: GOTO 2 23 

IF Y<=26 THEN Y=38: SET(X ,Y) : RETURN 

IF Y>=39 THEN Y=27 : SET( X , Y) :RETURN 

IF X<42 THEN X-7 8 : SET(X , Y) :RETURN 

IF X>=79 THEN X=42 : SET( X, Y) :RETURN 

SET(X,Y) :RETURN 

PRINT@192,"L TO LOAD,S TO SAVE,E TO EXIT TO SUPER-DRAW" 

A$=INKEYS:IF A$="" THEN 2390 

IF AS="E" OR AS="L" OR A5="S" THEN GOTO 2410 ELSE GOTO 235 

IF A$="E" THEN GOTO 260 

IF A$="L" THEN 2520 

PRINT@I92,"SAVE iTYPE FUNCTION FILE "; 

A$=INKEYS:IF AS^"" THEN 2440 

POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,77 

OPEN "0",1, "FUNG" +A$+"/FUC" 

FOR X=42 TO 78 

FOR Y=27 TO 38 

IF POINT{X,Y) THEN PRINT#1 , "1" ; " 

NEXT Y,X 

CLOSEiPOKE 16396, 175:POKE 16396 , 201 :GOTO 2270 

PRINTiai92,"LOAD :TYPE FUNCTION FILE 



ELSE PRINT#1,"0' 



2530 A$^INKEY5:IF AS="" THEN 2530 

2540 POKE 16396, 195:POKE 16397,77 

2550 OPEN" I" ,2,"FUNC"+A$+"/FUC" 

2560 FOR X=42 TO 78:FOR Y=27 TO 38 

2570 INPUT#2,P 

2580 IF P=l THEN SET(X,Y) ELSE RESET(X,Y) 

2590 NEXT Y,X 

2600 CLOSEiPOKE 16396 ,175 :POKE15396 ,201 : GOTO 2270 

2610 N=PEEK(14440) :IF N=0 THEN GOTO 2610 

2620 IF N AND 1 THEN FOR V=l TO 250:NEXT V:GOTO 2230 

2630 RESET(X,Y) 

2640 IF N AND 8 THEN Y=Y-1 

2650 IF N AND 16 THEN Y=Y+1 

2560 IF N AND 32 THEN X=X-1 

2670 IF N AND 64 THEN X=X+1 

2680 GOSUB 2330:GOTO 2610 

2690 FOR X=42 TO 7 8 : FOR Y-27 TO 38:IF POINT(X,Y) THEN RESET(X,Y) 

ELSE SET(X,Y) 
2700 NEXT Y,X:GOSUB 2330:GOTO 2230 
2710 PRINT@128,"D0NT BE A WISEGUY"; 
2720 FOR X=l TO LEN("D0NT BE A WISEGUY") 

2730 FOR W=l TO 250:NEXT W:PRINT CHR$ ( 8) ; : NEXT X:G0T0 2270 
2740 DATA 0,6,12,18,24,30,36 

2750 FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2770 ELSE NEXT Q 
2760 GOTO 2780 

2770 IF POINT(X,Y) THEN Z=Z+1 : RESTORE iRETURN 
2780 DATA 1,7,13,19,25,31,37 

2790 FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2810 ELSE NEXT Q 
2800 GOTO 2820 

2810 IF POINT(X,Y) THEN Z=Z+2 :RESTORE;RETURN 
2820 DATA 2,8,14,20,26,32,38 

Listing cominues 



114 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Luring continued 




2830 


FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2850 ELSE 


KEXT Q 


2840 


GOTO 2860 




2850 


IF POINT(X,Y) THEN Z=Z+4 : RESTORE:RETORN 




2860 


DATA 3,9,15,21,27,33,39 




2870 


FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2890 ELSE 


NEXT Q 


2880 


GOTO 2 90 




2890 


IF POINT{X,Y) THEN Z=Z+8:REST0RE:RETURN 




2900 


DATA 4,10,16,22,28,34,40 




2910 


FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2930 ELSE 


NEXT Q 


2920 


GOTO 2940 




2930 


IF POINT(X,y) THEN Z=Z+16 :RESTORE iRETURN 




2940 


DATA 5,11,17,23,29,35,41 




2950 


FOR Q=l TO 8:READ 0:IF Y=0 THEN 2970 ELSE 


NEXT Q 


2960 


GOTO 29 80 




2970 


IF POINT(X,Y) THEN Z=Z+32 : RESTORE:RETURN 




2980 


IF POINT(X,Y) THEN Z=Z+1 iRESTORE: RETURN 




2990 


RETURN 




3000 


PRINT@960,"MODE :BLIKK "; 




3010 


RESET(X,Y) :SET(X,Y) 




3020 


N=PEEK(14440) :IF N AND 4 THEN FOR W=l TO 


20:NEXT W 


3030 


GOTO 3010 





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Diskettes 





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from Tech'Data, your complete 
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Call Toll Free ^ 
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V 



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St, Petersburg, FL 33702 



TWO GIANTS AT YOUR FINGEi?TIPS . . . 



THE MOST POWERFUL & IMOST USER-ORIENTED 
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM TERMINAL PACK- 
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TELETERM will turn any Model III, with at least 32K of memory, 
single disic drive, and RS-232-C board and modem into an Intelligent 
Terminal capable of communicating with nearly all types of computer 
hardware. AND, it will allow you to define its parameters in virtually 
any way you wish I 

Only TELETERM gives you these [plus many more) features, all in 
a single package. 



DIRECT TRS-aO to TRS-80 
DISK TO DISK TRANS- 
MISSION* 

DIRECT FILE TRANS- 
MISSION FROM DISK" 
SUPPORTS PROMPTED OR 
NON-PROMPTED TRANS- 
MISSION 
ON-LINE/OFF-LINE TEXT 

EDITOR 

■wden commjnicatlng with anotfier TELETERM system 

VIDEO PAGING "To any compulef wittt uvtitch you can communicate 

Available for MOD 11 & IBM-PC early in 1983 



SPLIT-WINDOW VIDEO 

RECALL SCREEN 

WORD WRAPPING 

USER-DEFINABLE 
TRANSLATION TABLES 

VIDEOTEX CODES 
SUPPORTED 



TELEBOSS — THE COMPREHENSIVE DATA 
ENTRY/OUTPUT PROGRAM GENERATOR 
THAT ALSO FORMS A NATURAL FRONT-END 
FOR TELETERM I 

With TELEBOSS, your Model Ill's become powerful, user-friendly 
data entry terminals into mini's and mainframes. 

TELEBOSS allows you to enter, modi^'. validate, and store data 
on inexpensive floppy disks and then transfer these files without 
tying up expensive communications ports or CPU time on the main 
computer system. 

Best of alt, you define all input and output specifiers , . , 



• Screen formats 

• Validation criteria 



Data file structures 
Report formats 



TELEBOSS interfaces with the highly flexible TELETERM commun- 
ications package, giving you the capability of communicating with 
virtually any kind of computer hardware.* 



To any computer with which you can communFcate 
Requjfes 48 K computer 

Available for MOD II & IBM-PC early in 1983 



ORDER TODAY: Write or fill in the coupon and mail it 
TELEXPRESS, INC., PO Box 2 



with your check, money order, VISA or MasterCharge -# to: 
7, Willingboro, New Jersey 08046 



Name. 



Address _ 



TELEXPRESS "' inc. 

P.O. Box 217 

Willingboro, NJ 08046 

(609) 877-4900 



City, State. Zip. 
Phone 



Payment: Check Money Order. 

VISA MasterCharge 

Amount of Payment S 



TRS-80 is a trademark 
of the Tandy Corporation 



I 

^504 I 



Send me copies of TELETERM @ S 125 per copy 

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Credit Card Holders may expedite orders by 
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i-See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 115 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



<Sm^ 



LOAD 80 



TRS-Turtle 



by Larry Brackney 

Second Place 

14-18 



I was fascinated by turtle graphics 
and turtle geometry ever since they were 
first introduced into the computer in- 
dustry. I was first exposed to the con- 
cept of turtle geometry when I heard 
about a new package from Terrapin 
Inc. called Logo. What was this new 
language that so excited educators? 

Turtle geometry is a new math system 
based on the movements of a turtle. It is 
oriented to the local area of the turtle, 
rather than from a central point. The 
paths the turtle takes are drawn on the 
monitor — hence, turtle graphics. 

The student writes a program for the 
turtle to follow. Normally this program 
consists of single command statements 
such as: 

Forward :X — This command tells the turtle to 

move forward X steps. 

Left :X — This instructs the creature to turn left X 

degrees. 

Students using this language are en- 
couraged to "play turtle." That is, the 
student pretends he is the turtle. 

Not only is Logo good for teaching 
computer literacy, but it also develops a 
more organized and logical thought 
process. It gives students a better chance 
of learning to program the computer, 
because Logo is much easier to program 
than Basic. 

There was only one problem keeping 
me from enjoying turtle geometry and 
graphics. There were no Logo packages 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 
Printer Opt. 



available for my computer, a Model I. 

I enjoy writing Basic programs, but 
now I had a challenge. I had no Assem- 
bly-language background, and I wanted 
to write a totally new language for the 
TRS-80. 1 knew I couldn't write another 
Logo, but I could write a program that 
uses turtle geometry/graphics. 

Originally TRS-Turtle was nothing 



more than Etch-a-Sketch with fancy 
commands and a function that let the 
computer memorize the current screen 
and recall it later. The first method I 
used was quite slow. I then rewrote the 
routine to read the screen much more 
quickly. The second thing I did was put 
in a Jump command, along with several 
other commands to erase graphics. Fi- 



Program Listing 



10 REM- 



TRS-TURTLE 



VERSION 



20 REM BY LARRY J. BRACKNEY COLUMBUS EAST HIGH SCHOOL 

30 REM TITLE PAGE AND VARIABLE INITIALIZATION LINES 40-160 

40 CLS:CLEAR63 

50 TS(1)=" "+CHRS{184)+STRINGS(5,188) +CHR$(144) 

60 TS(2)=" "+-CHR$(136) +CHRS ( 183) +CHR$ ( 191) +CHRS ( 142) +CHR$ { 143) + 

CHR$(191)+STRrNG$(3,143) +CHR$(191) +CHR${143) +CHR$(140) +CHRS(16 4) 

+CHRS(144) 

70 T$(3) -STRINGS (6, 140) +STRINGS { 2 , 143) +STRING$ { 2 ,140) +STRING5{2, 

143)+STRINGS(5,140) 

80 PRINT@394, "TRS-TURTLE VERSION 1.5 BY LARRY J. BRACKNEY."; 

90 PRINT@719, "COLUMBUS EAST HIGH SCHOOL 1982-83"; 

100 PRINT@976, "PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO BEGIN..."; 

110 FORT=lT03:PRINT@46 9+64*TrTSCT) ;:NEXTT 

120 X$-INKEY$: IFXSO" "THENI20 

130 CLEAR2000:DEFSTRA,B,D,S:DEFINTC,E-R,T-Z 

140 DIML$(200) ,LN(200) ,LX(200) ,LY(200) ,SC[7) 

READCM$(T) :NEXTT 

150 CLS:W=1:T$="HELP":CL$=STRING$(10,128) :A=' 

TO1360 

160 CLS:A="":B="":X=64:Y=24 

170 REM MAIN INPUT ROUTINE LINES 180-380 

180 POKEVARPTR(A) , : PRINTia960 ,B+CHR$ ( 143) +" ' 

ENRESET(X,Y) :SET(X,Y) :GOTO180 

190 FORT=9TO10:IFA=CHR$(T)THEN210ELSENEXTT 

200 IFA<>CHR$(31) THEN220 

210 A="" :B="": PRINT@960 , STRINGS ( 10 , 128) ; 

220 IFA=CHR$(13)THENGOTO250:ELSEIFA=CHRS(8)THEN3 80 

230 IFA=" [ "THENB=T$:GOTO250 

240 B=B+A:IFLENCB) >10THEN1930ELSE180 

250 L${W)=B:W= 

+1:TS=B 

260 FORT=16TO20 : IFB=CMS (T) THENW=W-1 : NEXTTELSENEXTT 

270 IFB=CMS(1) THENW=W-1 

280 IFB=CM$(10) THENW=W-1 

290 IFB=CM$(11) THENW=W-1 

300 FORCN=1TO20:IFB=CH$(CN)THEN320ELSENEXTCN 

310 W=W-1:GOTO1920 

320 0NCNG0T016 0,400, 510, 620, 7 3 0,840, 97 0,11 0, 123 0,136 0,1440, 14 90 

,330,350,37 0,1950,1660,1810,130,1830 

330 HT^1:BS="" :PRINT@960,CL$; 

340 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 



,CHS{20) :FORT-1TO20: 
J="":X=64:Y=24:GO 



:A=INKEY5:IFA=""TH 



Listing conlinues 



116 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lisung con finned 

350 HT=0:BS="":PRINT@960,CL$; 

360 IFRL=lTHEN1890ELSEi80 

370 CLS:PRIKT"THE TURTLE SAYS BYE . . . " : END 

380 IFLEN(B) >0THENB=LEFTS (B, LEK ( B) -1) :GOTO180ELSEl80 

390 REM HOVE TURTLE RIGHT ROUTINE 400-490 

400 C$=B 

410 IFRL=1THEN440 

420 PRINT@960,C$" ?"; 

430 A=INKEY5:1FA=""THEN430 

440 IFRL=lTHENA=STR5(LN(NU) ) ELSELN(W-l) =VAL(A) 

450 FORZ=XTOK+VAL(A) : IFZ>127THENX=127 : GOTO480 

460 IFHT=1THENRESET{ Z ,Y) ELSESET( Z,Y) 

47 NEXTZ:X=X+VAL(A) 

480 PRINT@960,CL$; :B="" 

490 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

500 REM HOVE TURTLE LEFT ROUTINE 510-600 

510 C$=B 

520 IFRL=iTHEN559 

530 PRINT0960,C$" ?" ; 

540 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN540 

550 IFRL=1THENA=STR$(LN[NU) ) ELSELN ( W-1) =VAL [ A) 

560 FORZ=XTOX-VAL(A) STEP-1 : IFZ<0THENX=0 :GOTO590 

57 IFHT=1THENRESET(Z,Y) ELSESET(Z,Y) 

580 NEXTZ!X=X-VAL(A) 

590 PRINT@960 ,CL$; :B="" 

600 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE18O 

610 REM HOVE TURTLE UP ROUTINE 620-710 

620 C$=B 

630 IFRL^1THEN660 

640 PRINTia960,C$" ?"; 

650 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN550 

660 IFRL=1THENA-STR?(LN(NU) ) ELSELN ( W-1) =VAL (A) 

670 FORZ=YTOY-VAL(A)STEP-1:IFZ<0THENY=0:GOTO7 00 

680 IFHT=1THENRESET(X,Z) ELSESET(X,Z) 

690 NEXTZ:Y=Y-VAL(A) 

700 PRINTia960,CL$;:B="" 

710 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

720 REM MOVE TURTLE DOWtl ROUTINE 730-820 

730 C$=B 

740 IFRL=1THEN770 

750 PRINT@960,C$" ?"; 

760 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN760 

770 1FRL=1THENA=STRS(LN(NU) ) ELSELN(W-l) =VAL{ A) 

780 FORZ=YTOY+VAL(A) : IFZ>44THENY=44 :GOTO810 

790 IFHT=1THENRESETCX,Z)ELSESET(X,Z) 

800 NEXTZ:Y=Y+VAL(A) 

810 PRINT@960,CL$; :B="" 

820 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

830 REM HOVE TURTLE UP AND RIGHT ROUTINE 840-950 

840 C$=B 

850 IFRL=1THEN880 

860 PRINT@960,C$" ?"; 

870 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN870 

880 IFRL=1THENA=STR$(LN(NU) ) ELSELN (W-1) =VAL( A) 

890 F0RZ=1T0VAL(A) :X-X+1:Y=Y-1 

900 IFX>127THENX=127:Y=Y+1:GOTO940 

910 IFY<0THENY=0!X=X-1:GOTO940 

920 IFHT=1THENRESET(X,Y) : RESET ( X-1 ,Y+1) ELSESET(X,Y) 

930 NEXTZ 

940 PRINT@960,CLS; :B="" 

950 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

960 REM MOVE TURTLE UP AND LEFT ROUTINE 970-1080 

970 C$=B 

980 IFRL=1THEN1010 

990 PRINT@960rC$" ?"; 

1000 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN1000 

1010 IFRL=1THENA=STRS{LN(NU) ) ELSELN{W-1) =VAL(A) 

1020 F0RZ=1T0VAL(A) :X=X-1:Y=Y-1 

1030 IFX<0THENX=0:Y=Y+1:GOTO1070 

1040 IFY<0THENY=0:X=X+1:GOTO1070 

1050 IFHT=1THENRESET(X,Y) :RESET(X+1 ,Y+1) ELSESET( X, Y) 

1060 NEXTZ 

1070 PRINT@960,CL$;:B="" 

1080 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

1090 REM MOVE TURTLE DOWN AND RIGHT ROUTINE 1100-1211 

1100 C$=B 

1110 IFRL=1THEN1140 

1120 PRINTia960,CS" ?"; 

1130 A=INKEY$:IFA=""THEN1130 

1140 IFRL=1THENA=STRS(LN(NU) ) ELSELN(VJ-l) =VAL ( A) 

1150 FORZ=1TOVAL(A) :X=X+1:Y=Y+1 

1160 IFX>127THENX=127:Y=Y-1:GOTO120 

1170 IFY>4 4THENY=44:X=X-1:GOTO1200 

1180 IFHT=1THENRESET(X,Y) : RESET ( X-1 ,Y-1) ELSESET(XfY) 

1190 NEXTZ 

1200 PRINT@960,CL$;:B="" 

1210 IFRL=1THEN1890ELSE180 

1220 REM MOVE TURTLE DOWN AND LEFT ROUTINE 1230-1340 



Lisiing continues 



nally, I added program-writing capabil- 
ities such as List, Run, and FIX. 

TRS-Turtle starts out with a short ti- 
tle page that prompts the user to press 
the space bar to begin. Then a small 
blinking square (the turtle) appears at 
midscreen, and a block cursor appears 
at the lower left of the screen. 

After typing in the appropriate com- 
mand, press the enter key as in normal 
Basic. Do not type in line numbers. 

When entering a direction command 
(for example, Left), the computer will 
prompt you with a question mark. The 
computer is asking you for a number 
from one to nine. This number repre- 
sents the number of steps in that direc- 
tion the turtle can take. The direction 
commands are the only commands that 
have this format. Two other commands 
(Jump and List) require optional input 
after they are entered; these will be ex- 
plained later. 

In addition to the ability to type in 



"Originally TRS-Turtle 

was nothing more 

than Etch-a-Sketch 

with fancy commands. . . " 



commands, two other keys have func- 
tions. The clear key erases the entire 
line. The up arrow will repeat the last 
command. Thus, instead of typing in 20 
Left commands, just one and the up ar- 
row can be used to generate 20 repeated 
commands. 

Now for a brief summary of the 
commands. 

• Right— Moves the turtle right (X) 
steps. Turtle will leave a trail unless 
Hide is used. 

• Left — Moves the turtle left (X) steps. 
Turtle will leave a trail unless Hide is 
used. 

• Up — Moves the turtle up (X) steps. 
Turtle will leave a trail unless Hide is 
used. 

• Down— Moves the turtle down (X) 
steps. Turtle will leave a trail unless 
Hide is used. 

• <Up — Moves the turtle left and 
up(X) steps. Turtle will leave a trail 
unless Hide is used. 

• Up> — Moves the turtle right and 
up (X) steps. Turtle will leave a trail 
unless Hide is used. 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 117 



Listing continued 

1230 C$=B 

1240 IFRL=1THEN1270 

1250 PRINTia960,C$" ?"; 

1260 A=INKEY$!lFA="''THENl260 

127 IFRL=1THENA=STR$(LN(NU) ) ELSELK (W-1) =VAL(A) 

1280 F0RZ=1T0VAL{A) :X=X-1:Y=Y+1 

1290 IFX<0THENX=0:y=Y-l:GOTO1330 

1300 IFY>44THENY=44:X=X+1:GOTO1330 

1310 IFHT=1THENRESET(X,Y) :RESET(X+1 ,Y-1) ELSESET(X, Y) 

1320 NEXTZ 

1330 PRINT@960,CL$; :B="" 

1340 IFRL=lTHENl890ELSEie0 

1350 REM LEARN THE SCREEN ROUTINE 1360-1420 

1360 PRINT@960,CL$;:D="":RESET(X,Y) iXl=X:Yl=Y 

1370 POKEVARPTR(D) ,128 

1380 FORC=0TO7 

1390 POKEVARPTR(D) +1,(15360+0*128) AND255 

1400 POKEVARPTR(D)+2,(15360+C*128)/256 

1410 SC{C) =D:NEXTC 

1420 B=""! IFHE=0THEN180ELSE1960 

1430 REM REMEMBER THE SCREEN ROUTINE 1440-1470 

1440 CLS:X=X1:Y=Y1:FORC=0TO6:PRINTSC(C) ; : NEXTC 

1450 PRINTLEFT5(SC(7) ,127) ;CHR$(28) ; 

1460 POKE16383,ASC{RIGHT$(SC(7) ,1) } 

1470 B="":GOTO180 

1480 REM JUMP ROUTINE 1490-1640 

1490 IFRL=1THEN1640 

1500 LX=X:LY=y 

1510 IFW=20RNU=1THENRESET(X,Y) 

1520 PP=PEEK(14400) 

1530 IFPP=8THENLY=LY-1 

1540 IFPP=16THENLY=LY+1 

1550 IFPP=32THENLX=LX-1 

1560 IFPP=64THENLX=LX+1 

1570 IFPP=i28THEN1630 

1580 PRINT@960,"X="LX,"Y="LY" PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO STOP."; 

1590 IFLX<0THENLX=0ELSEIFLX>127THENLX=127 

16 00 IFLY<0THENLY=0ELSEIFLY>44THENLY=44 

1610 IFPOINT(LX,LY)THENRESET(LX,LY) !SET(LX,LY} :GOTO1520 

1620 SET{LX,LY) : RESET( LX ,LY) :GOTO1520 

1630 A=INKEY$:B="":X=LX:y=LY:LX{W-l)=LX:LY(W-l}=LY;PRINT@960,STR 

INGS(62,128) ;:GOTO180 

1640 X=LX(NU) :Y=LY(NU) JGOTO1890 

1650 REM LIST ROUTINE 1660-1790 

1660 CLS 

1670 IFL$(1)="LIST"ANDW=1THENB="":W=1:GOTO180 

1680 INPUT"ON PRINTER (Y/N)";D$ 

1590 IFD$="Y"THEN1740 

1700 IFD$<>"N"THEN1660 

1710 CLS:F0RT=1T0W-1:PRINTT":",LS(T) ,LN(T} : FDRV=1T025 jNEXTV: IFLS 

(T)="JUHP"THENPRINT,"X="LX(T) ,"Y="LY(T) 

1720 IFPEEK{14464)=1THEN1720ELSENEXTT 

1730 GOTO1760 

17 40 CLS:F0RT=1T0W-1:LPRINTT"!",LS(T) ,LN{T) :IFL5(T) =" JUMP"THENLP 
RINT,''X="LX(T) ,"Y="LY{T) 

1750 PRINTT":",L$(T) ,LN{T) : IFL$ (T) =" JUHP"THENPRIKT, "X="LX (T) ,"Y= 
"LY(T) :NEXTTELSENEXTT 

1760 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY..." 

1770 XS=INKEYS:IFX$=""THEN1770 

1780 B=''":CLS 

1790 GOTO160 

1800 REM FIX ROUTINE 1810 

1810 W=W-1:B=""!PRINT@960,CL$; :GOTO180 

1820 REM RUN ROUTINE 1830-1900 

1830 CLS:X=64!Y=24:RL=1:NU=1 

1840 IFNU=W+1THEN1900 

1850 FORCN=1TO20 

1860 IFL$(NU)=CHg(CN)THENPC=CN 

1870 NEXTCN 

1880 0NPCG0T016 0,400, 510, 620, 7 30, 840, 97 0,110 0,1230, 1360, 1440, 149 
0,330,350,370,1950,1660,1810,10 

1890 NU=NU+1:GOTO1840 

1900 B="":RL=0:GOTO180 

1910 REM ERROR HESAGES 1920 AND 1930 

1920 PRINT@960, "SORRY! THE TURTLE DOESN'T KNOW THAT W0RD1";!F0RT 
=1TO500:NEXTT:PRINT@960, STRING? (41, 128) ; :B="" !GOTOl80 

1930 PRINT@960,STRING$(51,128) ;:PRINT@960,"YOU TYPED TO MUCH FOR 

THE TURTLE ! " ; ; FORT=1TO500 : NEXTT: PRINT@960 ,STRING$ ( 50 ,128) ; :B=" " 
: GOTO! 80 

1940 REM HELP ROUTINE 1950-1990 

1950 HE=1;GOTO1360 

1960 CLS:PRINT"THE TURTLE KNOWS HOW TO..." 

1970 FORT=1TO20STEP2:PRINTCM5(T} ,CM$(T+1) :NEXTT 

1980 PRINT" ":PRINT"PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO CONTINUE..." 

1990 XS=INKEY$:IFX$<>" "THEN1990ELSEHE=0 :GOTO1440 

2000 REM COMMANDS STORED IN DATA IN LINE 2010 

2010 DATA CLEAR, RIGHT, LEFT, UP, DOWN, UP>,<UP,DOWN>,<DOWN, LEARN, REM 
EMBER, JUMP, HIDE, FIND, BASIC, HELP, LIST, FIX, FORGET, RUN 



• <Down — Moves the turtle left and 
down (X) steps. Turtle will leave a trail 
unless Hide is used. 

• Down> — Moves the turtle right 
and down (X) steps. Turtle will leave a 
trail unless Hide is used. 

• Clear — Clears the screen. Clear does 
not effect learned screens or listings in 
memory. 

• Learn — Learns the current screen, 
and puts it in memory. The learned 
screen is called back by Remember. 

• Remember — Recalls learned screens, 
and puts them on the screen. 

• Jump — Gives the user control of a 
blinking turtle. Move him around with 
the arrow keys and press the space bar 
to stop the turtle. The current X and Y 
coordinates are given at the bottom of 
the screen. 

• Find — Finds the turtle. The turtle 
draws instead of erasing as in the Hide 
command. 

• Hide— Hides the turtle. The turtle 
erases instead of drawing as in the Find 
command. 

• Basic — Returns the program to Basic. 

• Help — Gives a directory of all 
available commands. 

• List — Lists the program in memory. 
Lines can be listed on the screen or on a 
printer. 

• Fix — This deletes the last line typed 
from the listing, allowing the user to 
replace the line. Note: The user can only 
Fix the last line typed. 

• Run — Runs the program in memory. 
The turtle goes through all of the steps 
drawing the picture the user wrote. 

• Forget — Deletes all lines of the user's 
program and learned screens. 



These commands are straightforward 
with a few exceptions. When typing 
Jump, a blinking turtle appears. The 
user moves the turtle by using the arrow 
keys. When the desired location for the 
turtle is found press the space bar. 

' Now for some notes on a sample list- 
ing. Listings may be given on either the 
printer or on the screen. To make a 
screen listing pause, hold down the shift 
key. A sample listing might look like 
this: 



UP 

LEFT 

RIGHT 

RIGHT 

DOWN 

UP 

JUMP 



9 
9 

7 
7 
3 
2 

X = 100 Y = 33 



The numbers to the far left are the 
hne numbers of the user's program. 



118 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




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80 Micro, February 1983 • 119 



These line numbers shouldn't exceed 
200 unless you wish to modify TRS- 
Turtle. 

The word after the colon is the actual 
statement. Commands other than direc- 
tions, Hide, Find, and Jump will not be 
listed. The numbers to the far right are 
the command values. This simply 
means that as a direction is typed, the 
number of steps the turtle takes is 
displayed here. Commands other than 
directions will have a in this place. 

The numbers after the Jump com- 
mand, X = XXX Y = YYY, are the 
positions to which the turtle jumped. 
These numbers are only displayed if a 
Jump command is encountered. 

The Fix command will delete the last 
line of the program. TRS-Turtle draws 
the picture as you type it in, thus mak- 
ing it easy to spot your mistakes. After 
spotting an error, type Fix. This gets rid 
of the last command . Now type in a new 
command. After the correction run the 
program and it will draw the corrected 
picture. You can then continue typing 
more commands. 

The Program 

Lines 10-160 handle the title page 
and variable initialization. Lines 160 
and 170 seem to repeat each other, but 
do not change them or you will run into 
problems. Many other situations may 
arise where it appears I have merely 
repeated myself. Don't be fooled — 
everything is necessary. 

Lines 180-380 control the user input. 
Line 180 is the main line; it reads the in- 
put and assigns it to A$. A$ is then 
added to B$ after enter is pushed. The 
computer compares B$ to CM$(X). If 
B$ is equal to CM$(X), then it goes to 



the appropriate routine. This routine 
also checks for backspacing and nonex- 
istent commands. If a command the 
computer doesn't know is typed in, the 
computer branches to the proper error 
message. 

Lines 390-1340 move the turtle in the 
appropriate direction. Lines 400-490 
make the turtle draw to the right. The 
first few lines control user input and 
convert the input to a digit. Next a 
For. ..Next loop draws the line in the 
correct direction that number of steps. 

Lines 1360-1420 memorize the 
screen. The screen is stored into seven 
variables SC(l-7). These variables are 
called back by the Remember routine. 

The Remember routine lies between 
lines 1440 and 1470. All this does is 
recall the variables stored in the Learn 
routine. 

The Jump command is controlled 
from lines 1 490-1 640. This routine 
PEEKs keyboard address 14400 for the 
arrows and the space bar. The numbers 
received are acted upon in the appro- 
priate fashion. 

The List routine (lines 1660-1790) 
goes through a loop, calling up the ar- 
ray of variables and printing them on 
either the printer or the screen. 

Line 1810 sets the command counter 
back one to erase the last command. It 
then jumps back to the input routine. 

The Run routine is in lines 1830- 
1900. This routine goes through the 
command list that the user typed in and 
executes each command. 

The variable RL is the flag that keeps 
individual routines from sending con- 
trol back to the input routine. Instead 
control is returned to line 1890, which 



goes to the next command to be 
executed. 

Lines 1920 and 1930 are the error 
messages. No language should be with- 
out them, and mine is no different. I 
have only included two messages, but 
these should be sufficient for most 
mistakes. 

The Help routine is located in lines 
1950-1990. This routine sets a variable 
flag, HE, and memorizes the screen. 
The flag sends control back to Help in- 
stead of line 180. The computer then 
gives the user a list of available com- 
mands, and then restores the previous 
screen. 

Finally, line 2010 is the data state- 
ment in which all 20 TRS-Turtle com- 
mands are stored. If you don't like the 
word chosen for the commands, this is 
the line to change. 

Notes for Tinkerers 

Here are a few suggestions for possi- 
ble modifications. A routine could save 
the user's program to disk or cassette. A 
program change could make the left 
and right commands more realistic (that 
is, LEFT :X where X is the number of 
degrees the turtle would turn). Of 
course this change would require that 
the turtle's forward movement routines 
be changed to move at that angle. How 
about new commands in general? They 
wouldn't necessarily need to deal with 
turtle geometry (they could be text 
commands). 

Happy turtling. ■ 

Larry Brackney (age 15) can be 
reached at 2525 16th St., Columbus, IN 
47201. 



Need More Serial Ports ? 




« o • 



"^ Add a BTA smart multiport controller to your C.P.U. 

"^ The MODEL 524 expands a single RS232 port to four 
individual ports with port selection and baud rate 
controlled by user software. 

■^ Buffered inputs permit simultaneous operation in* 
creasing data exchange rate. 

T^ 62K spooler model also available. 



Price 

$249.00 



Bay Technical Associates 

p. 0. Box 387, Bay St. Louis, MS. 39520 
601 -467-8231 



120 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



RUN BASIC PROGRA.nflS AT 




WITH ZBASIC 2.2. 

THE WORLDS FASTEST TRS-SO BASIC COMPILER from SfliyiEK 



BELIEVE IT OR NOT WEVE ADDED MORE 
NEW FEATURES to the ONLY INTERACTIVE 
BASIC COMPILER for the TRS-801 

L Speed increases of 10-100 times are typical after compilation. 

2. Compiled code can be RELOCATED to run anywhere in memory. 
Code is even ROMablel 

3. ZBASIC 2.2 NOW SUPPORTS BOTH RANDOM and 
SEQUENTIAL DISK I/O, 

4. ZBAStC 2,2 is now a super tool for business programmers: 
RANDOM ACCESS FILES, and PRINT USING statements are 
supported as well as a HIGH PRECISION iWATH package (with 
no rounding problems), 

5. Special BUILT-IN MACHINE LANGUAGE COMMANDS to 
increase program operation by as much as 1 000 timesi Special 
commands are implemented for fast memory searching (CPDR, 
CPIR), blocl< memory moves [LDIR. LDDR), inputting and printing 
HEX numbers. Inserting MACHINE LANGUAGE into COMPILED 
CODE, disabling and enabling interrupts, inverting memory, 16 bit 
PEEKS and POKES, and stack control, debug and much more. 

6. ZBASIC 2.2 compiles the ENTIRE PROGRAM into to Z-80 
machine language. (Not 8080 code or a combination of BASIC and 
machine language Nice some other compilers. | Clumsy LINKING 
LOADERS, and RUNTIME MODULES are not needed; ZBASIC 2.2 
creates a ready to run MACHINE LANGUAGE program. 

7. NO ROYALTIES imposed on registered ZBASIC owners, 

8. Typical COMPILATION TIME is TWO SECONDS for a 
4K program, 

9. Use TRS-80 Basic to write ZBASIC programsl 

1 0, Compile many existing programs with only minor changes, 
(Some BASIC programming experience is required,) 

1 1 , Fully compatible with both the Model I and the Model III, Mod I 
compiled programs work on a MODEL III. and visa-versa, ZBASIC 
works with NEWDOS-80, NEWDOS + , DOSPLUS. LDOS. MULTIDOS. 
ULTRADOS. TRSDOS etc, 

1 2, BUILT-IN and much improved MUSIC and SOUND EFFECTS 
commands, 

1 3, Improved CHAINING for disk users, 

14, TIMES now available on DISK version. 

1 5, ZBASIC 2.2 now has an INPUT @ command (similar to PRINT @j. 

1 6, The TAB function will now tab 255 columns on a printer, (BASIC 
cannot tab past column 64,) 

1 7, NEWDOS 80 2,0 USERS can use the CMD "dos command" 

functioni 

I 8. NEW and EASIER to use USR COMMANDS. 

1 9. New math functions to calculate XOR and INTEGER 

REMAINDERS 

20. Logical STRING COMPARISONS are now supported. 

21. The disk commands INSTR.MIDS ASSIGNMENT are now 
supported on both DISK AND TAPE ZBASIC. 

22. DEFSTR Is now supported. 

23. Eight disk files may be opened simultaneously; random, 
sequential or mixed, 

24. LINE INPUT#. is now supported 

25. Invoke the compiler by simply hitting these two keys: " :-" 

26. NEW 100+ PAGE MANUAL WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND 
EXAMPLE, 

27. ZBASIC 2.2 Comes with CMDFILE/CMD program from 
MISOSYS, to allow appending or merging compiled programs and 
machine language programs from tape or disk. 



ZBASIC 2.2 DOES NOT SUPPORT THESE 
BASIC COMMANDS: 

1 . ATN, EXP, COS, SIN. LOG. TAN, and exponentiation. (However, 
subroutines sre included in the manual for these functions,) 

2. ERROR, ON ERROR GOTO, ERL. ERR RESUME, 

3. No direct commands like AUTO. EDIT LIST LLIST ETC, although 
these commands may be used when writing programs. 

4. Others NOT supported: CDBL, CINT CSNG, DEFFN. FIX. FRE. 

5. Normal CASSETTE I/O. (ZBASIC supports it's own SPECIAL 
CASSETTE I/O statements.) 

6. SOME BASIC COMMANDS MAY DIFFER IN ZBASIC. For 
instance, ENDjumps to DOS READY STOPjumps to BASIC 
READY etc, 

7. MEMORY REQUIREMENTS: to approximate the largest BASIC 
program that can be compiled in your machine [at one time), enter 
BASIC and type: PRINT (MEM-6500)/2 Remember, you can merge 
compiled programs together to fill memory. 

ZBASIC 2.2 SPEED COMPARISON DEMO 

To help give you an idea how fast compiled programs are, we have 

Included this demo program: 

ZBASIC 2.2 DEMO PROGRAM 

Time to compile and run complete program : MIN. Z SEC. 
BASIC Execution speed MOD 1 . LEVEL II : 7 MIN. 34 SEC. 

ZBASIC Execution speed MOD I , LEVEL II ;0 MIN. 1 8 SEC- 

BASIC Program size [WITHOUT VARIABLES] : 895 BYTES 

ZBASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES) : 2733 BYTES 
[Remember that the ZBASIC program includes an 1 879 byte sub- 
routine package ) Program shown exactly as compiled and run in 
BASIC and ZBASIC. 

la '========= ZBfiSIC 2.2 EXAMPLE PROGRfiM fiND TIME TEST=---==-= 

£0 CLS:CLEOR100:DEFINT fi-X;DEFSTR Z:DIM fifi (64, £4) , Z <50) : RfiNDOM 
30 Bfi=100:BB=-l000:CC=3;DD=-3:EE=-9gg9:ST«="STfiRT TIME "+TIME« 
40 FOR I=1TD1S7STEP2 :FOR J=rt7T01STEP-3! XX=POINT (1 , J) :SET ( I, J) 
50 XX='(I-J)/CC«[7+I+J) :XX=ftBS(INT(RND(I*J)-flR)*7) :RESETiI,J) 
60 XX=PEEK(I*J) :PDKE15360+I+J, J :IDUT255, J AND !3»J) : XX = INP ( I ) 
70 0B«=STR«(1*J) !BR*=LEFT«(ftB«,£) jflfi ( I /£, J/£) =VOL IBfl») +flfl»3 
80 BB«=Bn*i-HIGHTI(BR*, RND(3) J ; XX = INSTR ( 1 , Bfl», "9") :XX=SDR(1«J) 
90 Bfi«=MID*(Bn»,2,E) :MID» (Bfl«, 1 , 1 ) =Z :1F XX THEN 100 ELSE CLS 
100 IF LEN(Bfi«))3 OR SSN(XX)=1 RND nSC<B0«)=3£ THEN PRINT"+++"i 
lia IFPDS(0)>6a THEN TRONsTROFF: PRINT ELSE XX-NOT ( RND (99) ) tiaS 
120 fi«=INKEV»!lF fl*="Y" OR n*-"y" AND I>120 THEN PHINT"TRUE. . " 
130 RESTORE : REODfl, C, 7 ( J> , □ : GDSUB170 :GOSUB170:GOSUB170:GOTO210 
140 NEXT :PRINT"<";:NEXTl!CLSiPRINTl>5ie,ST«, "STOP TIME "iTIME* 
150 STOP' ============== END OF MOIN TEST LOOP ================= 

160 DflTR 12345,-1, "TEST", -gggg 

170 ON RND(6) GOTO 180, 190, £00, 130, 190, £00 

180 RETURN 

190 RETURM 

200 RETURN 

210 ON RND(9> GDSUB 180,190,300,180,190,200,180,190,200 

220 GOTOlftB 

NOTICE ZBASIC 2.0 OWNERS: you can upgrade your ZBASIC Z.O for no charge. 
Just send us your origmal djsl<ette /cassette and a S.A.S.E witfi your regisrerecf 
senalnumber and copy of your invoice. We will send you ZBASIC 2 2 and 
updates to your manual. 
VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRESS, C.O.D. ORDERS ONLV. 

800 528-1 149 order line 

ZBASIC 2 2 DISK VERSION AND MANUAL 89.95 

ZBASIC 2.2 TAPE VERSION AND MANUAL 79.95 

ZBASIC 2.2 DISK & TAPE VERSION AND MANUAL 99.99 

MANUAL ONLY... (APPLIES TO PURCHASE] 2S.O0 

SIMUTIK COMPUTER PRODUCTS INC. 

TECHNICAL QUESTIONS PLEASE CALL (602) 323-9391 
4897 E. SPEEDWAY, TUCSON, ARIZONA 85712 ^^2 

TRS-eO IS tm of Radio Shack, a Tandy Corp. 



r,-See lisi ot Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 121 



S NE\A/ GAMES 
FROM COMPUTER S 



Once again Computer Shack brings you a revolution in computer games. Over the past 
few years COMPUTER SHACK, has published some of the finest software on the 
market. Now, with the help of many great programmers and an abudance of public 
support, we've managed to become one of the best software companies in the country, 
specializing in the TRS-80, 

Computer Shack strives to be the best, to come out with new games, new ideas, and 
new techniques. We want to be the pacesetters of the industry. We were first with an all 
graphics Dungeons and Dragons game. Called DUNGEON ESCAPE, it combined 
spontaneous action and spectacular sound routines with an almost impossible quest. 
DUNGEON ESCAPE became an immediate success. Written by Bill Dunlevy, DUNGEON 
ESCAPE is still going strong after two years. 




;+. 


II 


-I 


'] 


r 


1 


J 1 


-JL 


I 


L- 




III 


"1 1 


TT 


1 


|— 






L 
+ 





J 


f' 


if 
r 






I.l 


-^ 


^J 







Then in 1 982, we peaked with two legendary games that put Computer Shack on the top 
of the arcade market: CYBORG and JOVIAN. Both written with the combined talents of 
Bill Dunlevy and Doug Prayer, they became overwelming successes. CYBORG, a totally 
original game, uses nine screens at a time with 20 different levels of play. A brilliant 
contest of skill as well as intelligence, it has been called a "TRS-80 classic" by Bob Lidel I 
in 80 US. JOVIAN, brings to your screen, effects like you've never seen before, you take 
a trip to JOVIAN space where you manuever your space sled around mines and fast 
moving aliens in order to achieve your final goal, the destruction of all JOVIAN life. Both 
CYBORG and JOVIAN have received rave reviews on a national level, not only because 
of creativity behind each of them, but because they have used many new programming 
techniques.One of the most original techniques is a new type of wrap around screen 
that will amaze and dazzle you. 

Now, in 1 983, Computer Shack reaches new heights with two great new games, sure to 
storm the market and set the standard for all games that follow. 



First we bring you ASSAULT, another great game by Doug Prayer and Bill Dunlevy, Along 
with their usual array of spectacular graphics and sound, the/vegiven their new creation 
something rarely found in computer games these days, originality. ASSAULT isn't just a 
copyofanothergame. Using total imagination, the programmers have managed to create 
what promises to be another "Classic". Using a creative concept, the game places you in a 
mountain haven, surrounded by sparkling gold. Your goal: destroy the monsters trying to 
steal the gold and zap all the poisonious mushrooms. Pantastic graphics and sound, this 
program uses Dunlevy and Prayers "wrap around graphics"'" it uses 9 screens at a time. 
With many different levels. 

Next we give to you LIBERATOR, an arcade action game written by John Crane. LIBERATOR is great for all arcade buffs 
and adventurers, alike. While working on perfecting an automated robot, your creation goes berserk, captuhng yourfive 
lovely assistants and running off to different locations in the industrial park. Now you must search out your assistants. 
BeingcarefulofBeerBarrels.LittleRobots, Waterfalls. Elevators, flymg boulders etc. If you're hit, its all over. LIBERATOR 
IS sure to become popular, with its 5 totally different screens. 








COMPUTER SHACK .» 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info; (313)673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK Please add S3. 00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - S5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U S 
Canada,- Mexico.Dealers; We are distributors for all items in this ad Write for ouf catalog and price nsi 



122 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



COMPUTER SHACK 

We are constantly adding new programs to our stock. If you don't see what you want call us on our toll free number to see if we have it. 
We have a new catalog with full descriptions of all our products. Catalogs are free to anyone in the US. Do to the high cost of postage outside of 
the US we must charge $1 .00 for mailing. This will be refunded on the first order. 

All in stock items will be shipped within 24 hours. Special Discounts. All software is discounted 1 0% when you purchase 2 or more. 1 5% When 
you purchase three copies, 20% when you purchase four or more. 



GAMES MODEL I/Ill 

ASSAULT Bv Computer Shack 1 9.95/21 .95 

ARACHNID PUIS By Computer Shack 1 9.95/2 1 .95 

CYBORe By Computer Shack 1 9.95/2 1 .95 

DUHaEON ESCAPE by Computer Shack 1 5.95/1 9.95 

BREYMOON by Computer Shack. 1 5.95/1 9.95 

JOVIAN By Computer Shack 1 9.95/21 .95 

LIBERATOR by Computer Shack 1 9.95/2 1 .95 

SIRIOH ind MERFUNKEL by Computer Shack 1 5.95/1 9.95 

ALIEN OEFENSE By Soft Sector. 1 5.95 

CATERPILLAR By Soft Sector 1 5,95/1 9.95 

FORTRESS By Soft Sector. 1 5.95/1 9.95 

OUTHOUSE by Soft Sector 1 5.95/1 9.95 

RALLY by Soft Sector 1 9.95/21 .95 

SUPERVADERS 1 5.95/19.95 

DEVILS TOWER 1 9.98/24.95 

FORBIDDEN CITY 39.95 

FORBIDDEN PLANET 39.95 

PANIK 1 9.95/24.95 

DEFIANCE 24.95 

ASYLUM II 1 9.95/24.95 

OUNZHIN 29.95/29.95 

KAIV [DUNZHIN II) 1 9.95/24.95 

UIBYRINTH 1 9.95/24.95 

LASER DEFENSE by Med Systems. ... 1 9.95/24.95 

INSTITUTE by Med Systems 1 9.95/22.95 

ARmORED PATROL 1 9.95/24.95 

EUMINATOR 1 9.95/24.95 

SEA DRABON 1 9.95/24.95 

DEMON SEED 1 9.95/24.95 

PENETRATDR by Melbourrie House 24.95/24.95 

STRIKE FORCE by Melbourne House 1 5.95/1 9.95 

BOUNCEOIDS by Coornsoft Group 1 5,95/1 9,95 

FRD6BER by Cornsoft Group 1 5.95/1 9.95 

CRAZY PAINTER by Cornsoft Group 1 5.95/1 9.95 

VENTURE by Horizon Software 1 5.95/19.95 

UTILITIES MODEL I/Ill 

EP-Sn so by Computer Shack 18.90/1 8.90 

PRINTER HELPER by Computer Shack 19.95/21.95 

SUPER DIRECTORY by Computer Shack 39.90 

SUPER UTIun PLUS by Powersoft. 75.95 

POWER DRAW by Powersoft 39.95 

SCRIP PUIS by Powersoft 39.95 

MISC. MODEL I/Ill 

FAMILY TREE by Computer Shack 29.90/29.90 

MULTI DOS Extended Basic 29.95 

MULTI DOS NEW version (with zap and Tape UtII) 99.95 

MULTI DOS New 1 Dos 39.95 

SUPER DOS 1 9.95 

DOS PLUS version 3.4 1 49.00 

DOS PUIS II {for the Model II) 249.95 

LOOS 1 29.00 



JANUARY TOP TEN 

CYBORB by Computer Shack 

DEMON SEED by Trend Software 

JOVIAN by Computer Shack 

FROBBER By Corsoft 

OUTHOUSE By Soft Sector 

SEA DRABON By Adventure Int 

PENETRATOR By Melbourne House 

BOUNCEOIDS by Cornsoft 

CRAZY PAINTER By Cornsoft 

) CATAPILLAR By Soft Sector 



Modem Programa Model l/lll 

DISK DOWNLOAD SYSHM (DOS) 75.95 

DIRECT FILE TMI^SFER (DFTl Disk Version 24.95 

INFO EX BULLETIN BOARD AND OOWNUIAD 14995 

MODEM 6AMES (Clwts, Chtckars, t Othello) 1 9.95/1 9.95 

TAPE DOWNLOAD SYSTEM (TDS) 39.95 

ULTRA nRM 59.95 

BUSINESS PROGRAMS 

EP-SET BO by Computer Shack 1 5.95/1 9.95 

MONTHLY BlU SYSTEM by Computer Shack 1 49.00 

UZY WRITER by ABC Sales 1 49.95 

POSTMAN by Soft Sector Disk only 1 75.95 

Smill Butlnsss CHECK WRITER . . Disk Only 39.90 

Small Buslntss BlU SYSTEM Disk only 39.90 

Smill Buslnass INVOICE WRITER , . Disk only 24.95 



Color Computer 



COLOR TAPE COPY by Big Systems Tape. ... 1 5.95 

COLOR DFT by Big System ■ Tape 1 9.95 

COLOR BONANZA by Soft Sector - Tape 39.00 

MASTER CONTROL by Soft Sector - Tape. ... 1 9,95 

TAPE DIRECTORY by Soft Sector - Tape 1 4.95 

STAR FIRE by Intellectronics 21 .95/26.95 

DONKEY MUHKEYby/nfe//ecffon/cs, , . 21.95/26.95 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD by SpecrraMssoc. ... 21.95 

6H0ST GOBBLER by Spectral Assoc 1 4.95 

PUNr INVASION by Spectral Assoc 2 1 .95 

PHANTOM SULYER by Med systems 1 9.95 

INVADERS REVENGE by Med Systems 1 9.95 

ASTRO BUST by Mark Data Products 24.95 

HAYWIRE ^BerserW - By Mark Data Products 24.95 

KAnERPIUAR by Tom Mix 24.95 

COLORPEOE by Intracolor 29.95 

HARD\A/ARE 

SPACE ABE PRINTER STANDS Clear 27.95 

SPACE AGE PRINTER STANDS Smoke 29,95 

SPACE AGE PRINTER STANDS tor 15 inch Carrage 35,95 

EPSON MX-BD FT Printer 529,00 

PROWRinR with CS instruction book 467.95 

PROWRino II (^5 in with CS Instruction book) 698.95 

Rlbken REINKER (Epson or C. Iteh) 49 95 

lOk Memory Chipe Afode/ 1 or III 25,95 

DISKS 

SInsIa Oenelty BASF Dtiki 19.95 

DOUBLE DENSin BASF DISKS 21.95 

DOUBLE DENSin FUPPY DISKS 29.95 

SO TRACK DOUBLE DENSITY DISKS 29.95 

DISK SAVERS (vinvl aliaves) 20 for 6,00 

COLORED BOXES (holds 10 disks) red. yellow, green 3.45 

DISK BOXES (50 Disks-Flip tops) 26,95 



COMPUTER SHACK 



■109 - V 



1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313)073-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL TREE (BOO) 302-8001 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for ahipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dailifl: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



•See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 123 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



The Lair of Kraken 



by Beth Norman 

Second Place 

11-13 



Program Listing 



CLSiPRINT" THE LAIR OF THE KRAKEN" 
FOR T=l TO 500:NEXT T 



100 

105 

110 PRINT 

115 PRINT" AN UNDERWATER ADVENTURE" 

120 FOR T=l TO 500:NEXT T 

125 PRINT 

BY BETH ANN NORMAN" 
FRAMINGHAfl, MASS." 
140 FOR T=l TO 1000:NEXT T 
145 PRINT:PRINT 

150 INPUT"WOULD YOU LIKE INSTRUCTIONS" ;A$ 
155 IF LEfTS(AS,l) ="N"THEN 195 ELSE IF LEFT5 ( AS , 1) <>"Y" THEN 151 



130 PRINT" 
135 PRINT" 



UNDERWATER PALACE 
FIND THE SWORD OF 



160 CLS: PRINT" YOU WILL TRAVEL THROUGH AN 
, BATTLING SEACREATURES AS YOU GO. YOU MUST 

THE MERMAN ANDON . YOU NEED IT TO KILL THE KRAKEN — A GIANT S 
QUID-LIKE HON- STER FREQUENTLY MISTAKEN FOR A SMALL ISLAND! 
165 PRINT" THEN YOU WILL BE FREE." 

170 PRINT" YOUR COMMANDS ARE N, E, W, ANDS, THE DIRECTIONS; M, 
FOR HAP; AND C, TO SEE YOUR INVENTORY, STRENGTH, ETC." 
17 5 PRINT" GOOD LUCK!" 

180 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE," 
185 IS=INKEYS 
190 IF I$=""THEN 185 
195 CLS:INPUT"YOUR NAME";BS 
200 C=RND!"-TIMER) 
205 C=RND(6) 

210 IF C=l THEN D$="ELF" 
215 IF C-2 THEN D$="DWARF" 
220 IF C=3 THEN D$="FIGHTER" 
225 IF C=4 THEN DS^"HALFLING" 
230 IF C=5 THEN D$-="CLERIC" 
235 IF C=6 THEN D$="GNOME" 
240 E=RND(-TIHER) iGOSUB 250 
2 45 GOTO 26 5 
250 E-RND(lb) 
255 IF E<5 THEN 250 
260 RETURN 
265 F=E:GOSUB 250 
270 G=E:GOSUB 250 
275 H=E;GOSUB 250 
280 I=E:GOSUB 250 
285 J=E:GOSUB 250 
290 K=RND( -TIMER) 

295 K=RND(6):IF K<4 THEN L$="PLATE MAIL ARMOR" ELSE L$="CHAIN MA 
IL ARMOR" 
300 M=RND( -TIMER) 

305 M=RND(6):IF M<4 THEN N$-"SWORD" ELSE N$-"HAND-AXE" 
310 GOSUB 335 

315 PRINT:PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE." 
320 I$=INKEYS 
325 IF IS="" THEN 320 
330 GOTO 380 

335 PRINT:PRINT"YOUR GAME CHARACTER SHALL BE "B$" THE "D$:PRI 
NT"STRENGTH: "F 

340 PRINT" INTELLIGENCE: "G: PRINT"WISDOM: "H 
345 PRINT"DEXTERITY: " I : PRINT" CONSTITUTION: "J 

Liiliitg con tin lies 



I wrote this game, The Lair of the 
Kraken, for a 32K Extended Color 
Basic Color Computer. It is a com- 
puterized, underwater Dungeons-and- 
Dragons game. 

The object is to travel through an un- 
derwater palace, battling monsters and 
finding objects. You need one of these 
objects to kill the Kraken (a type of mon- 
ster) and set yourself free. The game 
creates a random character for you. 

Monsters with different strengths are 
randomly placed in the dungeon's 
rooms. When entering a room contain- 
ing a monster, you can fight or run. If 
you run, you may be caught! Your 
chance to hit a monster is raised or 
lowered according to your character's 
ability scores (strength or intelligence). 
Since Lair of the Kraken is not too dif- 
ficult to win, it is aimed at kids. If you 
wish to make the fighting odds tougher 
or easier, then add: 

575 IF S< 5 THEN W = 10 ELSE W - 13 

Change the W = 10 and W = 13 to two 
other numbers from 1 to 20 (the second 
W should be higher than the first). The 
lower you make these numbers, the 
easier it is to hit monsters. If you want 
to make the fight with the Kraken 
harder, add ELSE W - W -^ 4 to the end 
of line 585, which reads: 

585 IF FPOO THEN W = W-6 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
32KRAM 
Extended Color Basic 



124 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lisimg conlinued 



350 
NS" 
355 
360 
365 
370 
375 
380 
3 85 
390 
395 
400 
405 
410 
415 
420 
425 
430 
435 
440 
445 
450 
455 
460 
465 
470 
475 
480 
485 
490 
495 
500 
505 
510 
515 
520 
525 
530 
535 
540 
545 
550 
555 
560 
565 
570 
575 
580 
535 
590 
595 



PKrNT"CHARISHA:"E:PRINT"WEARING "L$" AND" i PRINT"CARRYING A 

IF JJ$=""THEN RETURN ELSE PRINT"ALSO CARRYING : "JJS 

PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 

I5=INKEYS 

IF I$=""THEN355 

RETURN 

GOTO 510 

PKODE 4,1:PCLS:SCREEN 1,1 

LINE (20,92)-(28,104) ,PSET,B 

LINE(28,92)-(32,104) ,PSET,B , 

LINE{32,93)-(36,103) ,PSET,B 

LINE {36, 94) -(40,102) ,PSET,B 

LINE(40,95)-(44,101) ,PSET,B 

LINE(44,96)-(48,100) ,PSET,BF 

LINE(48,80)-(52,116) ,PSET,BF 

LINE (36, 64) -(64,80) ,PSET,B 

LINE(36,116)-{64,132) ,PSET,B 

LINE(48,132)-(52,136) ,PSET,BF 

LINE(48,136)-{68,140) ,PSET,BF 

LINE(64,108)-(68,140) ,PSET,BF 

LINE{60,108)-C68,88) ,PSET,B 

LINE(68,y6)-(120,100) ,PSET,BF 

LINE(64,68)-(80,72) ,PSET,BF 

LIWE(80,68)-(100,84) ,PSET,B 

LINE(88,84)-(92,96) ,PSET,BF 

LIKE (120, 88) -(13 2,108) ,PSET,B 

LINE(132,96)-(156,100) ,PSET,BF 

LINE(156,76)-C192,116) ,PSET,B 

I$=INKEYS 

IF 1$="" THEN 490 

SCREEN 0,0 

RETURN 

GOTO 5 55 

P=RND( -TIMER) 

P=RND ( 6 ) 

IF P=Q THEN 520 

FOR R=l TO P 

READ R$,S,T 

NEXT R 

RESTORE 

Q=P: RETURN 

GOTO 655 

IF LS="PLATE MAIL ARMOR"THEN U=t 

IF T<5 THEN V=i5 ELSE V=12 

IF U=l THEN V=V-1 

IF S<5 THEN W=10 ELSE W=i3 

IF (F+G+I)>27 THEN W=W-4 

IF PPO0 THEN W=W-6 

CLS;PRINT"YOU ARE FIGHTING A 

PLAY "L1603AL404CL1603AL404C" 

Lining conrinues 



ELSE U=l 



'RS" 



My program makes good use of the 
RND(-TIMER) command. This line, 
placed right before a RND command, 
resets the random -number subroutine 
and guarantees that the numbers really 
will be different each time you play. 

There is a high-resolution map, 
drawable at any time except during a 
fight. You can review your character 
and what he or she is carrying at any 
time, also. 

I think this game is a good introduc- 
tion to adventure games, as the maze is 
not very complicated. Since you always 
have a chance to run away from a fight, 
there are no unsuspected deaths to trap 
the unwary. ■ 

Beth Norman, age 12, can be 
reached at 8 Doris Road, Fram- 
ingham, MA 01701. 




Color Computer and TDP-100 Programs 

SPELL 'N FIX — Spelling correclion piogram wilh 

20,000^ word dicdonaty. See il/82 review in 80 

Micro. $69.29. 

HUMBUG — The Ullimate Monitor. Enter, 

examine, sinyle-steii mjthinc lanyuaye programs, 

more. $39.95. 

STAR-DOS — Disk Operalinij System compatible 

wuh Disk Extended Basic, $49.90. 

CHECK -N TAX - Balance checkbook and keep 

tax data on disk. $50. 

REMOTERM — Operate computer from a remote 

terminal. $19.95 

NEWTALK Voice output program to examine 

and check memory. $20. 

SHRINK — Our fast version ol Eliza, $15, 

OXXO — Our iast wrsion ol Othello, $15. 

Send for details and catalog of other programs. We 

accept cash, check, COD, Visa or MasterCard. NY 

State residents please include sales tax 

Star-Kits 



►^432 



P.O. Box 209-E 

MT. Kisco, N,Y. lOS-fg 

(9U) 241-0237 



hAVWWV^WJVWWWW 



-THOR symbol of new power for your Model I/Ill Computer 



THOR INTERNAL MODEL III 

DISK DRIVES 

All the hardware and easy directions lo install one or 

two drives— With TRSDOS'— (NEWDOS' for dual 

drives) 

Kit containing one/two drives. 

Single 40 $449/$ 649 

Dual 40 $599/$ 875 

Dual 80 $725/$1125 



THOR WINCHESTER 
DISK SYSTEM 



SPECIAL 
PRICE 



One or two drives — Price includes one drive with NEW- 
DOS-80', case and power supply — Slot for second 
drive 

4,5 Megabyte $1799 

9 Megabyte $1999 

13.5 Megabyte $2299 

18 Megabyte $2499 

THOR NETWORK CONTROLLER 



CALL 1-800-641 -3885 
for orders onl 




For technical information 

or in Colorado call 

303-337-5909 

UJArlS Western Micro Systenns 
■ 2760 South Havana, Suite 8 • 
Aurora, Colorado 80014 



Connect up to 254 computers of most any make over 
as much as 5000 feet of cable — Share 4.5 to 60 mega- 
bytes or more o( disk storage — Call for additional infor- 1 

mation and pnces- *TRSDOS is a trademark of Tandy Corp, and NEWDOS-80 is a trademark of Apparat, Inc. 

Prices are cash— Visa/MasterCard/American Express/COD available on request 
^""'■■■^■'~^^^^^~'~'"— -^^^^^^^"^^^^^^^^ Dealers enquiries welcome ««^«^^^— ^— — .^-» 



THOR DIGITAL PORT 

14 IN and 15 OUT— Each port a full 8 bits— Connector 
to attach lo Model I/Ill bus— Complete with cable and 
case — Requires 5 volts at 150 ma. 
Assembled and tested 

For Model I Only $ 29.95 

For Model III Only $ 34,95 

THOR VERBOARD 

Add a separate control computer to your Model III (For 
Model I requires above Model I Digital Port) — Verboard 
attaches to the Model I/Ill bus— Operates indepen- 
dently while your Model I/Ill performs other tasks— Has 
provision for 8K RAM or 16K EPROM— 8 input and 8 
output parallel ports as well as two serial ports are 
included. 
With a detailed manual 

Kit with IK RAM $ 99.95 

Assembled and tested $1 29 95 

EPROM Basic for 
simplified programming $ 49,95 



^^238 



^See List ol Adverlisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 125 



SUPERSCRIPSIT 
PRINTER DRIVERS 

MODEL I /III 

□□nnnnnuDnuunn 

With an ALPS Printer Driver, 

you can use your own printer with 

Radio Shack's SuperSCRiPSIT 

word processing system 

nnDDDnDnnnnnnn 

Each printer driver supports ail the normal text 
features, plus the individual features ol ttie Denier 
itself. 

Epson MX-80,MX-100 

withGRAFTRAX-PLUS 

10 or 16 (condensed) cpi, bold, double bold, under- 
line, italics, or any combination of these, super- 
script, subscript (also supports non-GRAFTRAX 
printers) $59 

Smith-Corona TP-I 

10 or12 cpi, boltJ, underline $49 

Okidata Mtcroline82 

5,8, 10, 16cpi, bold $49 

Okidata Microiine64 

Correspondence (proportional) or 10, 12, 16 cpi, 
underline, bold (dp only), superscript, subscript, 
right margin justitication. $59 

Radio Shack Line Printer V 

10, 15 cpi, underline, bold, underline and bold. $49 

Mall / Phone Orders Accepted 

ALPS 

23 Angus Road 
Warren, New Jersey 07060 
■■^ 201 - 647-7230 




Listirig con tinned 

600 PRINT"USE THE SPACE BAR" : PRINT"TO STRIKE, "B$"l" 

605 I$=INKEY$ 

610 IF ISO" " THEN 605 

615 X=RND(-TIMER) 

620 X=RND(20) 

625 PRINT:PRINT"YOU STRIKE!":IF X<W THEN 540 

630 PRINT"YOU HITITHE "R$" IS" 

635 PRIKT"DEAD!" :RETURN 

PRINT"YOU MISSr':X-RND(20) 

PRINT:PRINT"yOUR FOE STRIKES!";IF X>V THEN 1525 
550 PRINT"IT MISSES! " :GOTO 600 
655 GOTO 660 
66 GOTO 6 95 

INPUT"YOUR COMMAND" ;AS 

IF A5="N" OR AS="E" OR A$="W" OR AS="S"THEN RETURN 

IF A$="M"THEN GOSUB 385 ELSEIF A$="C"THEN GOSUB 335 ELSE 685 

GOTO 665 
685 PRINT"PLEASE USE N,E,W,S,H,OR C." 
690 GOTO 665 
695 CLS 

YOU ARE A POOR "D$"," 

PRINT"BARELY EKING OUT A LIVING AS A 

PRINT" ONE DAY, YOU ARE OUT ROWING 

COMING FROM BEHIND A ROCK. YOU" 
715 PRINT" INVESTIGATE AND FIND THAT IT IS THE SINGING OF A GROUP 

OF MER- MAIDS. " 
720 PRINT"THEY SURROUND YOUR BOAT AND HAKESTRANGE PASSES IN THE 
AIR WITH THEIR HANDS, ONE INFORMS YOU THAT THEY HAVE CAST A 
WATER- BREATHING SPELL ON YOU." 
725 PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE." 
730 I$=INKEYS 
735 IF 1$="" THEN 730 

740 CLS:PRINT" THEY DRAG YOU UNDER THE SUR- 
THAT YOU CAN BREATHE, TALK, AND MOVE FREE- 
745 PRINT"THEY TAKE YOU FAR, FAR DOWN TO THE TOP OF A STAIRCASE 
LEADING DOWN TO VARIOUS PASSAGEWAYS AND ROOMS." 



640 
645 



665 
670 
67 5 
6B0 



700 PRINT' 

705 

710 

SOUND 



FISHERMAN. " 

WHEN YOU HEAR A SWEET 



FACE AND YOU FIND 
LY UNDERWATER. " 



Lislin^ conf'mue.^ 



CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL-I OR Ml INTO A 

DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM 



P^~ 




Now you can develop Z-80 based, 
stand-alone devices such as games, 
robots, instruments and peripheral 
controllers, by using your TRS-80 as a 
development system. The DEVELOP- 
MATE plugs into the expansion con- 
nector of your TRS-80 and adds 
PROM PROGRAMMING and IN- 
CIRCUIT-EMULATION capabilities to 
your system (with or without expan- 
sion interface). 



Complete instructions and sample 
schematics are included to help you 
design your own simple stand-atone 
microcomputer systems. THESE 
SYSTEMS CAN BE AS SIMPLE AS 
FOUR ICs: one TTL circuit for clock 
and reset, a Z-80, an EPROM, and one 
peripheral interface chip. 

When the In-Circuit-Emulation 
cable is plugged into the Z-80 socket 
of your stand-alone system, the sys- 
tem becomes a part of your TRS-80: 
You can use the full power of your 
editor/assembler's debug and trace 
program to check out both the hard- 
ware and the software. Simple test 
loops can be used to check out the 
hardware, then the system program 
can be run to debug the logic of your 
stand-alone device. 

Since the program is kept in TRS-80 
RAM, changes can be made quickly 
and easily. When your stand-alone 
device works as desired, you use the 
Developmate's PROM PROGRAMMER 
to copy the program into a PROM. 
With this PROM, and a Z-80 in place of 
the emulation cable, your stand-alone 
device will work by itself 



The DEVELOPMATE is extremely 
compact: Both the PROM programmer 
and the In-Circuit-Emulator are in one 
small plastic box only 3.2" x 5.4". A 
line-plug mounted power supply is 
Included. The PROM programmer has 
a "personality module" which defines 
the voltages and connections of the 
PROM so that future devices can be 
accommodated. However, the system 
comes with a "universal" personality 
module which handles 2758. 2508 (8K), 
2716, 2516 (16K), 2532 (32K), as well 
as the new electrically alterable 2816 
and 48016 06K EEPROMs). 

The COMPLETE DEVELOPMATE 
81, for Model I, with software, power 
supply, emulation cable, TRS-80 
cable, and "universal" personality 
module S329 

DEVELOPMATE 83, Model III version, 
same as above $329 

PM2 PERSONALITY MODULE for 
2732A EPROM $15 

PM3 PERSONALITY MODULE for 
2764 EPROM $15 

ORION 

INSTRUMENTS -'S' 

172 Otis Avenue, Dept. M, Woodside, 

CA 94062 

(415) 851-1172 

Master Charge and Visa phone orders accepted 

Califorma residents please add 6''% sales tax 



126 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



I.isling coMinued 

750 PRINT" PRESS <M> TO SEE THE HAP NOWfWHEN YOU HAVE STUDIED 
IT, PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE THE GAME." 



755 I$=INKEYS 
760 IF I$<>"H 
765 GOSUB 385 
770 CLS:PRINT 
D OF ANDON, 



THEN 7 55 



805 
810 
815 



ONE MERMAID TELLS YOU THAT YOUHUST FIND THE SWOR 
THEIR MASTER, AND USE IT TO KILLTHE KRAKEN." 
775 PRINT"YOU WILL THEN SET YOURSELF FREE." 
780 PRINT" LAUGHING, THEY SWIM AWAY." 
785 PRINT"CURIOUS,YOU DESCEND THE STAIRS." 

790 PRINT"YOU FIND YOURSELF IN AN INTER- SECTION GOING NORTH, S 
OUTH, AND WEST. " 
795 GOSUB 665 
800 IF AS="W"THEN860 

IF A$="S"THEN865 

IF A5="N"THEN825 

PRINT"CAN'T GO THAT WAY I " !GOSUB665 
820 GOTO 800 

825 PRINT"YOU GO 40 FT. NORTH AND COME TO A ROOM." 
8J0 IF L2=0 THEN 840 ELSE PRINT"IT'S EMPTY." 
835 GOTO 880 

840 GG$="LAMP":HH$="DAGGER"!GOSUB 515 
845 GOSUB 1420 

850 IF LL>6 THEN 880 ELSE 870 
855 LL=0 

860 PRINT"YOU'RE ON THE TOP OF THE STAIRS. SUDDENLY^ THEY CRUMBLE. 
":GOTO 7 90 

865 PRINT"YOU GO 40 FT. SOUTH AND COME TO A ROOM.": IF NN=0 THEN 
1120 ELSEPRINT"IT'S EMPTY. ":GOTO 1150 
870 GG$="LAMP";HH$="DAGGER" 
8/5 GOSUB 1485 

880 PRINT"THERE ARE EXITS EAST AND SOUTH. ": L2=L2+1 
885 GOSUB 665 
890 IF AS="E"THEN 910 ELSE IF A$="S"THEN 905 ELSE PRINT"CAN'T GO 

THAT WAY. " 
895 GOSUB 665 

Listing continues 



EE: S €r> -F t i^ at r- «» ta V 

I PABSoft I 

Excellence in Technical Software 

LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS 

State Variable Analysis $25 

Advanced S. V. Analysis $25 

Transfer Function Anal $25 

All Three $60 

ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN 

Butterworth & Chebychev I $17 

Chebychevll $17 

Elliptic $17 

All Three $40 

•Tape or Disk (Specify) 

Tape Assumes Non-DOS Systems 
■For Disk Specify DOS 
'Model I or III (Specify) 

Minimum 48K RAM 

MATRIX SUBROUTINES 

These 'callable from BASIC subroutines 
provide an extension to the BASIC ROM. 
Included are MAT +,-,',/, transpose, in- 
verse and disk & tape I/O. Min 16K RAM. 
Available on disk or tape. Specify DOS 
for disk version. 

$19.95 
PAB Software, Inc. 
P.O. Box 15397 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46885 ^33, 



It's that time again! 
Prepare and plan your taxes like an expert 



FEDTAX* The income tax program 
for the layman and the professional. 

• Confidential and Convenient 

• Automatic error checking and tax minimization 

• Prepared by professionals 

• Tax deductable 

• Fully documented 

• Optional text: help for novices, speed for professionals 

• Includes powerful "What if?" feature for analyzing and tax planning 

• FEDTAX*!: Completes long and short forms, residential 
energy credits, income averaging, tax calculations and more 

• FEDTAX* 11: All the features of FEDTAX 1 plus business 
income, capital gains/losses, minimum tax and alternative mini- 
mum tax 

• Discount on yearly updates 

Guarantee: 

Defective software may be returned for replacement without cost 
within 30 days of Invoice date. Proof of purchase required. 

• T.M. of Specialized Software, Inc. ** y.M. of Tandy Corporation 



,^295 



Orders wi!l be filled in late January to allow 
TO ORDER: inclusion of new tax laws, 

C~all~ou724 hour order line (519) 432-2865 

or mail this coupon to: 

Specialized Software, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1004 

Port Huron, Ml 48060 

Please enroll me as a member and send: 

a FEDTAX* 1 - @ $59.95 (I6K Min) 

o Disk or 

D Cassette 

□ FEDTAX* 11 - @ $119.95 (32K Min) 

Disk only 
D Please send more information 
My System is (please check one) 

o TRS 80** Model I 
a TRS 80** Model III 

Credit Card orders add $3,50 processing fee. 

All prices include 

postage handling and applicable taxes. 

Name _„^ — _ ^ — _ — _ 

Address . 

City 



Stale 



Z,p. 



D Check a Money Order D Visa D Master Card 
Card No- Exp. Dale 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 127 



PUBLISHERS 

AUTHORS 

EDITORS 

We specialize in typesetting from 
Model I's and Model Ill's, either from 
your disk or through telecommunica- 
tions. We have hundreds of typefaces 
to choose from on our high speed dig- 
itized typesetting system. PLUS, we are 
graphic designers and are able to assist 
you in layout and design for the highest 
quality in books, magazines, periodi- 
cals, journals, etc. 24 hour turnaround 
on most orders. Call or write for price 
quotations. 

CHILES & CHILES, INC. 

1351 S. Floyd Rd,, Suite 109, Richardson, 
TX 75081 
(214)690-4606 ^493 



FOR T RS-80 MODEL II & Z80 

- CCOS - 

Real-time Operating System 



OEM's. Systems Imp le men tors 
& experienced owners 

POLL REMOTE TERMENALS, CASH REGISTERS. 
DATA AOJUISITION DEViCES'CONCL'HBENTLY 
W[TH OPERATOR/ BACKGROUND ACTIVITIES 

CONFIOURED FOR TRS-80 MOIIEL II 
TRANSPARENT OVERLAY TO TRSDOS 2.0A 

AVAILABLE FOB STAND-ALONE/ BOARD LEVEL SYSTEMS 

GIVES YOr AfCF.SS TO 1/0 DEVICES 
FROM EITHER EtlREGROUND OR BACKGROUND 

OATHEK, PROCESS & STORE DATAWHILE RI'NNING 
APPLICATION PROGRAMS IN BACKCROUM) 

- INTERRUPI DRIVEN - MULTI-TASKING - 16 PRIORITIES - 



Also - 

TRS-eO MODEL M DISASSEMBLER .^395 

TRS-eO MODEL II EXTENDED DEBUG PACKAGE 



"SpfciiliiiDi in Superviflory CuDtrol A DaU Acquiiilioo" 
V-Ofl/lOf ^lO^Uytafufl (B12) 424-1622 

508 THIRD STREET SE - OSSEO. MINNESOTA SSSSO 





OF=-T lOMS — so, NOW FDR 
^l=-|=l_E * «« -TFtO — SO 




OPTION 
INVESTING 




F^ET-TLIFtM FROM l_ I SITED 
STOCK OF>-riOM 
I M VEST I MO 




HANDLES CALLS, PUTS, SPREADS, IN 
AND OUT; COMMISSIONS, RISK, COST 
OF MOhEY, DIVIDENDS. TABLES AND 
GRAPHS. PRINTS, STORES TO DISK. 
INDEXED MANUAL A COMPLETE BUIDE 
TO OPTION INVESTING. M/C it VISA. 
•123. SEND FOR FREE BROCHURE. 
OF-TI OIMS — SO, BOX 471 

CONCORD, MASS 01742 
•iBMEIMRIt ^mt M«P •rRHDEHAliK APPLE CMPUIER, IMC 



Listing continued 

900 GOTO 890 

905 PRINT"YOU GO 40 FT. SOUTH. ":G0TO 790 

910 PRINT"YOa GO 40 FT. EAST AND COME TO A ROOM." 

915 PRINT"GEE,IT'S DARK IN HERE. TOO DARKTO SEE, AS A MATTER OF 

FACT. ":EE$="LA":GOSUB 1390 

920 IF EE$<>DDS THEN 925 ELSE 930 

925 PRINT"YOU STUMBLE OUT, AND BLINDED BY THE SUDDEN LIGHT, WAND 

ER ABOUT. ":GOTO 790 

930 PRINT-LUCKILY, YOU HAVE A LAMP AND CAN SEE. " :GG$="ROPE'' : HH$=" 

SHOVEL":GOSUB 515 

935 GUSUB 1420 

940 IF LL>6 THEN 960 

945 LL=0 

950 GG$="ROPE":HH$="SHOVEL" 

955 GOSUB 1485 

960 PRINT"THE;RE AEE EXITS WEST AND SOUTH" :KK=KK+1 

965 GOSUB 665 

970 IF A$="W"THEN 985 ELSEIF A$="S"THEN 995 ELSE PRINT"CAN'T GO 

THAT WAY." 

975 GOSUB665 

980 GOTO 970 

985 PRINT"YOU GO 40 

840 ELSE PRINT"IT'S 

990 GOTO880 

995 PRINT"YOU GU 30 FT. SOUTH." 

1000 PRINT"yOU ARE NOW IN AN INTERSECTION 

ORTH.":GOSUB 665 

IF A$="E"THEN 1195 ELSE IF A$=''W"THEN 
120 ELSE PRINT"CAN'T GO THAT WAY." 



FT. WEST AND COME TO 
EMPTY . " 



A ROOM.": IF L2=0 THEN 

GOING EAST, WEST, AND N 
1030 ELSE IF A5="N"TH 



1005 

EN 11 

1010 GOSUB665 

1015 GOTO 1005 

1020 PRINT"YOU GO 30 FT. NORTH AND FIND 

IF KK=0 THEN 915 ELSE PRINT"IT'S EMPTY." 

1025 GOTO960 

1030 PRINT"yoU GO 50 FT. WEST AND FIND 

IF MM=0 THEN 1040 ELSE PRINT"IT'S EMPTY." 

1035 GOTOi080 

1040 PRINT"THIS ROOM IS A GIANT PIT! " : EE$="RO" :GOSUB 1390 

1045 IF EE$<>DDS THEN 1050 ELSE 1055 

1050 PRINT"THERE IS NO WAY TO CLIMB DOWN. 

FT.EAST.":GOTO 1000 
1055 PRINT"SINCE YOU HAVE A ROPE, YOU HAKE 
WN. ":GG$= "LAMP" :HH$=" SHOVEL": GOSUB 515 
1060 GOSUB 1420 
1065 IF FF<6 THEN 1080 
1070 GG$="LAMP":HH$="SHOVEL" 
107 5 GOSUB 14 85 

1080 PRINT"THERE ARE EXITS SOUTH AND EAST.' 
1085 GOSUB 665 
1090 IF A$="S"THEN 1110 ELSE IF AS="E"THEN 1105 ELSE PRINT"CAN'T 

GO THAT WAY. " 
1095 GOSUB 665 
1100 GOTO 1090 
1105 PRINT"YOU'GO 5{ 
1110 PRINT"YOU GO 71 



YOURSELF IN A ROOM.": 



YOURSELF IN A ROOM.": 



YOU LEAVE. YOU GO 5t 



A LADDER AND CLIMB DO 



' : MH=MM+1 



PASSAGEWAY TURNS WEST 



FT.EAST.":GOTO 10 

FT. SOUTH AND THE 
.":PRINT"YOU GO 30 FT. WEST AND IT TURNS NORTH. ": PRINT"YOU GO 10 

FT. NORTH AND COME TO A ROOM.": IF NN=0 THEN 1120 ELSE PRINT"IT 
S EMPTY." 
1115 GOTO1150 

1120 GG$="ROPE":HHS="DAGGER":GOSUB515 
1125 GOSUB 1420 
1130 IF LL>6 THEN 1150 
1135 LL=0 

1140 GG$="ROPE":HHS=''DAGGER" 
1145 GOSUB 1485 

1150 PRINT"THERE ARE EXITS NORTH AND SOUTH. " :NN=NN+1 
1155 GOSUB 665 
1160 IF A5="N"THEN1180 
1165 IF AS="S"THEN1185 

1170 PRINT"CAN'T GO THAT WAY ! " :GOSUB665 
1175 GOTO 1160 

1180 PRINT"YOU GO 40 FT. NORTH ." :GOTO 790 
1185 PRINT"YOU GO 10 FT. SOUTH AND THE 
.":PRINT"YOU GO 30 FT. EAST AND IT TURNS 



PASSAGEWAY TURNS EAST 
NORTH. ":PRINT"YOU GO 70 



FT. NORTH AND COME TO A ROOM.": IF MM=0 THEN 1040 ELSE PRINT"IT' 
S EMPTY." 
1190 GOTO1080 

1195 PRINT"YOU GO 70 FT. EAST AND COME TO A ROOM.":IF 00=0 THEN 1 
200 ELSE PRINT"IT'S EMPTY. ":G0T0 1260 

1200 PRINT"THE FLOOR IS COVERED WITH MUD WHICH HAS DRIFTED IN 
FROM THE OCEAN FLOOR. ": PRINT"THEN YOU NOTICE..." 
1205 GOSUB 515 
1210 GOSUB 1420 
1215 IF LL>6 THEN 1260 



Listing continues 



128 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



* FREE SHIPPING • 

WITHIN CONTINENTAL 48 SfAI ES 




ARE YOU A DREAMER? 

IMAGINE THIS . . . 



TRY 
US! 



You place your order and it arrives when expected. "Wtiat do 
you know, they did ship that day!" You open your pacl<age and 
SURPRISE, it's what you ordered, not last year's version six times re- 
moved. "Wait a minute, I must have paid full retail to get this kind of 
service. H'mm, that's not it. These prices are among the lowest. What's 
the catch? I've got it! They charged me large shipping and handling charges 
No, not that either. It says here 'Free shipping within the Continental 48 States 
Mia UPS ground. ' Only the differential is charged for UPS Blue or 1st Class. Now 
I've got it. it's only a dream!!!" 

At Micro Images your dreams become reality! How do we do it? Simple, we teii the truth. If 
the item you order fs not in stocl^ — we te!l you. If we can't ship that day — we tell you. 
Which version? We tell you. Why are we telling you this? The answer is easy. This is what we 
do best and what separates us from the competition, AND WE WANT YOU TO KNOW, 



LAZYWRITER 

Latest Version Mod 1/111^159.95 

See Below For New Options 



MAX! MANAGER 

Manager with Utility -$119.95 
Maxi Utility Only -$44.95 



SUPERUTILITY + 

Mod l/lll-lncis Backup Copy$59.95 
SEE NEW BOOK BELOW 



MZAL - Ver. 2 
Mdl I or III —$134.95 



MAXI CRAS 

Mdl I/Ill —$84.95 



LDOS 5 1 

MDLIorlll— $114.95 



GEAR $42.95 

w/Dot Writer 1.5 -$89.95 



NEW SCRIPT -7.0- $114.95 

witli Mailing Label Opt.. $124.95 
Mailing Label Opt. Only . $27.95 



MAXI MAIL 

Mod III Only 

$84.95 



MAXI STAT 

Model I/Ill 
$179.95 



MULTIDOS $89.95 

NEW IMPROVED VERSION 

Specify Mdl I or III Single or Dbl Density 



DOSPLUS 



Version 3.4S/3.4D/3.4III 
Version II For Model II 



$119.95 
$199.95 



UNITERM Mod l/lll 

UNITERM/80 Modi/iii .-, 

i\^i6r6^6ft 

Fortran 80or A.L.D.S 

Basic Compiler 

Editor/Assembler -l- TaDe$27.95 



$74.95 
$84.95 



AcocM Gramatilt-Mdl 1^1 .. 
ASPEN Proofreader- Mdl l/lll 



. . $89.95 

$179.95 

Disk £45.95 

.95 



M 



POSTMAN MASS MAILING SYS. 

standard Ver. Mod l/lll $118.95 

with Postwriter Mod I/ill $159.95 



DATA-WRITER Mod i/in$ll4.95 



SFINKS 3.0 Disk Mod i/iii .$36.95 
SFINKS Chess Tutor Mod l/lll $17.95 



pn AQMod II 4.0 $74.95 

^^^^Mod l/lll 4.1 $89.95 



LAZYWRITER OPTIONS 

LAZYDOC $54.95 

LAZY TAB $13.95 

LAZYCALC $27.95 

LAZYDRAW + DO $18.95 

Tab, Calc, Draw+ Dq All 4 $37.95 



BOOKS 



Disk + Other Mysteries - ijg 

Basic Decoded - ijg 

Custom TRS-80 - ijg 

Basic Faster & Better - ijg . . 

Mdl 11/16 VisiCalC - W.C. Brown. 
Mdl l/lll VisicalC - W.C. Brawn. . 

Copyrigtit Kit 

Inside Suoerutilitv Plus 



$20.95 
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LNW-Doubler 5/8 $205.95 

Includes Dosplus3.4D 

SYSTEM EXPANSION II ■ $375.00 



LYNX Auto Dial/Answer Mod l/lll -S239.95 



MICROBUFFER - Practical Peripherals 
Parallel or Serial (Epson) ■ ■ • ■ $149.95 



• •PRINTER STANDS* • 





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MX 80 Clear $27.50 MX 80 Clear $13.50 

MX 80 Bronze .... $29.95 MX 80 Bronze .... $1 5.95 

Microline 82 A Space Age Bronze w/slot $29.95 

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N EC 8023A Space Age Clear $27.50 

C. ITOH Prowriter Same as NEC Above 



GREEN SCREENS - Mod l or ill $15.95 



C. ITOH PROWRITER , . . . . $499.00 

Parallel 120 CPS - 10" Carriaqe 



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16K Parallel I/O Unit $334.95 

46K Mennory Opt - $149.95 Serial I/O Opt. - $89.95 
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Epson MX70/80 8.95 90.00 

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Minimum order 3 cartridges ■ any mi<. For smaller 
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cartridges are manufactured by one of the oldest 
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***** QUALITY GUARANTEED ***** 

GAMES Tap. 

Sea Dragon or Eliminator . 17.95 

Penetrator 22.45 

Defiance 



PanikorTtie Institute 17.95 

Forbidden Planet or City . .14.50 

Strike Force 14.50 

Dunzhin or Kaiv 26.95 

Wylde 26.95 

Bounceoids or Sp. Castle .14.50 
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Fortress 11 or Alien Def. . . . 14.50 
Any Big 5 Program 14.50 



Disk 
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TO ORDER 

CALL OR 
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10 AM-9 PM 

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ORDERING INFORMATION 

No credit cards at these low prices. Add S2.00 on all COD orders. Certified Cl^/MOiCOD 
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the Items fisted above are a cross-section of our product line. Ws carry the lull line ol mosi 
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^See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



Micro, February 1983 • 129 




canrnlutDR 



No More Waiting 

For Quality Educational 

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New! ComtJHjtor "Math & Mystery "is a 
unique educational program that makes 
learning fun and exciting. 

Features Include: 

* 3 Math Categories 

* 1 or 2 Student Option 

* Ideal For Progress Monitoring 
* Category Selection By Each Student 
* Mystery Words For Bonus Points 

* Word Skills Development 

* Ages 8yrs.- Adult 
Addition-Subtraction, Multiplication, 

Basic Algebra 



(U\m4 '/p(§c 



^281 



PO Box 1464 Maryland Heights,Mo.63043 
Phone 314-576-0047 

To order" Maths Mystety" send checK or money order 
plus $2.00 shipping- handling. 

DiskVefsionD Cassette Version a Model I n 

32K Level II $29.95 IpK Level II $39 95 Model lit n 



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Street . 
Cit^ 



ifl&i 



NEW! M-68000 

SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER 
FOR TRS-80 USERS 




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32 bit Motorola 68000 CPU operating at 5 
MHz or 10 MHz, 20K of on board fast static 
RAM, 16K bytes of on board EPROM space, 
7 auto vectored Interrupts, 3 memorv/- 
device expansion buses, 2 serial com- 
munication ports (RS-232 C). 16 bit 
bidirectional parallel port, 5-16 bit 
counter/ timers with vectored interrupt and 
time of the day clock. On board monitor 
allows to download and debug programs 
generated on TRS-SO using our M68000 
Cross Assembler. 
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M6SK Parts Kit 1249.00 

M680DO Cross Assembler for TR5-80 1125.00 

M68K Documentation only S 15.00 

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Listing continued 

1220 LL=0 

1225 PRINT"YOU TRIP ON SOMETHING HARD UNDER THE MUD.":EES-" 

SH":GOSUB 1390 

1230 IF EESODDS THEN 1235 ELSE 1240 

1235 PRINT"AS YOU DON'T HAVE ANYTHING TO DIG WITH, YOU MUST LEA 

VE.":GOTO 126 

1240 PRINT"GOQD! YOU HAVE A SHOVEL TO DIG WITH. YOU FIND A FIN 

E SWORD INLAID WITH GEMS. AN INSCRIP- TION ON THE HILT SAYS 

1245 PRINT:PRINT" **SWORD OF ANDON**" 

1250 PRINT" **DOWN WITH KRAKENS**" 

1255 PRINT" **GOOD LUCK, TRAVELER! **": PRINT 

1260 PRINT''THERE ARE EXITS EAST AND WEST. "; 00=00+1 

1265 GOSUB 565 

1270 IF AS="E"THEN 1285 ELSE IF A$="W"THEN 1280 ELSE PRINT"CAN'T 

GO THAT WAY.":GOSUB 665 
1275 GOTO 1270 

1280 PRINT"YOU GO 70 FT. WEST. ": GOTO 1000 

1285 CLS:PRINT"YOU GO 60 FT. EAST AND COME TO A ROOM. " : R$="KRAKEN 
'■:S=1:T=10 

1290 PRINT"AS YOU ENTER THIS GIAMT ROOM YOUSEE A LOVELY GIRL IN 
A CAGE.":PRIKT"SUDDENLy,A HUGE WALL SLIDES SHUT, COVERING YOU 
R ONLY ESCAPE!" 

1295 PRINT''THEN YOU SEE THE HIDEOUS KRAKEN. YOU PREPARE 
TO ATTACK !":PRINT:PRINT"PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO CHARGE ,": PRINT B$ 

n I II 

1300 IS=INKEYS 

1305 IF I$<>'' " THEN 1300 

1310 GOSUB 560 

1315 PRINTSTRINGSC32,"*") ;: PRINTTAB ( 15-LEN{BS) /2) B$: PRINT" 

THE VICTOR"iPRIKTSTRING5(32,"*") 
1320 FOR T=l TO 1000:NEXT T 

1325 CLS:PRINT" SINCE YOU HAVE KILLED THE KRAKEN, THE CAGE 
DISAPPEARS AND THE BEAUTIFUL GIRL IS FREED!" 



1330 PRINT"SHE IS THE PRINCESS OP THESE 



ULE THEM 
1335 PRINT 
SLIDES 
ORTOISE, " 
1340 PRINT 



IN PEACE." 

' SHE PRESSES A BUTTON OK ONE 
BACK. WITH A WHISTLING CALL, 



WATERS, AND CAN NOW R 



WALL AND THE CEILING 
SHE SUMMONS A GIANT T 



THE STORY." 



2)RUN";A$ 



PRESS ANY KEY FOR THE END OF 
1345 I$=INKEY$ 
1350 IF 1$="" THEN 1345 

1355 CLS:PRINT" WITH THE TORTOISE'S HELP, SHE MOVES ASIDE A GRE 
AT ROCK THAT THE KRAKEN HAD SET IN PLACE, RE-VEALING A WEALTH 
OF TREASURE." 

1360 PRINT" HEAVILY LADEN WITH RARE TREAS-URES, YOU CLIMB ABOAR 
D SIR TORTOISE'S BACK AND HE BRINGS YOU TO THE SURFACE," 
1365 PRINTiPRINT" YOU MARRY AND LIVE HAPPILY UN-TIL THE END OF 
YOUR DAYS . " 

1370 PRINT: INPUT"WANT TO PLAY AGAIN" ;AS 
1375 IF LEFTS(A$,1)="Y''THEN CLS ELSE 1385 
1380 RUN150 

1385 PRINT"CHICKEN":GOTO 1385 
1390 BB=LEN(Z$) 
1395 FOR CC=1 TO BB-1 STEP 2 
1400 DDS=MID5(Z$,CC,2) 
1405 IF DDS=EE$THEN RETURN 
1410 NEXT CC 
1415 RETURN 

1420 PRINT"THERE'S A "R$" IN HERE!" 
1425 INPUT"WOULD YUU LIKE TO 1) FIGHT OR 
1430 IF A$="1"0R A$="2" THEN 1440 
1435 PRINT"PL,EASE USE 1 OR 2":G0T0 1425 
1440 IF A$=''l" THEN GOSUB 560 ELSE 1450 
1445 RETURN 

1450 FF=RND{ -TIMER) :FF=RND(10) 
1455 IF FF<6 THEN 1460 ELSE 1465 
1460 PRINT"YOU GOT AWAY ! " iRETURN 

1465 CLS:PRINT"THE "RS" CAUGHT YOU 1 " : PRINT"YOU ' RE FORCED TO FIGH 
T ANYWAY!" 

1470 FOR T=l TO 750:NEXT T 
1475 GOSUB 560 
1480 FF=10:LL=10 

1485 PRINT"IN THIS ROOM THERE IS A "GG$" AND A "HH$" ." 
1490 INPUT"TYPE IN THE FIRST TWO LETTERS OFTHE ONE YOU W1SH'';A$: 
IF AS=LEFT$(GGS,2)0R AS=LEFTS CHH$,2) THEN 1500 

1495 PRINT"PL.EASE USE "LEFT$ (GG$ , 2) " OR "LEFTS (HH$ ,2) " .":GOTO 1 
490 

1500 IF AS=LEFT${GG$,2) THEN IlS=GG$ ELSE II$=HH$ 
1505 PRINT"THE "IlS" IS TAKEN." 
1510 2S=Z$+A$ 
1515 aj$=JJS+II$+"," 
15 20 RETURN 

1525 PRINT"I'M AFRAID YOU'RE DEAD!":GOTO 1370 

1530 DATA GIANT CRAB, 2 , 4 ,GIANT PIRAHNA, 6 ,3 ,SEA HYDRA, 4 , 5 ,GIANT O 
CTOPUS,7,6,SEA SERPENT, 5 ,7 ,SEA DRAGON, 3, 8 



130 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



IT'S MORE FUN THAN A THREE-RING CIRCUS 




EDUCATIONAL 
H. FEATURES 



• 



'^ 



EXPANDS CREATIVITY 

DEVELOPS KEYBOARD SKILLS 

GEOGRAPHICAL QUIZZES 

MATH AND WORD GAMES 



'OUR CHILD WILL BE CAPTIVATED 
>ur gift of the 60 programs in 
Tests of skill, haunted houseS/^j^ ^ 
mazes, wizards and dragons are all a part of this 
funhouse book. V^ritten in TRS-80* Level II Basic. 
Author Richard Ramella creates many characters, from the 
mysterious Sugar Louie to the mystical Madam Zelda, as he 
takes your child through his arcade of games, graphics and 
quizzes. 

Carnival Companion''' is a 30-minute cassette 
of all the listings which eliminates the aggrava- 
tion of typing and searching for errors, leaving 
more time to spend on the midway. 



LARGE READABLE TYPE 

SPIRAL BINDING 

SHORT, EASY-TO-TYPE 

* PROGRAMS -U 

READY-TO-LOAD CASSETTE 

OF ALL THE LISTINGS 

AND 

MORE 



Toll Free 1-800-258-5473 lor your credit 
card order. Or mail your order with pay- 
i ment or complete credit card informa- 
tion plus $2 shipping and handling to: 
Wayne Green Inc. 
Attn: Book Sales 
'eterborough, NH 03458 
Dealer 



All orders shippcii UPS ii 
complete street .idflress 
is iirovided. 



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8C02 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



Byte Cycles 



by Nathan Miller 
Second Place 
10 and under 



Byte-Cycles is a one- or two-person 
joystick game for people of all ages. 
The object of the game is to fill as much 
of the screen as you can with the trail of 
your byte-cycle while avoiding the trail 
of your opponent's byte-cycle. You can 
win by forcing your opponent into your 
trail or into a wall. Variations include a 
screen filled with an array of stars you 
must avoid, and a circle-triangle-star 
maze you must negotiate to win. 

After loading Byte-Cycles from the 
cassette, type Run and press the enter 
key. The program will print informa- 



tion on how to play Byte-Cycles. When- 
ever there is a pause and you are fin- 
ished reading, press any key. 

After the instructions, you will need 
to answer a few questions before play 
begins: 

9 1 or 2 players? Your answer to this 
question tells whether you want to com- 
pete with someone or practice alone. 

• Draw? If you answer yes to this ques- 
tion, you will be able to cross trails and 
hit walls. This is usually for fun or prac- 
fice, not competition. 

• Stars? If you want the screen to be 



Program Listing 



DIM HF(63) ,VF(63) ,FH(63) ,FV(63) ,A(50) 

20 HF(0)=-1:VF(0)=-1:HF(63)=1:VF(63)=1;FH(0)=-1:FV(0)=-1:FH!63)= 

l!FV(63)=l 

23 CLS 

25 PRINT"WHEN THERE IS h PAUSE AND YOU ARE READY TO CONTINUE, PR 

ESS ANY KEY." 

27 IF INKEYS="" THEN 27 

30 CLS 

40 PRINT"WELCOHE TO BYTE CYCLES" : PRINT"WRITTEN BY NATHAN MILLER" 

:PRINT"OCT. 13,1982" 

50 IF INKElS^"" THEN 50 

60 CLS 

70 PRINT"IMAGINE YOURSELF INSIDE A COMPUTER. YOU ARE PLACED ON A 

LARGE FIELD IN A CYCLE THAT LEAVES A TRAIL WHEN IT MOVES. YOUR 
MAIN CONSIDERATION IS TO DESTROY THE OPPONENT BY MAKING HIM RUN 
INTO A TRAIL OR FORCING HIM INTO THE WALL. AT THE SA" ; 
80 PRINT"ME TIME YOU MUST AVOID THE TRAILS AND WALLS. WITH THE S 
TAR OPTION, YOU AND YOUR OPPONENT CAN BE DESTROYED BY RUNNING IN 
TO A STAR. IN THIS SIMULATION PLAYERS CONTROL THEIR CYCLES WITH 
JOYSTICKS BUT THEY MUST HOLD JOYSTICKS ON THE RIM OR EXPLODE 
100 IF INKEYS="" THEN 100 
110 CLS 

Listing continues 



filled with a lot of dots, answer yes here. 
You will be asked for the number of 
dots to be used. If you hit the dots dur- 
ing play you are destroyed. 
• Circle, triangle, star? In this option, 
the screen shows two half circles with 
gaps at each side. Inside the circles is a 
triangle with a star inside. The object is 
to get into the triangle and hit the star. 
This is very hard! 

When using the joystick, you must be 
very careful to keep the handle against 
the rim. You can move in any of eight 
directions: up, down, left, right, and the 
four diagonals. To change directions, 
move the handle to the extreme position 
of the direction you want. Leaving the 
handle in the middle of the joystick will 
destroy you. Also, you must not reverse 
directions. To go the opposite way, 
make a small corner since reversing di- 
rectly will explode you. ■ 

Nathan Miller, age 10, can be 
reached at 3309 SW Malcolm Court, 
Portland, OR 97225. 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
16KRAM 

Extended Color Basic 
Two Joysticks 



132 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Liilini; mntinued 

120 INPUT"1 OR 2 PLAYERS" ;NP 

130 IF NP<1 OR NP>2 THEN 120 

140 INPUT"DRAW";D$ 

150 IF D$="YES" THEN PMODE 4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1,1:G0T0 810 

160 IF NP-2 THEN INPUT"RIGHT PERSON'S NAME" ; R$ : INPUT"LEFT PERSON 

'S NAME";L$ 

170 INPUT"STARS";S$ 

180 IF SS="YES" THEN INPUT"HOW MANY STARS";NS 

190 IF SS<>"YES" THEN INPUT"CIRCLE,TRI . , STAR" ;CTS 

200 PMODE 4,1: PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 

240 LINE(0,0)-(255,191) ,PSET,B 

250 ON NP GOSUB 260,370 

260 PCLS:LINE(0,0)-(255,191) ,PSET,B:X=128:Y=96:IP S$="YES" THEN 

270 ELSE 280 

270 X=128:Y=96:FOR XZ=1 TO NS : PSET(RND( 128) *2 ,RND ( 96) *2) :NEXT XZ 

280 IF CT$="YES" THEN 290 ELSE X=128 : Y-96 :GOTO 320 

290 X=208:Y=171:CIRCLE(128,96) ,50 , , . 85 , . 04 , . 47 :CIRCLE(128 ,96) ,50 

,,.85,.53,.99:CIRCLE{128,96) ,49, , . 85 , . 04, . 47 :CIRCLE(128,96) ,49,, 

.85, .53, .99 

300 PSET[128,96) 

310 DRAW"BH128,9 6S8BM-5,+2E5F5BL3L4":DRAW"BM128,96BM-6,+2E6F6" 

319 X=208:y-171 

320 H=JOYSTK(0) :V=J0YSTKC1) 
330 PSET(X,Y) 

340 X==X+HF(H) :Y=Y+VF(V) 

350 IF PPOINT(X,Y) =5 THEN 700 

360 GOTO 320 

370 X2=88;Y=96:X=168:Y2-96:IF S$="YES" THEN 380 ELSE 390 

380 X-88:Y=96:X2=168:Y2=96:FOR XZ=1 TO NS : PSET( RND ( 128) *2 ,RND( 96 

) *2) ;NEXT XZ 

390 IF SS<>"YES" AND CTS-"YES" THEN 400 ELSE X=88 : X2=16 8 : Y=96 : y2 

=9b:G0T0 420 

400 X=4 8:Y=171:X2=208:Y2=I71:CIRCLE(12 8,96) , 50 , , . 85 , . 04 , . 47 : CIRC 

LE{128,96) ,5 0,,. 85,. 53,. 99: CIRCLE {12 8, 96) ,49, ,.85, . 04 ,. 47 : CIRCLE 

(128,96) ,49, ,.85, .53, .99 

410 DRAW"BM128,96S8BM-5,+2E5F5BL3L4":PSET(128,96) 

419 X=28:Y=171:X2=203:Y2=171:LINE(0,0)-(255,191) ,PSET,B 

420 H2=JOYSTK(0) : V2=J0YSTK ( 1) :H-J0YSTK[2) :V=J0YSTK(3) 
430 PSET(X,Y) :PSET(X2,Y2) 

440 X=X+HF(H) :Y=Y+VF(V) : X2=X2+FH (H2) : Y2=Y2+FV( V2) 

450 IF PPOINT(X,Y} =5 THEN 700 

460 IF PPOINT(X2,Y2) -5 THEN 750 

47 GOTO 420 

480 X-128:Y=96 

490 H=JOYSTK(0) :V=J0YSTK(1) 

500 X=X+HF(H) :Y=Y+VF(V) 

510 IF X<0 THEN X=0 

520 IF Y<0 THEN Y-0 

530 IF X>255 THEN X=255 

540 IF YM91 THEN Y=191 

550 PSET(X,Y) 

550 GOTO 490 

570 X-88:Y=96:X2=168:Y2=96 

580 H=JOYSTK(0) :V=J0YSTK(1) :H2=J0YSTK ( 2) : V2=J0YSTK ( 3) 

590 X=X+HF(H) :Y=Y+VF[V) : X2-X2+HF {H2) : Y2=Y2+VF ( V2) 

600 IF Y2>191 THEN Y2-191 

610 IF y2<0 then y2=0 

620 IF X2>255 THEN X2-255 

630 IF X<0 THEN X=0 

640 IF X>255 THEN X=255 

650 IF Y<0 THEN Y=0 

660 IF Y>191 THEN Y=191 

670 IF X2<0 THEN X2=0 

680 PSET(X,Y) :PSET(X2,Y2) 

6y0 GOTO 5 80 

700 FOR R=l TO 20 : CIRCLE (X ,Y) ,R, ,. 85 :NEXT 

710 ZX=ZX+1:IF ZX<=4 THEN 730 

720 IF NP=2 THEN 820 ELSE CLS : ZX=0 : C=0 :G0T0 120 

730 PCLS:IF NP=1 AND CT$="YES" THEN PCLS : LINE { , 0) -( 255 ,191) ,PSE 
T,B:G0T0 290 ELSE IF NP^l AND S5="YES" THEN PCLS : LINE ( , 0) -( 255 , 
191) ,PSET,B:GOTO 270 ELSE IF NP=2 AND CTS="YES" THEN 400 ELSE IF 

NP=2 AND SS^"yES" THEN LlNE { , 0) - ( 255 , 191) ,PSET,B ;GOTO 380 

731 IF NP=1 AND CT$<>"YES" AND S$<>"YES" THEN X=128 : Y=96 : GOTO 32 
ELSE X=83:Y=96:X2=168:Y2-96:LINE(0,0)-(255,191) ,PSET,B:GOTO 42 


7 40 GOTO 370 

750 FOR R=l TO 20 :CIRCLECX2 , Y2) ,R, , . 85 : NEXT R 

760 FOR D-1 TO 250:NEXT 

770 C-C+1:IF C<=4 THEN 730 

790 IF NP=2 THEN 820 ELSE CLS : ZX=0 :C=0 :GOTO 120 

80 GOTO 120 

810 IF NP=1 THEN 480 ELSE 570 

820 IF ZX>XZ THEN 850 ELSE 830 

530 CLS:PRINT"CONGRATULATIONS,";LS; ", YOU WIN!" 

840 IF INKEY$="" THEN 840 ELSE CLS : ZX=0 :C=0 :GOTO 120 

850 CLS:PRINT"CONGRATULATIONS,";R$;", YOU WIN!" 

855 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"FOR ANOTHER GAME PRESS ANY KEY." 

860 IF INKEY$="" THEN 860 ELSE CLS : ZX=0 :C=0 : GOTO 120 



COMPUTER REPAIRS 
CONSULTATIONS 




E & G UMLOR ENTERPRISES 

RFD#l,Box48A 

FITZWILLIAM, NH 03447 

DISK DRIVES 

With Power Supply and Case 

40 Track Single Side S260.00 

40 Track Double Side S330.00 

80 Track Single Side S 345.00 

80 Track Double Side S420.00 
Raw Drives Also Available 

For Further Information Coll. 
(603) 585-3142 



GO 
PIGGYBACK 




CEnTROni 

ADD lowercase with our 
PLUG-IN piggyback board! 

9WX7H Dot Matrix $140 
5WX7H Dot Matrix $100 

TWO compete character sets on board: 
96 character ASCII PLUS cfiolcc rt 
12B ctiaracler APt, TRS-80/H-19 Graphics or 
Scientific. (Customer defined: add $50/s«l). 
Most printsrs convartlblo: spocifv logic board # 

Radix 
Technologies 

SuKo HOO Carolyn BulWIng "^ 

10400 Eaton Place 

Fairfax, VA 22030 (703) 385-0300 

««, BMa^lrt. ■«*. CM HHfM ^ 269 



IEEE-488 TO TRS-80* INTERFACE 
Everything needed to add powerful 
BASIC GPtB-488 controller capability 
to TRS-80 Model 1 or 3, Level 2 or 
DOS witti a minimum of 16K. 




Model 488-80B or 488-80C Price; $375. 

■+ shipping, insurance & tat 
WHEN ORDERING SPECIFY DISK OR TAPE 

SCiENTIFIC ENGINEERiNG 
LABORATORIES 

11 Neil Drive • Old Bettipage, NY 11804 
Teleptione: (516) 694-3370 

"Trademark ol Tandy Corp. 
There IS rio at filiation between Scientific 
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<^203 



■See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 133 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



LOAD 80 



Boxer 



by Lloyd Kupchanko 

Third Place 

14-18 



Boxer is a machine-language game 
that will give your reflexes the ultimate 
challenge. The object is to punch a ran- 
domly appearing bag. Use the up- and 
down-arrow keys to move and the left- 
and right -arrow keys to punch. 



Listing 1 is a Basic version of Boxer. 
String packing was used to do the ani- 
mation. After you have played a few 
games and leave the computer, the 
game will go into the demonstration 
mode. To exit the demonstration mode 



Program Listing I 

********************************************************** 

* * 

* BOXER * 



LLOYD 



KUPCHANKO 



********************************************************** 

10 GOTO470 

15 1 ***** TESTS FOR KEYBORD IHPUT 

20 A=PEEK(14550) 

30 IFT<0THEN320ELSET-T-1 

40 IFV<0THEN230ELSEV=V-1 

45 ■ ***** IF jfj DEMONSTRATION MODE THEN LINE 450 

50 IFD=1THEN450 

60 IFA=32THEN110 

70 IFA=64THEN130 

80 IFA=8THEN150 

90 IFA=16THEN190 

100 GOTO2 

105 r ***** RIGHT HAND SWING ROUTINE 

110 V=V-1:T=T-1:PRINT@X,A1S; : PRINT@X , A2$; : PRINTgX , A3 $ ; :PRINTeX,A 

4$; :IFPEEK(1537 0+X) =19lTHEN25 0ELSEIFPEEK ( 15 43 4+X) =191THEN250 

115 ' ***** RIGHT HAND HISS ROUTINE 

120 PRINT@X,Z$; : PRINTgX , A3 S; :PRINT@X,ZS; : PRINT @X ,A2$; :PRINT@X,Z$ 

; :PRINT@X,A1$; : PRINTgX , ZS ; : PRINT@X, A0 S; :GOTO20 

125 ' ***** LEFT HAND SWING ROUTINE 

130 V=V-l;T=T-l;PRINT@y,M$; : PRINTlSY ,A7 $ ; : PRINTgY, A8 S; :PRINTiaY,A 

Listing I continues 



just hit any key. Even though I did 
almost everything possible to speed up 
the game, it still runs pretty slowly. 

Listing 2 is an Assembly-language 
version of Boxer. The only difference 
between the Basic version and this one is 
that the Basic program has a demon- 
stration mode and the Assembly-lan- 
guage program does not. Boxer requires 
32K of memory to assemble. To use this 
version you have to run Program 
Listing 3 first. This program POKEs 
random numbers into a large memory 
block. The machine-language program 
will then use these numbers to randomly 
position the bag you are supposed to 
punch. 

My high score is 720 points. ■ 



Lloyd Kupchanko, age 16, can be 
reached at 24 Quesnell Circle, Edmon- 
ton, Alberta, Canada T5R 5M9. 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 



134 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Listing I continued 

9S; : IFPEEK(1556 2+X) =19lTHEN2 8 0ELSEIFPEEK ( 156 26+X) =19lTHEN280 

135 ■ ***** LEpT HAND MISS ROUTINE 

140 PRINT@Y,Z$; : PRINT@Y , A8$; : PRINT@Y, Z?; : PRINT@Y ,A7 $ ; :PRINT@Y,ZS 

; :PRINT@Y,A6$r : PRINTiay , Z S ; : PRINTiay , A5$; :GOTO20 

145 1 ***** [.lovE UP ROUTINE 

150 PRINT@X-l,Zl$; :X-X-64:Y-Y-64 

160 IFX<64THENX-X+64:Y=Y+64 

170 PRINT@X,MS; 

180 T^T-1:GOTO20 

135 t ***** ^50VE DOWN ROUTINE 

190 PRINT@X-1,Z1S; :X=X+64:Y=Y+64 

200 IFX>687THENX=X-64:Y=Y-64 

210 PRINT@X,H$; 

220 T=T-1:GOTO20 

225 ' ***** ERASES BLOCK WHEN BOXER TAKES TO LONG 

230 PRINTgP, STRINGS (3, 128) ; : S=S-20 :GOSUB310 : V=10 : P=RND ( 14) *64+14 

:PRINT@P,STRINGS(3,191) ;:GOTO20 

235 ' ***** DRAWS NEW BLOCK AFTER BOXER HAS HIT 

240 V=10:P^RND(14) *64+14 : PRINT@P, STRINGS ( 3 ,191) ;:GOTO20 

245 ' ***** RIGHT HAND HIT ROUTINE 

250 PRINT@P," "; :PRINTiax,zS; :PRINTiap+l ," " ; :PRINT(ax,A3S; :PRINT@P 

+ 2," "; :PRINT@X,Z$; : PRINT@P+6 ,CHR$ ( 191) ; : PRINT^X , A2$; :PRINTiap+7, 

CHR$(191) ; :PRINT@X,SS; : PRINT@P+8 ,CHR$ ( 191) ; 

260 PRINT@X,A1S; :PRINT@P+6 ," " ; : PRINT@P+9 ,CHR5 ( 191) ; :PRINT@X,ZS; 

;PRINT@P+7," "; : PRINT@P+10 ,CHR$ ( 191) ; : PRINT@X , A0 $; : PRINTiap+8 , " " 

; :PRINT@P+11,CHRS[191) ; :PRINT§P+9," "; : S=S+10 : PRINT@P+10 , " " ; 

270 PRINT@P+11," ";:GOSUB310:GOTO240 

275 ' ***** LEFT HAND HIT ROUTINE 

280 PRINTiap," "; :PRINT@Y,Z$; :PRINTiap+l," " ; : PRINT@Y ,AB$ ; : PRINT@P 

+2," ";:PRINT@Y,ZS; : PRINT@P+6 ,CHRS ( 191) ; : PRINT@Y, A7 5; :PRINT@P+7, 

CHR$(191) ; :PRINTiaY,ZS;:PRINT@P+8,CHR$(191) ; 

290 PRINT@Y,A7S;:PRINT(ap+6," "; : PRINT@P+9 ,CHRS [ 191) ; : PRINTgY , Z S ; 

:PRINT@P+7 ," "; : PRINTiap+10 ,CHRS { 191) ; : PRINT@Y, A5$,- :PRINT@P+8," " 

; :PRINT@P+11,CHR$(191) ; : PRINT@P+9 , " "; : S=S+10 : PRIKT@P+10 , " "; 

300 PRINT@P+11," "; :GOSUB310:GOTO240 

305 ' ***** FLASHES GRAPHICS NEAR THE SCORE 

310 PRINT@5 56,CHR$(191) ; : PRINT@492 ,CHR$ [ 191) ; : PRINT§5 56 ,CHR$ ( 128 

) ;:PRINT@492,CHR$(143) ; : PRINTia556 ,S; : RETURN 

315 I ***** DELAY LOOP AND GRAPHICS DISPLAY AT END OF GAME 

320 FORB=1TO50 0: NEXT :CLS:PRINT@540, "GAME OVER" : FORB-1TO40 :NEXTB 

:FORX=191TO128STEP-1:POKE15360,X:Q=USR(0) :NEXT 

330 GOSUB1150:PRINT@528,"YOUR SCORE : "S ;: IFS>HSTHENHS=S : PRINT" 

A NEW HIGH SCORE ! 1 " ; 
335 1 ***** AFTER GAME DISPLAY OF SCORE AND HIGH SCORE 
340 PRINT@592,"HIGH SCORE :"HS; 

350 PR1NT@720,"DO YOU WISH TO PLAY AGAIN (Y/N)"; 
3 60 C=C+1:IFC=250THEN430ELSEQ$=INKEY$ 
370 PRINT@747," / "; 
380 GOSUB460:PRINT@747,"Y/N"; 
390 IFQ$=""THEN360 
400 IFQ?="Y"THEND-0:GOTO1090 
410 IFQ$="N"THEN440 
420 GOTO360 
430 D-1:GOTO1090 
440 END 

445 . ***** RANDOM CHOICE FOR DEMONSTRATION MODE 
45 Q$=INKEYS:IFQS<>""THEN320ELSEQ=RND(4) : ONQGOTO110 , 130 , 150 , 190 

455 ' ***** DELAY LOOP SUBROUTINE 

460 F0RB=1T015:NEXT;RETURN 

455 I ***** START OF TITLE DISPLAY 

470 GOSUB1150:PRINT@346,"B X E R" ; :PRINT@530 , "USE THE "CHR$(91 

)" ARROW TO HOVE UP" ; : PRINT@594 , "USE THE "CHR$(92)" ARROW TO MOV 

E DOWN"; :PRINT(a651 , "USE THE "CHR$(93)" ARROW TO SWING WITH THE R 

IGHT HAND"; 

480 PRINT@715,"USE THE "CHR$(94)" ARROW TO SWING WITH THE LEFT H 

AND " ; 

490 CLEAR200IDEFINTA-Z 

495 1 ***** LINES 500 - 1020 POKE THE DATA INTO STRINGS 

496 ' ***** 37 X'S 

50 ZS="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

510 K-VARPTR( ZS) : AD=PEEK {K+2) *256+PEEK (K+1) 

520 DATAl 28, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 26, 24, 24 

,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,128,128,128,128,128,128,128,128,1 

28,128,128,128 

530 FORB=0TO36:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

535 ' ***** 21 X'S 

540 Z2S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

550 K=VARPTR(Z2S) : AD=PEEK ( K+2) *256+PEEK (K+1) 

560 DATA128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128 ,128, 128, 128, 128, 24, 24, 24, 24, 24, 2 

4,24,24,24,24,26 

570 FORB=0TO20:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

580 Z1$=Z2$+Z2$+Z2$+Z2$+Z2$ 

585 ' ***** 19 X'S 

590 A0S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

600 K=VARPTR(A0S) : AD-PEEK (K+2) *256+PEEK (K+1) 

610 DATA128, 17 6, 176, 184, 188, 180, 26, 24, 2 4, 24, 2 4, 24, 24, 15 8, 167, 128 

,130,131,129 

Listing I coniiiiuei 



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^See Lisi of Ad^^ertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February T983 • 135 



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l.isriny, I '.■onliimeil 

520 FORB=^0TO18:READQ:POKEAD-I-B,Q:NEXT 

625 ' ***** 22 X'S 

630 fll5="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXKXXXXXX" 

6 40 K=VARPTR(A1S) : AD=PEEK ( K-^2) *256-(-PEEK ( K-H) 

6 50 DATAl 28, 12 8, 128, 128, 160, 17 6 ,144, 26, 24, 24, 2 4, 24, 24, 24, 24, 15 8, 

175,131,131,139,143,135 

660 FORB=0TO21:READQ:POKEAD-I-B,Q:NEXT 

665 ' ***** 25 X'S 

67 A2S-"XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

6 80 K=VARPTR(A2S) : AD=PEEK ( K-h2) *2 56+PEEK (K-H) 

6 90 DATAl 28, 128, 128, 12 8, 12 8, 16 0,17 6, 14 4, 26, 24, 2 4, 2 4, 2 4, 24, 24, 24, 
24,15 8,17 5,131,131,131,13 9,143,135 

7 00 FORB-0TO2 4:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q;NEXT 
705 ' ***** 28 X'S 

710 A3S-"XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

7 20 K=VARPTR(A3S) : AD-PEEK ( K-l-2) *256+PEEK (K-l-l) 

730 DATAl 28, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 16 0,17 6, 14 4, 26, 24, 2 4, 24, 2 4, 24, 2 4 

,24,2 4,24,156,17 5,131,131,131,131,139,143,135 

7 40 FORB=0TO27:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

745 ' ***** 31 X'S 

7 50 A4$="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

760 K=VARPTR(A4$) : AD=PEEK [K+2) *256+PEEK ( K-H) 

77 DATAl 28, 128, 128, 128, 128, 12 8, 128, 160, 17 6, 144, 26, 2 4, 24, 24, 24, 2 

4,24,24,24,24,2 4,156,17 5,131,131,131,131,131,13 9,143,135 

780 FORB-0TO30:READQ:POKEAD-^B,Q:NEXT 

785 ' ***** 19 X'S 

790 A5S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

800 K-VARPTR{A5$) : AD^PEEK ( K-(-2) *256+PEEK [K-f 1 ) 

810 DATA17 3, 182, 128, 16 0,17 6, 14 4, 26, 2 4, 24, 24, 2 4, 2 4, 24, 128, 13 1,131 

,139,143,135 

820 FORB=0TO18:READQ:POKEAD-^B,Q:NEXT 

825 ' ***** 22 X'S 

830 A6S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

840 K=VARPTR(A6$) : AD=PEEK (K+2) *256+PEEK (K-H) 

850 DATA17 3,190 ,176,176,184,188,180,26,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,128, 

128,128,128,13 0,131,129 

86 FORB=0TO21:READQ:POKEAD■^B,Q:NEXT 
855 ' ***** 25 X'S 

87 A7?="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

880 K-VARPTR(A7S) : AD-PEEK ( K-i-2) *256+PEEK ( K-h1) 

890 DATA17 3,190 ,17 6,17 6,17 6,184,188,180,26,24,24,24,24,24,24,24, 

24,128,128,128,12 8,128,13 0,131,129 

90 FORB=0TO24:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

905 ' ***** 28 X'S 

910 A8S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

920 K=VARPTR(A&?) : AD^PEEK (K+2) *255+PEEK ( K+1) 

93 DATAl 41, 190, 17 6, 17 6, 17 6, 17 5, 184, 18 8, 180, 26, 2 4, 2 4, 24, 24, 24, 24 

,24,2 4,24,128,128,128,128,12 8,128,13 0,131,129 

940 FORB=0TO27:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

945 ' ***** 31 X'S 

95 A9S="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" 

960 K=VARPTR{A9$) : AD-PEEK ( K+2) *256+PEEK ( K+1) 

97 DATA141, 190, 17 6, 17 6, 176, 17 6, 17 6, 184, 188, 180, 26, 2 4, 2 4, 2 4, 2 4, 2 

4,24,2 4,2 4,24,24,128,128,128,12 8,128,128,128,130,131,129 

980 FORB=0TO30:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

985 ' ***** 56 X'S 

990 MS="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

1000 K=^VARPTR(M$) :AD=PEEK(K+2) *256+PEEK ( K+1) 

1010 DATA128, 17 6, 17 6, 184, 188, 180, 26, 24, 2 4, 24, 2 4, 2 4, 24, 158, 167, 12 

8,130,131,129,26,24,24,24,24,24,24,24,170,128,145,157,132,26,24, 

24,24,24,173,182,128,160,176,144,26,24,24,24,24,24,24,128,131,13 

1,139,143,135 

10 20 FORB=0TO55:READQ:POKEAD+B,Q:NEXT 

1025 ' ***** POKE LSB FOR USR ROUTINE 

1030 POKE16526,0 

1035 ' ***** POKE MSB FOR USR ROUTINE 

1040 P0KE16527,125 

10 50 FORB-0TO11:READQ:POKE3 200 0+B,Q: NEXT :PRINT@916 ," PRESS <ENTER 

> TO START"; 

1060 DATA33, 0,6 0,17, 1,60, 1,255, 3, 237, 176, 201 

1065 ' ***** IF TO LONG TO PRESS ENTER THAN GOTO DEMO 

107 C-C+1:IFC=5 0THEND=1:GOTO1090 

10 80 PRINT@92 2," "; : GOSUB460 : QS=INKEY$ : PRINT@922 , " <ENTER>" 

; :GOSUB460:IFQ$=""THEN1070 

1085 1 ***** PRINT GAME SCREEN 

1090 GOSUB1150:FORX=17TO966STEP64:PRINT@X,STRINGS(11,191) ; :NEXT: 

PRINTia977, STRINGS (11, 191) ; 

110 FORB=84T096 9STEP5 4:PRINT@B,STRINGS(6,128) ; :NEXT 

1110 PRINT@550, "SCORE: " ; : PRINT(a540 ,STRING$ ( 9 ,143) ; :PRINT@549 ,CHR 

S(191) ; :PRINT@620,CHRS(143) ; : PRINT9492 ,CHRS ( 143) ; : PRINT@485 ,CHRS 

(191) ; :PRINT@486, STRINGS (6, 131) ; : PRINTia513 ,CHRS ( 143) ; :PRINT@614, 

STRINGS(6,140) ; 

1120 X=452:Y=644:T=500:S-0:C=0 

1130 PRINTiax,[-lS; 

1140 GOTO240 

1145 ' ***** SUBROUTINE FOR DRAWING BORDER AROUND THE SCREEN 

1150 CLS:FORB=153 60TO15423:POKEB,131:POKEB+960,17 6:NEXT:FORB=153 

50TO16320STEP6 4:POKEB,191:POKEB+63,191:NEXT:RETURN 



136 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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WITH, GET, and PUT are not implemened in PASCAL 80, 









Program Listing 2 


B000 




00100 
00195 


ORG 


0B000H 






00196 


SET UE 


TITLE DISPLAY 






00197 






B000 


CDC901 


00200 


CALL 


01C9H jCLEAR SCREEN 


B003 


21F5BB 


00210 


LD 


HL, IHSTR 


B006 


115A3D 


00220 


LD 


DE, 15706 


B009 


CDE0B5 


00230 


CALL 


PA 


B00C 


21FFB5 


00240 


LD 


IIL.INSTRI 


B00F 


11123H 


00250 


LD 


DE, 15890 


Bei2 


CDE0B5 


00260 


CALL 


PA 


B015 


211AB6 


00270 


LD 


HL,INSTR2 


B018 


11523E 


00280 


LD 


DE, 15954 


B01B 


CDE0B5 


00290 


CALL 


PA 


B01E 


2137B6 


00300 


LD 


HL, INSTR3 


B021 


118B3E 


00310 


LD 


DE, 16011 


B024 


CDE0B5 


00320 


CALL 


PA 


B027 


2164B6 


00330 


LD 


HL,INSTR4 


B02A 


11CB3E 


00340 


LD 


DE, 16075 


B02D 


CDE0B5 


00350 


CALL 


PA 


B030 


2190B6 


00360 


LD 


HL, PRESS 


B033 


11943F 


00370 


LD 


DE, 16276 


B036 


CDE0B5 


00380 


CALL 


PA 


B039 


CD3EB0 


00390 


CALL 


BOX 


B03C 


1834 


00400 
00403 


JR 


BE 






00406 


'BOX' 


DRAWS A BORDER AROUHD THE SCREEN 






00409 






B03E 


21013C 


00410 BOX LD 


HL, 15361 


B041 


11023C 


00420 


LD 


DE, 15362 


B044 


013000 


00430 


LD 


BC,61 


B047 


3683 


00440 


LD 


(HL) ,131 


Ba49 


EDB0 


00450 


LDTR 




B04B 


21C13F 


00460 


LD 


HL, 16321 


B04E 


11C23F 


00470 


LD 


DE, 16322 


B051 


013D00 


00480 


LD 


BC,61 


B054 


36B0 


00490 


LD 


(HL) ,176 


B056 


EDB0 


00500 


LDIR 




B058 


DD21003C 


00510 


LD 


IX, 15360 


B05C 


011000 


00520 


LD 


BC,16 


B05F 


114000 


00530 


LD 


DE,64 


B062 


DD3600BF 


00540 LPl LD 


(IX) ,191 


B066 


DD363FBF 


00550 


LD 


(IX+63) ,191 


B06A 


DD19 


00560 


ADD 


IX, DE 


B06C 


0B 


00570 


DEC 


BC 


B06D 


78 


00580 


LD 


A,B 


B06E 


Bl 


00590 


OR 


C 


B06F 


C8 


00600 


RET 


S 


B070 


18F0 


00610 
00613 


JR 


LPl 






00616 


TEST FOR GAME START j 






00619 






E072 


018813 


00620 


3E LD 


BC,50O0 


B075 


214038 


00630 


LP2 LD 


HL,3840H 


B078 


7E 


00640 


LD 


A, (HL) 


B079 


CB47 


00650 


BIT 


0,A 


B07B 


C2AFB0 


00660 


JP 


HZ, START 


B07E 


0B 


00670 


DEC 


BC 


B07F 


78 


00680 


LD 


A,B 


B080 


Bl 


00690 


OR 


C 


B081 


2302 


00700 


JR 


S, ERASE 


B083 


18F0 


00710 


JR 


LP2 


B085 


219A3F 


00720 


ERASE LD 


HL, 16282 


B088 


119B3F 


00730 


LD 


DE, 16283 


B03B 


010500 


007 40 


LD 


BC,6 


B0BE 


3680 


00750 


LD 


(HL) ,128 


B09G 


EDB0 


00760 


LDIR 




B092 


018813 


00770 


LD 


BC,5000 


B095 


210438 


00780 


LP3 LD 


HL,3804H 


B098 


7E 


007 90 


LD 


A, (HL) 


6099 


CB47 


00800 


BIT 


0,A 


B09B 


2012 


00810 


JR 


NZ, START 


B09D 


0B 


00820 


DEC 


BC 


B09E 


78 


00830 


LD 


A,B 


B09F 


Bl 


00840 


OR 


C 


B0A0 


2802 


00850 


JR 


2, PRNT 


B0A2 


18F1 


00860 


JR 


LP3 


B0A4 


21A7B6 


00870 


PRNT LD 


HL, ENTER 


B0A7 


119A3F 


00880 


LD 


DE, 16282 


B0AA 


CDE0B5 


00890 


CALL 


PA 


B0AD 


18C3 


00900 
00903 


JR 


BE 






00906 


SET UP THE SCREEN FOR THE GAME | 






00909 






B0AF 


CDC901 


00910 


START CALL 


01C9H 


B0B2 


CD3EB0 


00920 


CALL 


BOX 


B0B5 


21113C 


00930 


LD 


HL, 15377 


B0B8 


11123C 


00940 


LD 


DE, 15378 


B0BB 


0ieB00 


00950 


LD 


BC.ll 


B0BE 


36BF 


00960 


LD 


(HL) ,191 


B0C0 


EDB0 


00970 


LDIR 




B0C2 


110E00 


00980 


LD 


DE,14 


B0C5 


DD21513C 


00990 


LD 


IX, 15441 


D0C9 


DD3600BF 


01000 


LP 4 LD 


(IX) ,191 


B0CD 


DD3601BF 


01010 


LD 


(1X4-1) ,191 


B0D1 


DD3602BF 


01020 


LD 


(IX+2) ,191 

Lisling 2 ivnliniie.s 



138 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lialiiif; 2 continued 






















B1C0 FE83 


01940 


CP 


131 




B0D5 DD3609BP 01030 


LD 


(IX+9) ,191 


B1C2 2838 


01950 


JR 


Z,NUP 




B0D9 DD360ABF 01040 


LD 


{IK+10] ,191 


B1C4 DDES 


01960 


PUSH 


IX 




B0DD DD360BBF 01050 


LD 


(IX+11) ,191 


B1C6 CD51B1 


01970 


CALL 


PBOXER 




B0E1 014000 01060 


LD 


BC,64 


B1C9 DDEl 


01980 


POP 


IX 




B0E4 DD09 01070 


ADD 


IX, BC 


BICB 01AO0F 


01990 


LD 


BC,400O 




B0E6 7A 01060 


LD 


A,D 


BICE CD94B3 


02000 


CALL 


DLY 




B0E7 E3 01090 


OR 


E 


BlDl C38BB1 


02010 


JP 


MOVE 




B0E8 IB 01100 


DEC 


DE 




02013 








B0E9 20DE 01110 


JR 


NZ,LP4 




02016 


MOVE 


DOWN ROUTINE 




B0EB 21D13F 01120 


LD 


HL, 16337 




02019 








B0EE 11D23F 01130 


LD 


DE, 16338 


B1D4 DDES 


02020 


30l«J PUSH 


IX 




B0F1 010600 01140 


LD 


BC,11 


B1D6 CD9AB3 


02030 


CALL 


EBOXER 




B0F4 36Bf 01150 


LD 


(HL) ,191 


B1D9 DDEl 


02040 


POP 


IX 




B0F6 EDB0 01150 


LDIR 




BlDB 014001 


020S0 


LD 


BC,320 




B0F8 21AFB6 01170 


LD 


HL,SC 


BIDE DD09 


02060 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B0FB DD21263E 01180 


LD 


IK, 15910 


B1E0 DD7E00 


02070 


LD 


A, (IX) 




B0FF CDE9BS 01190 


CALL 


PB 


B1E3 FEB0 


02080 


CP 


176 




B102 DD360030 01200 


LD 


(IX) ,30H 


B1E5 282a 


02090 


JR 


Z,NDOV™ 




B106 DD360130 01210 


LD 


(IX+1) ,30H 


B1E7 01O0FF 


02100 


LD 


BC,-256 




B10A DD360230 01220 


LD 


(IX+2) ,30H 


BlEA DD09 


02110 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B10E 211D3E 01230 


LD 


HL, 15901 


BlEC DDES 


02120 


PUSH 


IX 




Bill 111E3E 01240 


LD 


DE, 15902 


BIEE CDSIBI 


02130 


CALL 


PBOXER 




B114 010800 01250 


LD 


BC,8 


BlFl DDEl 


02140 


POP 


IX 




B117 368F 01260 


LD 


(HL) ,143 


BlF3 01A00F 


021S0 


LD 


BC,4000 




B119 EDB0 01270 


LDIR 




B1F6 CD94B3 


02160 


CALL 


DLY 




BllB 21253E 01280 


LD 


HL, 15909 


B1F9 C38BB1 


02170 


JP 


MOVE 




BllE 36BF 01290 


LD 


(HL) ,191 


BIFC 014000 


02180 NUP I,D 


BC, 64 




B120 21E53D 01300 


LD 


HL, 15845 


BIFF DD09 


02190 LPS ADD 


IX, BC 




B123 36BF 01310 


LD 


(HL) ,191 


B201 DDES 


02200 


PUSH 


IX 




B125 216C3E 01320 


LD 


HL, 15980 


B203 CDSIBI 


02210 


CALL 


PBOXER 




B128 36!JF 01330 


LD 


(HL) ,143 


B206 DDEl 


02220 


POP 


IX 




B12A 21EC3D 01340 


LD 


HL,1S852 


B208 01DO07 


02230 


LD 


BC,200 




B12D 368F 01350 


LD 


(HL) ,143 


B20B CD94B3 


02240 


CALL 


DLY 




B12F 21653E 01360 


LD 


HL, 15973 


B20E C38BB1 


022S0 


JP 


MOVE 




B132 368F 01370 


LD 


(HL) ,143 


B211 01C0FE 


02260 NDOVra LD 


BC,-320 




B134 21E63D 01380 


LD 


HL, 15846 


B214 C3FFB1 


02270 


JP 


LPS 




B137 11E73D 01390 


LD 


DE, 15847 




02273 








B13A 010600 01400 


LD 


BC,6 




02276 


PRINT 


THE ARMS (LEFT) 




B13D 3683 01410 


LD 


(HL) ,131 




02279 








B13F EDB0 01420 


LDIR 




B217 214BB7 


02280 P6 LD 


HL,ARM6 




B141 21663E 01430 


LD 


HL, 15974 


B21A CDE9BS 


02290 


CALL 


PB 




B144 11673E 01440 


LD 


DE, 15975 


B21D 23 


02300 


INC 


HL 




B147 010600 01450 


LD 


BC,6 


B21E 013900 


02310 


LD 


BC,57 




B14A 36eC 01460 


LD 


(HL) ,140 


B221 DD09 


02320 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B14C EDB0 01470 


LDIR 




B223 C321B3 


02330 


JP 


FA 




B14E C3e0Bl 01480 


JP 


BEGIN 


B226 21SBB7 


02340 P7 LD 


HL,ARH7 




01483 






B229 CDE9B5 


02350 


CALL 


PB 




01486 


ROUTINE TO PRINT THE BOXER 


B22C 23 


02360 


INC 


HL 




01489 






B22D 013800 


02370 


LD 


BC,S6 




B151 21E3B6 01490 


^BOXER LD 


HL,ARM0 


B230 DD09 


02380 


ADD 


IX,BC 




B154 CDE9B5 01500 


CALL 


PB 


B232 C321B3 


02390 


JP 


FA 




B157 013A00 01510 


LD 


BC,58 


B235 216DB7 


02400 P8 LD 


HL,ARM8 




B15A DD09 01520 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B23 8 CDE9B5 


02410 


CALL 


PB 




B15C 23 01530 


INC 


HL 


B23B 23 


02420 


INC 


HL 




B15D CDE9B5 01540 


CALL 


PB 


B23C 013700 


02430 


LD 


BC,55 




B160 2197B7 01550 


LD 


HL,HEAD 


B23F DD09 


02440 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B153 013900 01560 


LD 


BC,57 


B241 C321B3 


024S0 


JP 


FA 




B166 DD09 01570 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B244 218iB7 


02460 P9 LD 


HL,ARM9 




B16B CDE9B5 01580 


CALL 


PB 


B247 CDE9B5 


02470 


CALL 


PB 




B16B 013C00 01590 


LD 


BC,60 


B24A 23 


02480 


INC 


HL 




B16E DD09 01600 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B24B 013600 


02490 


LD 


BC,54 




B170 213DB7 01610 


= 5 LD 


KL,ARM5 


B24E DD09 


02500 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B173 CDE9B5 01620 


CALL 


PB 


B250 C321B3 


02510 


JP 


FA 




B176 23 01630 


IKC 


HL 


B2S3 219DB7 


02520 EA LD 


HL, BLANK 




B177 013A00 01640 


LD 


BC,5 8 


B2S6 CDE9B5 


02530 


CALL 


PB 




B17A DD09 01650 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B259 013600 


02540 


LD 


BC,S4 




B17C CDE9B5 01660 


CALL 


PB 


B25C DD09 


025S0 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B17F C9 01670 


RET 




B25E 219DB7 


02560 


LD 


HL, BLANK 




B180 DD21C43D 01680 


JEGIN LD 


IX, 15812 


B261 CDE9BS 


02570 


CALL 


PB 




B184 DDES 01690 


PUSH 


IX 


B264 C9 


02580 


RET 






B186 CD51B1 01700 


CALL 


PBOXER 




02S83 








B189 DDEl 01710 


POP 


IX 




02586 


LEFT 


ARM PUNCH ROUTINE 




01713 








02589 








01716 


MAIN 


PROGRAM LOOP 


B265 DDES 


02590 P 


LEFT PUSH 


IX 




01717 


TESTS 


FOR KEYBOARD INPUT 


B267 01C000 


02600 


LD 


BC,192 




01719 






B26A DD09 


02610 


ADD 


IX, BC 




B18B DDES 01720 


lOVE PUSH 


IX 


B26C DDES 


02620 


PUSH 


IX 




B18D CDFFB4 01730 


CALL 


NB 


B26E DDES 


02630 


PUSH 


IX 




B190 DDEl 01740 


POP 


IX 


B270 DDES 


02640 


PUSH 


IX 




B192 214038 01750 


LD 


HL,3840H 


B272 DDES 


02650 


PUSH 


IX 




B195 7E 01760 


LD 


A, (HL) 


B274 DDES 


02660 


PUSH 


IX 




B196 CB5F 01770 


BIT 


3, A 


B276 DDES 


02670 


PUSH 


IX 




B198 2017 01780 


JR 


NZ ,UP 


B27 8 DDES 


02680 


PUSH 


IX 




B19A CB67 01790 


BIT 


4, A 


B27A DDES 


02690 


PUSH 


IX 




B19C 2036 01800 


JR 


N Z , DO!™ 


B27C DDES 


02700 


PUSH 


IX 




B19E CB6F 01810 


BIT 


5, A 


B27E DDES 


02710 


PUSH 


IX 




B1A0 C22BB3 01820 


JP 


NZ,PRIGHT 


B280 DDES 


02720 


PUSH 


IX 




BlA3 CB77 01830 


BIT 


6, A 


B282 CD17B2 


02730 


CALL 


P6 




BIAS C265B2 01840 


JP 


NZ,PLEFT 


B285 DDEl 


02740 


POP 


IX 




B1A8 019411 01850 


LD 


BC,4500 


B287 CD26B2 


02750 


CALL 


P7 




BlAB CD94B3 01360 


CALL 


DLY 


B28A DDEl 


02760 


POP 


IX 




BIAE C38BB1 01870 


JP 


HOVE 


B28C CD35B2 


02770 


CALL 


PB 




01873 






B28F DDEl 


02780 


POP 


IX 




01876 


MOVE 


UP ROUTINE 


B291 CD44B2 


02790 


CALL 


P9 




01879 






B294 1E02 


02800 


LD 


E,2 




BlBl DDE5 01880 I 


P PUSH 


IX 


B296 DD7E01 


02810 


LD 


A, (IX+l) 




B1B3 CD9AB3 01890 


CALL 


EBOXER 


B29 9 FEBF 


02820 


CP 


191 


;CHECK FOR HIT 


B1B6 DDEl 01900 


POP 


IX 


B29B CA47B4 


02B30 


JP 


Z,HITl 




B1B8 01C0FF 01910 


LD 


BC,-64 


B29E DD7EC1 


02840 


LD 


A,(IX-63) 


- 


BIBB DD09 01920 


ADD 


IX, BC 












BIBD DD7E00 01930 


LD 


A, (IX) 










Li.ilini- 2 i.-ominUfs 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 139 



Li.'niiii: 2 ionli'iiieti 


















b2a1 FEBF 


02850 


CP 


191 .-CHECK FOR HIT 










32A3 CAB2B3 


02860 


JP 


Z,HIT2 












B2A6 DDEl 
32A8 CD53B2 
32A3 DDEl 


02870 
02800 
02890 


POP 

CALL 

POP 


IX 
EA 
IX 


B346 DDEl 
B348 CDF7B2 
B34B DDEl 


03530 
03540 
035S0 


POP 

CALL 

POP 


IX 
P2 

IX 




B2AD CD35B2 


02900 


CALL 


P8 


B34D CD06B3 


03560 


CALL 


P3 




3200 DDEl 


02910 


POP 


IX 


B350 DDEl 


03S70 


POP 


IX 




B232 CD53B2 


02920 


CALL 


EA 


B352 CD15B3 


03580 


CALL 


P4 




B2B5 DDEl 


02930 


POP 


IX 


B355 1E01 


03S90 


LD 


E,l 




B2B7 CD26B2 


02940 


CALL 


P7 


B357 DD7E01 


03600 


LD 


A,(IXt-l} 




B2BA DDEl 


029SO 


POP 


IX 


335a FEBF 


03610 


CP 


191 


fCHECK FOR HIT 


323C CD53B2 


02960 


CALL 


EA 


B3SC CA47B4 


03620 


JP 


Z,HIT1 




B23F DDEl 


02970 


POP 


IX 


33 SF DD7EC1 


03630 


LD 


A,(IX-63) 




B2C1 CD17B2 


029B0 


CALL 


P6 


3362 FEBF 


03640 


CP 


191 


rCHECK FOR HIT 


32C4 DDEl 


02990 


POP 


IX 


B364 CAB2B3 


03650 


JP 


Z ,HIT2 




B2C6 CD5332 


03000 


CALL 


GA 


B367 DDEl 


03660 


POP 


IX 




B2C9 DDEl 


03010 


POP 


IX 


B369 CD53B2 


03670 


CALL 


EA 




B2CB CD7031 


03020 


CALL 


P5 


B36C DDEl 


03680 


POP 


IX 




B2CE DDEl 


03030 


POP 


IX 


B36E CD06B3 


03690 


CALL 


P3 




B2D0 01D007 


03040 


LD 


BC,2000 


B371 DDEl 


03700 


POP 


IX 




B2D3 CD94B3 


03050 


CALL 


DLY 


B373 CD53B2 


03710 


CALL 


EA 




32D5 C38BB1 


03060 


JP 


HOVE 


B376 DDEl 


03720 


POP 


IX 






03063 ; 






B37 8 CDF7B2 


03730 


CALL 


P2 






03066 ; 


PRINT 


ARMS (RIGHT) 


B37B DDEl 


03740 


POP 


IX 






03069 ; 






B37D CD53B2 


03750 


CALL 


EA 




B2D9 21E3B6 


03070 PO 


LD 


HLrARM0 


B3 80 DDEl 


03760 


POP 


IX 




B2DC CDE9B5 


03080 


CALL 


PB 


B3 82 CDEeB2 


03770 


CALL 


PI 




B2DF 23 


03090 


INC 


HL 


B3 8S DDEl 


03780 


POP 


IX 




B2E0 013A00 


03100 


LD 


BC,58 


B3B7 CD53B2 


03790 


CALL 


GA 




B2E3 DD09 


03110 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B3aA DDEl 


03800 


POP 


IX 




B2E5 C321B3 


03120 


JP 


FA 


B3 8C CDD932 


03810 


CALL 


P0 




B2EB 21F1B6 


03130 PI 


LD 


HLfARHl 


B3 8F DDEl 


03820 


POP 


IX 




B2EB CDE9B5 


03140 


CALL 


P3 


B391 C38BB1 


03830 


JP 


HOVE 




B2EE 23 


03150 


IMC 


HL 




03B33 








B2EF 013900 


03160 


LD 


BC,57 




03836 


DELAY 


ROUTINE 




B2F2 DD09 


03170 


ADD 


IX, BC 




03839 








B2F4 C321B3 


03180 


JP 


PA 


B394 0B 


03640 DLY DEC 


BC 




32F7 210137 


03190 P2 


LD 


HL,ARM2 


B39S 70 


03850 


LD 


A,B 




B2FA CDE9B5 


03200 


CALL 


PB 


B396 Bl 


03860 


OR 


C 




32FD 23 


03210 


INC 


HL 


B397 20FB 


03870 


JR 


NZrDLY 




32FE 013800 


03220 


LD 


BC,56 


B399 C9 


03880 


RET 






3301 DD09 


03230 


ADD 


IX, BC 




03883 








B303 C321B3 


03240 


JP 


FA 




03886 


ERASE 


BOXES ROUTINE 




B306 2113B7 


03250 P3 


LD 


HL,ARH3 




03889 








B309 CDE9B5 


03260 


CALL 


PB 


B39A O10S00 


03890 EBOXER LD 


BC,5 




B30C 23 


03270 


INC 


HL 


B3 9D DD2B 


03900 


DEC 


IX 




B30D 013700 


03280 


LD 


BC,55 


B3 9F 219DB7 


03910 LP6 LD 


HL, BLANK 




B310 DD09 


03290 


ADD 


IX, BC 


b3a2 CDE9B5 


03920 


CALL 


PB 




B312 C321B3 


03300 


JP 


FA 


33A5 0B 


03930 


DEC 


BC 




B315 2127B7 


03310 P4 


LD 


HL,ARH4 


B3A6 7 8 


03940 


LD 


ArB 




- B31Q CDE9B5 


03320 


CALL 


PB 


B3A7 Bl 


03950 


OR 


c 




B31B 23 


03330 


INC 


HL 


D3A8 2807 


03960 


JR 


ZrGDONE 




B31C 013600 


03340 


LD 


BC,54 


B3AA 113600 


03970 


LD 


DE,54 




B31F DD09 


033S0 


ADD 


IX, BC 


B3AD DD19 


03980 


ADD 


IX, DE 




B321 CDE9B5 


03360 FA 


CALL 


PB 


B3AF 18EE 


03990 


JR 


LP6 




B324 01D007 


03370 


LD 


BC,2000 


B3B1 C9 


04000 EDONE RET 






B327 CD9433 


03380 


CALL 


DLY 




04003 








332A C9 


03390 


RET 






04006 


ONE OF THE HIT ROUTINES 






03393 ; 








04009 










03396 , 


RIGHT 


ARM PUNCH ROUTINE 


B3B2 DDEl 


04010 


1IT2 POP 


IX 






03399 ; 






B334 DDES 


04020 


PUSH 


IX 




B32B DDES 


03400 PRIGHT 


PUSH 


IX 


B3Be DD360A80 


04030 


LD 


(IX+10) ,128 




B32D DDE5 


03410 


PUSH 


IX 


B33A CD53B2 


04040 


CALL 


EA 




B32F DDE5 


03420 


PUSH 


IX 


B3BD DDEl 


04050 


POP 


IX 




3331 DDES 


03430 


PUSH 


IX 


B3aP DD360B80 


04060 


LD 


(IX+11) ,128 




B333 DDE5 


03440 


PUSH 


IX 


B3C3 CB43 


04070 


BIT 


0,E 




B335 DDES 


034S0 


PUSH 


IX 


B3C5 C406B3 


04080 


CALL 


NZ,P3 




B337 DDES 


03460 


PUSH 


IX 


33C8 CB4B 


04090 


BIT 


1,E 




B339 DDES 


03470 


PUSH 


IX 


B3CA C435B2 


04100 


CALL 


NZ,Pfl 




B33B DDES 


03480 


PUSH 


IX 


B3CD DDEl 


04110 


POP 


IX 




333d DDES 


03490 


PUSH 


IX 


B3CF DD360C80 


04120 


LD 


(IX+12) ,128 




333F DDES 


03S00 


PUSH 


IX 


B3D3 CDS3B2 


04130 


CALL 


EA 




33 41 DDES 


03510 


PUSH 


IX 


B3D6 DDEl 


04140 


POP 


IX 




3343 CDEeB2 


03520 


CALL 


PI 










Listing 2 coiirimie:> 




Computer Solutions 

We sell SemiDlsk 

for S-100 IBM Personal Computer 

TRS-80 Model 2 




Computing has entered a new era: The SemiDisk era! No longer are you tied down by the speed of floppies or Winchesters. Your 

computer can operate many times faster with a SemiDisk. And with our self installing software it couldn't be easier. Just plug in and hold 

on! No kidding! Special pricing: $1595 for 51 2K Byte and $2495 for 1 meg Byte. 

Specifications: For information contact: 

TYPE: Semiconductor Disk Emulator computer Solutions 404 

CAPACITY: 512k or 1Mb Robert Pinkham 

POWER REQUIREMENTS: 0.6A (512k) 0.9A (1Mb) P.O. Box 931 

BATTERY BACKUP: 10-12V Unreg. (optional) Hillsboro. OR 97123 

(503) 640-5665 
We also offer sales information on S-100, Computer TRS-80. DEALERS WELCOME 



140 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




.a' •^'■.^ lAJi vt jr vm-^iJi If us jf x x^; 



Computer books and software for tlie TRS-SOs, 
at your IJG dealer today. 



1. TRS-80 Disk & Other Mysteries by H. C. Pennington. The 
"How To" book of data recovery. 128 pages. $22.50 

2. Microsoft BASIC Decoded & Ottier Mysteries by James 
Farvour. The complete guide to the Level II operating system & 
BASIC. 312 pages. $29.95 

3. BASIC Faster & Better & Otiier Mysteries by Lewis 
Rosenfelder Microsoft BASIC programming tricks & techniques. 
290 pages. Software available on disk. Radio Shack Cat. No. 
62-1002. $29.95 

4. Ttie Custom TRS-80 & Otiier Mysteries by Dennis Bathory 
Kitsz. A guide to customizing TRS-80 hardware and software. 
Schematics and listings. 336 pages. $29.95 

5. Macfiine Language Disl< I/O <S Otiier Mysteries by 
Michael Wagner The guide to machine language disk software for 
TRS-80 Models I & III. 288 pages. $29.95 

6. TRSDOS 2.3 Decoded & Other Mysteries by James 
Farvour The TRSDOS operating system explained. Disassembly of 
code with commentary. 300 pages. $29.95 

7. How To Do It On The TRS-80 & Other Mysteries by Bin 
Bardon. The applications guide to the TRS-80 Models I, II, III and 
Color Computer 288 pages. $29.95 

8. Electric Pencil 2. Oz Word Processing System by Michael 
Shrayer Includes operators manual. Available on Disk $89.95, 
Stringy Floppy or Cassette $79.95 

9. Electric Pencil 2.0z Operators Manual by Michael Shrayer 

andH.C. Pennington. 123 pages. $24.95 



10. Blue Pencil. Dictionary - Proofing program for use with 
Electric Pencil word processing system. Disk only $89.95 

11. Red Pencil. Automatic spelling correction program for use 
with Electric Pencil word processing system. Disk only. Must be 
accompanied by Blue Pencil to operate. $89.95 

12. BFBUB - BASIC Faster & Better Library Disk by Lewis 
Rosenfelder 32 demonstration programs, BASIC overlays, video 
handlers, sorts and more for the Model I & III. Disk only. Radio Shack 
Cat. No. 260-2021. $19.95 

13. BFBDEM- BASIC Faster & Better Demonstration Disk by Lewis 
Rosenfelder 121 functions, subroutines and user routines for the 
Model I, & III. Disk Only $19.95 

IJG products are available at computer stores, B. Dalton 
Booksellers and independent book dealers around the world. BASIC 
Faster and Better & Other Mysteries, and BFBLIB are available at 
Radio Shack. 

If IJG products are not available from your local dealer, order 
direct. Include $4.00 for shipping and handling. Foreign residents 
add $11.00 plus purchase price. Please also enclose the name and 
address of your local dealer so he may be contacted and made aware 
of the needs for our products in your area. Prices subject to change 
without notice. U.S. funds only please. 

IJG, Inc. 1953 West 11th Street 
Upland, California 91786 
Phone: 714/946-5805 

Helping You Help Yourself 




TRS-8G TM TANDY Corp 



icr050lt TM Microsoft Corp. APPLE TM APPLE Computer Inc. 



Electric Pencil ©1981 Michael Shrayer 



n982UG,lnc, 



Uslin^ 2 ivntinued 








S4E6 1806 


05090 


JR 


PSC 




B3D8 DD3610BF 04150 


LD 


(IX+16) 


191 


B4E8 3600 


05100 AS LD 


(HL) ,0 




B3DC CB43 04160 


BIT 


0,E 




B4EA 2B 


05110 


DEC 


HL 




B3DE C4F7B2 04170 


CALL 


NZ,P2 




B4EB 7E 


05120 


LD 


A,(HL) 




B3E1 CB4B 04180 


BIT 


1,E 




B4EC 3C 


05130 


IHC 


A 


; INCREASE 10 'S 


B3E3 C426B2 04190 


CALL 


NZ,P7 




B4ED 77 


05140 


LD 


(HL) ,A 




B3E6 DDEl 04200 


POP 


IX 






05143 








B3E8 DD3611BF 04210 


LD 


(IX+17) 


191 




05146 


PRINT 


SCORE ON SCREEN 




B3EC CD53B2 04220 


CALL 


EA 






05149 








B3EF DDEl 04230 


POP 


IX 




B4EE 3AAAB7 , 


05160 PSC LD 


A, (SCORE) 




B3F1 DD3612BF 04240 


LD 


(IX+IB) 


191 


B4F1 C630 


05170 


ADD 


A,30H 




B3F5 CB43 04250 


BIT 


0,E 




B4F3 112C3E 


05180 


LD 


DE, 15916 




B3F7 C4E8B2 04260 


CALL 


NZ,P1 




B4F6 12 


05190 


LD 


(DE) ,A 




B3FA CB4B 04270 


BIT 


1,E 




B4F7 3AABB7 


05210 


LD 


A,(SC0RE+1) 




B3FC C417B2 04280 


CALL 


NZ,P6 




B4FA C630 


05220 


ADD 


A,30H 




B3FF DDEl 04290 


POP 


IX 




B4FC 13 


05230 


INC 


DE 




B401 DD361080 04300 


LD 


(IX+16) 


128 


B4FD 12 


05240 


LD 


(DE) ,A 




B405 DD3613BF 04310 


LD 


(IX+19) 


191 


B4FE C9 


05250 


RET 






B409 DD361180 04320 


LD 


1 IX+17) 


128 


B4FF 2AADB7 


05260 NB LD 


HL,(TG) jCHECK 


FOR GAME OVER 


B40D DD3614BF 04330 


LD 


{IX+20) 


191 


B502 2B 


05270 


DEC 


HL 




B411 CD53B2 04340 


CALL 


EA 




B503 22ADB7 


05280 


LD 


(TG) ,HL 




B414 DDEl 04350 


POP 


IX 




B506 7C 


05290 


LD 


A,H 




B416 DD361280 04360 


LD 


(IX+18) 


128 


B507 B5 


05300 


OR 


L 




B41A DD35156F 04370 


LD 


(IX+21) 


191 


B508 CA68B5 


05310 


JP 


2, FIN 




B41E CB43 04380 


BIT 


0,E 




B50B 3AACB7 


05320 


LD 


A,(TB) ;CHECK 


FOR NEW BLOCK 


B420 C4D9B2 04390 


CALL 


N2,P0 




B50E 3C 


05330 


INC 


A 




B423 CB4B 04400 


BIT 


1,E 




B50F 32ACB7 


05340 


LD 


(TB) ,A 




B425 C470B1 04410 


CALL 


NZ,P5 




B512 FE14 


05350 


CP 


20 




B428 DDEl 04420 


POP 


IX 




B514 C0 


05360 


RET 


NZ 




B42A DD361380 04430 


LD 


(IX+19) 


128 


B515 3E00 


05370 


LD 


A,0 




B42E 01Ea03 04440 


LD 


BC,1000 




B5I7 32ACB7 


053 80 


LD 


(TB) ,A 




B431 CD94B3 04450 


CALL 


DLY 




B51A 2AABB7 


05390 


LD 


HL, (RND) 




B434 DD361480 04460 


LD 


(IX+20) 


128 


B51D CD43B5 


05400 


CALL 


MOLT 




B438 01E803 04470 


LD 


BC,1000 




B520 DD360080 


05410 


LD 


(IX) ,128 




B43B CD94B3 04480 


CALL 


DLY 




B524 DD360180 


05420 


LD 


(IX+1) ,128 




B43E DD361580 04490 


LD 


(IX+21) 


128 


B528 DD360280 


05430 


LD 


(IX+2) ,128 




B442 DDEl 04500 


POP 


IX 




B52C 2AA8B7 


05440 N6L0CK LD 


HL,(RND) 




B444 C356B5 04510 


JP 


EH IT 




B52F 23 


05450 


INC 


HL 




04513 








B530 22A8B7 


05460 


LD 


(RND) ,HL 


J NEW BLOCK 


04516 


THE OTHER HIT RODTINE 


B533 CD43B5 


05470 


CALL 


MULT 




04519 








B536 DD3600BF 


05480 


LD 


(IX) ,191 




B447 DDEl 04520 


IITl POP 


IX 




B53A DD3601BF 


05490 


LD 


(IK+1) ,191 




B449 DDES 04530 


PUSH 


IX 




B53E DD3602BF 


05500 


LD 


(IX+2) ,191 




B44B DD364A80 04540 


LD 


(IX+74) 


128 


B542 C9 


05510 


RET 






B44F CD53B2 04550 


CALL 


EA 




B543 7E 


05520 MULT LD 


A, (HL) 




B452 DDEl 04560 


POP 


IX 




B544 4/ 


05530 


LD 


B,A 




B454 DD364B80 04570 


LD 


(IX+75) 


,128 


B545 114000 


05540 


LD 


DE,64 




B458 CB43 04580 


BIT 


0,E 




B548 210000 


05550 


LD 


HL,0 




B45A C406B3 04590 


CALL 


Na,P3 




B54B 19 


05560 LP7 ADD 


HL,DE 




B45D CB4B 04600 


BIT 


IrE 




B54C 10FD 


05570 


DJN3 


LP7 




B45F C435B2 04610 


CALL 


NZ,P8 




B54E 110E3C 


05580 


LD 


DE, 15374 




B462 DDEl 04620 


POP 


IX 




B551 19 


05590 


ADD 


HL,DE 




B464 DD364C80 04630 


LD 


(IX+76) 


,128 


B552 E5 


05600 


PUSH 


HL 




B468 CD53B2 04640 


CALL 


EA 




B553 DDEl 


05610 


POP 


IX 




B46B DDEl 04650 


POP 


IX 




B555 C9 


05620 


RET 






B46D DD3650BF 04660 


LD 


(IX+80) 


fl91 


B556 CDDCB4 


05530 EHIT CALL 


ISCORE 




B471 CB43 04670 


BIT 


0,E 




B559 21ACB7 


05640 


LD 


HL,TB 




B473 C4F7B2 04680 


CALL 


Na,P2 




B55C 3600 


05650 


LD 


(HL) ,0 




B476 CB4B 04690 


BIT 


IrE 




B55E DDE5 


05660 


PUSH 


IX 




B478 C426B2 04700 


CALL 


NZ,P7 




B560 CD2CB5 


05670 


CALL 


NBLOCK 




B47B DDEl 04710 


POP 


IX 




B563 DDEl 


05680 


POP 


IX 




B47D DD3651BF 04720 


LD 


(IX+81) 


fl91 


B565 C38BB1 


05690 


JP 


MOVE 




B431 CD53B2 04730 


CALL 


EA 






95693 








B484 DDEl 04740 


POP 


IX 






05696 


GAME 


FINISHED 




B486 DD3652BF 04750 


LD 


(IX+82) 


,191 




05699 








B48A CB43 04760 


BIT 


0,E 




B568 El 


05700 


-IN POP 


HL 




B48C C4E8B2 04770 


CALL 


NZ,P1 




B569 01E8FD 


05710 


LD 


BC,65000 




B48F CB4B 04780 


BIT 


1,E 




B56C CD94B3 


05720 


CALL 


DLY 




B491 C417B2 04790 


CALL 


N2,P6 




B56F CDC901 


05730 


CALL 


01C9H 




B494 DDEl 04800 


POP 


IX 




B572 3EBF 


05740 


LD 


A, 191 




B496 DD365080 04810 


LD 


(IX+80) 


,128 


B574 21003C 


05750 


LP 8 LD 


HL, 15360 




B49A DD3653BF 04320 


LD 


(IX+83) 


-191 


B577 11013C 


05760 


LD 


DE, 15361 




B49E DD365180 04830 


LD 


(IX+81) 


,128 


B57A 010004 


05770 


LD 


BC,1024 




B4A2 DD3654BF 04840 


LD 


(IX+84) 


,191 


B57D 77 


05780 


LD 


(HL) ,A 




B4A6 CD53B2 04850 


CALL 


EA 




B57E EDB0 


05790 


LDIR 






B4A9 DDEl 04860 


POP 


IX 




B580 3D 


05800 


DEC 


A 




B4AB DD365280 04870 


LD 


{IX+82) 


,128 


B581 FE7F 


05810 


CP 


127 




B4AF DD3655BF 04880 


LD 


(IX+85) 


,191 


B583 20EF 


05820 


JR 


NZ,LP8 




B4B3 CB43 04890 


BIT 


0,E 




B585 CD3EB0 


05830 


CALL 


BOX 




B4B5 C4D9B2 04900 


CALL 


NZ,P0 




B588 21B6B6 


05840 


LD 


HL,YSC0RE 




B4B8 CB4B 04910 


BIT 


1,E 




B58B 11173E 


05850 


LD 


DE, 15895 




B4BA C470B1 04920 


CALL 


NZ,P5 




B58E CDE0B5 


05860 


CALL 


PA 




B4BD DDEl 04930 


POP 


IX 




B5 91 21AAB7 


05870 


LD 


HL, SCORE 




B4BF DD365380 04940 


LD 


(IX+83) 


,128 


B594 7E 


05880 


LD 


A, (HL) 




B4C3 01E803 04950 


LD 


BC,1000 




B595 C630 


05890 


ADD 


A,30H 




B4C6 CD94B3 04950 


CALL 


DLY 




B597 12 


05900 


LD 


(DE) ,A 




B4C9 DD365480 04970 


LD 


(IX+84) 


,128 


B598 23 


05910 


INC 


HL 




B4CD 01EB03 04980 


LD 


BC,1000 




B599 7E 


05920 


LD 


A, (HL) 




B4D0 CD94B3 04990 


CALL 


DLY 




B59A C630 


05930 


ADD 


A,30H 




B4D3 DD3655B0 05000 


LD 


(IX+85) 


,128 


B59C 13 


05940 


INC 


DE 




B4D7 DDEl 05010 


POP 


IX 




B59D 12 


05950 


LD 


(DE) ,A 




B4D9 C356B5 05020 


JP 


EHIT 




B59E 13 


05960 


IKC 


DE 




05023 








B59F 3E30 


05970 


LD 


A,30H 




05026 


INCREASE SCORE 




B5A1 12 


05930 


LD 


(DE) ,A 




05029 








B5A2 21C3B6 


05990 


LD 


HL , PLAYA 




B4DC 21ABB7 05030 


:SCORE LD 


HL,0B7ABH 


B5A5 11903E 


06000 


LD 


DE, 16016 




B4DF 7E 05040 


LD 


A,(HL) 




B5A8 CDE0B5 


06010 


CALL 


PA 




B4E0 3C 05050 


INC 


A 




B5AB 210838 


06020 


LP9 LD 


HL,3808H 




B4E1 77 05060 


LD 


(HL) ,A 




B5AE 7E 


06030 


LD 


A, (HL) 


, 


B4E2 FE0A 05070 


CP 


10 




B5AF CB4F 


06040 


BIT 


1,A 




64E4 2802 05080 


JR 


Z,AS 












Listing 2 continues 



142 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



IF YOU'RE QOINQ TO 

BE PICKY ABOUT AN 

OPERATiriQ SYSTEM 

SEE WHICH WAS 

PICKED BEST 



The readers of 80 Micro were 
asked to select their favorite 
operating system for the TRS-80 
Model I&III. LDOS, DOSFLUS, 
TRSD05, MULTIDOS, WOBOS I and 
riEWDOS/80 were all on the ballot. 
They picked rJEWDOS/80. 

The editors of 80 Micro have also 
awarded their Hall of Fame Awards. 
From among every software 
package on the market, the editors 
picked only six that they felt made a 
lasting and significant contribution 
to the TRS-80 computer. 
riEWDOS/80 was one of the six. 

Since we first introduced the 
riEWDOS operating system we've 
been stating its features, capabilities 
and advantages. Thank you 80 Micro 
readers and MEWDOS/SO users for 
supporting us. 
Version 2.0 . . . 
High Performance DOS 

nEWDOS/80 Version 2.0 is our 
highest performance system yet. 
The versatility and sophistication of 
Version 2.0 includes features like: 
• Double density support on the 
Model I 




%fe 




■ Liilicinced 
compatability between 
Model I and III 

■ TViples directory size 

• Dynamically merge in BASIC (also 
allows merging of non ASCII 
format files) 

• Selective variable clearing 

• Can display BASIC listings page by 
page 

■ Automatic repeat function key 

■ Routing for peripheral handling 

• Enhanced disassembler 

• Command chaining 

• Superzap to scan files 

■ Fast sort funcHon in BASIC 
Hard Disk Support Now Available 

■ Support for Apparat's and Radio 
Shack's Model III hard disk 
(optional-available upon request 
for additional $60) 



-^ 



These -ritt-rf 

features make '^~ *' 

MEWDOS/80 one 
of the most powtti ;!.ii 
additions you can make to 
your system. And Apparat's 
commitment to support assures that 
you've purchased a superior 
product, both today and tomorrow. 
At just $149.00 it could be the best 
investment you will make for your 
TRS-80. 

For more information see your 
local computer store or contact 
Apparat, Inc., 4401 S. T^marac 
Parkway, Denver, CO 80237, 
305/741-1778. 

TRS-80 and TRSDOS are registered trademarks of 
T&ndy Corp., LOOS - Logical Systems, DOSPLUS - 
Micro Systems Software, MULTTDOS - Cosmopolitan 
Eiecttotitcs, WOBOS i - Western Operations, 
riEWDOS/80 - Apparat. 




Apparat Jnc. 



t^40 



^See Lis! ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 143 



/ iMiii); 2 amimui'd 














B5B1 C2BFB5 06050 


JP 


NZ, STARTA 


B6F0 00 


06750 


DEFB 





B5B4 210238 05060 


LD 


HL,3802H 


B6F1 80 


06760 ARMl 


DEFB 


128 


B5B7 7E 06070 


LD 


Ar (HL) 


B6F2 80 


06770 


DEFB 


123 


B5B8 CB77 06080 


BIT 


6, A 


B6F3 80 


06780 


DEFB 


128 


B5BA C2BFB5 06090 


JP 


N a, STARTA 


B6F4 80 


06790 


DEFB 


128 


B5BD 18EC 06100 


JR 


LP 9 


B6F5 A0 


06800 


DEFB 


160 


B5BF DD21AAB7 06110 


STARTA LD 


IX, SCORE 


B6F6 B0 


06810 


DEFB 


176 


B5C3 DD360000 06120 


LD 


(IX) ,0 


B6F7 90 


06820 


DEFB 


144 


B5C7 DD360100 06130 


LD 


(IX+1) ,0 


B6F8 00 


06830 


DEFB 





B5CB DD360213 06140 


LD 


(IX+2) ,19 


B6F9 9E 


06840 


DEFB 


158 


B5CF DD360350 06150 


LD 


(IX+3) ,80 


B6FA AF 


06850 


DEFB 


175 


B5D3 DD360402 06160 


LD 


(IX+4) ,2 


B6FB 83 


06860 


DEFB 


131 


B5D7 01E8FD 06170 


LD 


BC, 65000 


B6FC 83 


06 87 


DEFB 


131 


B5DA CD94B3 06180 


CALL 


DLY 


B6FD 8B 


06880 


DEFB 


139 


B5DD C3AFB0 06190 


JP 


START 


B6FE 8F 


06890 


DEFB 


143 


B5E0 7E 06200 


PA LD 


A,(HLi 


B6FF 87 


06900 


DEFB 


135 


B5E1 FE00 06210 


CP 





B700 00 


06910 


DEFB 





B5E3 C8 06220 


RET 


E 


B701 80 


06 92 ARM2 


DEFB 


128 


B5E4 12 06230 


LD 


(DE) ,A 


B702 80 


06930 


DEFB 


128 


B5E5 23 06240 


INC 


HL 


B703 80 


06940 


DEFB 


128 


B5E6 13 06250 


INC 


DE 


B704 80 


06950 


DEFB 


128 


B5E7 iaF7 06260 


JR 


PA 


B705 80 


06960 


DEFB 


128 


B5E9 7E 06270 


PB LD 


A,(HL) 


B706 A0 


06970 


DEFB 


160 


B5EA FC00 06280 


CP 





B707 B0 


06980 


DEFB 


176 


B5EC C8 06290 


RET 


Z 


B708 90 


06990 


DEFB 


144 


B5ED DD7700 06300 


LD 


(IX) ,A 


B709 00 


07000 


DEFB 





B5F0 23 06310 


INC 


HL 


B70A 9E 


07010 


DEFB 


158 


B5F1 DD23 06320 


IWC 


IX 


B70B AF 


07 20 


DEFB 


175 


B5F3 18F4 06330 


JR 


PB 


B70C 83 


07030 


DEFB 


131 


B5F5 42 06340 


INSTR DEFM 


'BOXER' 


B70D 83 


07040 


DEFB 


131 


20 4F 20 58 20 


45 20 52 




B70E 83 


07 50 


DEFB 


131 


B5FE 00 06350 


DEFB 





B70F 8B 


07060 


DEFB 


139 


B5FF 55 06360 


INSTRl DEFM 


'USE THE ' 


B710 8F 


07 07 


DEFB 


143 


53 45 20 54 48 


45 20 




B711 87 


07080 


DEFB 


135 


B607 5B 06370 


DEFB 


91 


B712 00 


07090 


DEFB 





B608 20 06380 


DEFM 


■ ARROW TO HOVE UP' 


B713 80 


07100 ARM3 


DEFB 


128 


41 52 52 4F 57 


20 54 4F 




B714 80 


07110 


DEFB 


123 


20 4D 4F 56 45 


20 55 50 




B715 80 


07120 


DEFB 


123 


B619 00 06390 


DEFB 





B716 80 


07130 


DEFB 


128 


B61A 55 06400 


IHSTR2 DEFM 


'USE THE ' 


B717 80 


07140 


DEFB 


128 


53 45 20 54 48 


45 20 




B718 80 


07150 


DEFB 


128 


B622 5C 06410 


DEFB 


92 


B719 A0 


07160 


DEFB 


160 


B623 20 06420 


DEFM 


' ARROW TO MOVE DOWN' 


B71A B0 


07170 


DEFB 


176 


41 52 52 4F 57 


20 54 4F 




B71B 90 


07180 


DEFB 


144 


20 4D 4F 56 45 


20 44 4F 




B71C 00 


07190 


DEFB 





57 4E 






B71D 9C 


07200 


DEFB 


156 


B636 00 06430 


DEFB 





B71E AF 


07210 


DEFB 


175 


B637 55 06440 


INSTR3 DEFM 


'USE THE ' 


B71F 83 


07220 


DEFB 


131 


53 45 20 54 48 


45 20 




B720 83 


07230 


DEFB 


131 


B63F 5D 06450 


DEFB 


93 


B721 83 


07240 


DEFB 


131 


B640 20 06460 


DEFM 


■ ARROW TO SWING WITH THE RIGHT HAND' 


B722 83 


07250 


DEFB 


131 


41 52 52 4F 57 


20 54 4F 




B7 23 8B 


07260 


DEFB 


139 


20 53 57 49 4E 


47 20 57 




B724 8F 


07270 


DEFB 


143 


49 54 48 20 54 


48 45 20 




B725 87 


07280 


DEFB 


135 


52 49 47 48 54 


20 46 41 




B726 00 


07290 


DEFB 





4E 44 






B7 27 80 


07300 ARM4 


DEFB 


128 


B663 00 06470 


DEFB 





B728 80 


07310 


DEFB 


128 


B664 55 06480 


INSTR4 DEFM 


'USE THE ' 


B729 80 


07320 


DEFB 


128 


53 45 20 54 48 


45 20 




B72A 80 


07330 


DEFB 


128 


B66C 5E 06490 


DEFB 


94 


B72B 80 


07340 


DEFB 


128 


B66D 20 06500 


DEFM 


' ARROW TO SWING WITH THE LEFT HAND' 


B72C 80 


07350 


DEFB 


128 


41 52 52 4F 57 


20 54 4F 




B72D 80 


07360 


DEFB 


128 


20 53 57 49 4E 


47 20 57 




07 2E A0 


07370 


DEFB 


160 


49 54 48 20 54 


48 45 20 




B72F B0 


07380 


DEFB 


176 


4C 45 46 54 20 


48 41 4E 




B730 90 


07390 


DEFB 


144 


44 






B731 00 


07400 


DEFB 





B6BF 00 06510 


DEFB 





B732 9C 


07410 


DEFB 


156 


B690 50 06520 


PRESS DEFM 


'PRESS <ENTER> TO START' 


B733 AF 


07420 


DEFB 


175 


52 45 53 53 20 


3C 45 4E 




B734 83 


07430 


DEFB 


131 


54 45 52 3E 20 


54 4F 20 




B735 83 


07440 


DEFB 


131 


53 54 41 52 54 






B736 83 


07450 


DEFB 


131 


B6A6 00 06530 


DEFB 





B737 83 


07460 


DEFB 


131 


B6A7 3C 06540 


ENTER DEFM 


'<ENTER>' 


B738 83 


07470 


DEFB 


131 


45 4E 54 45 52 


3E 




B739 8B 


07480 


DEFB 


139 


B6AE 00 06550 


DEFB 





B73A 8F 


07490 


DEFB 


143 


B6AF 53 06560 


SC DEFM 


'SCORE: ' 


B73B 87 


07500 


DEFB 


135 


43 4F 52 45 3ft 






B73C 00 


07510 


DEFB 





B6B5 00 06570 


DEFB 





B73D AD 


07520 ARMS 


DEFB 


173 


B6B6 59 06580 


YSCORE DEFM 


'YOUR SCORE ; ' 


B73E B6 


07 53 


DEFB 


182 


4F 55 52 20 53 


43 4F 52 




B73F 80 


07540 


DEFB 


128 


45 20 3A 






B7 40 A0 


07550 


DEFB 


160 


B6C2 00 06590 


DEFB 





B741 B0 


07560 


DEFB 


176 


B6C3 44 06600 


PLAYA DEFM 


'DO YOU WISH TO PLAY AGAIN (Y/N) 


B742 90 


07 57 


DEFB 


144 


4F 20 59 4F 55 


20 57 49 




B743 00 


07580 


DEFB 





53 48 20 54 4F 


20 50 4C 




B744 80 


07590 


DEFB 


123 


41 59 20 41 47 


41 49 4E 




B745 83 


07600 


DEFB 


131 


20 28 69 2F 4E 


29 




B746 83 


07610 


DEFB 


131 


B6E2 00 06610 


DEFB 





B747 8B 


07620 


DEFB 


139 


B6E3 80 06620 


ARM0 DEFB 


128 


B748 8F 


07630 


DEFB 


143 


B6E4 B0 06630 


DEFB 


175 


B749 87 


07640 


DEFB 


135 


B6E5 B0 06640 


DEFB 


176 


B74A 00 


07650 


DEFB 





B6E6 B8 06650 


DEFB 


184 


B74B AD 


07660 ARH6 


DEFB 


173 


B5E7 EC 06660 


DEFB 


188 


B74C BE 


07670 


DEFB 


190 


B6E8 B4 06670 


DEFB 


180 


B74D B0 


07680 


DEFB 


176 


B6E9 00 06680 


DEFB 





B74E B0 


07690 


DEFB 


176 


B6EA 9E 06690 


DEFB 


158 


B74F BB 


07700 


DEFB 


184 


B6EB A7 06700 


DEFB 


167 


B750 BC 


07710 


DEFB 


188 


B6EC 80 06710 


DEFB 


128 


B751 B4 


07720 


DEFB 


180 


B6ED 82 06720 


DEFB 


130 


B752 00 


07730 


DEFB 





B6EE 83 06730 


DEFB 


131 


B7 53 80 


07740 


DEFB 


128 


B6EF 81 06740 


DEFB 


129 






Lisling 2 


continues 



144 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Listing 2 conlinued 










B754 


80 


07750 


DEFB 


128 


B755 


80 


07760 


DEFB 


128 


B756 


B0 


07770 


DEFB 


128 


B7 57 


62 


07780 


DEFB 


130 


87 58 


83 


07790 


DEFB 


131 


87 59 


81 


07800 


DEFB 


129 


87 SA 


00 


07810 


DEFB 





S75B 


AD 


07 820 ARH7 


DEFB 


173 


37 5C 


BE 


07 830 


DEFB 


190 


B7 5D 


B0 


07 840 


DEFB 


176 


B7 5E 


B0 


07 850 


DEFB 


176 


B75F 


B0 


07BG0 


DEFB 


176 


B7ea 


88 


07870 


DEFB 


184 


B761 


BC 


07880 


DEFB 


186 


B762 


B4 


07890 


DEFB 


180 


B763 


00 


07900 


DEFB 





8764 


80 


07910 


DEFB 


128 


B765 


80 


07920 


DEPB 


128 


B766 


80 


07930 


DEFB 


126 


8767 


80 


07940 


DEFB 


128 


B768 


80 


07 950 


DEPB 


128 


B769 


82 


07960 


DEFB 


130 


B76A 


83 


07970 


DEFB 


131 


B768 


81 


07 980 


DEFB 


129 


B76C 


00 


07990 


DEFB 





87 6D 


8D 


08000 ARM8 


DEFB 


141 


B76E 


BE 


08010 


DEFB 


190 


87 6F 


B0 


08020 


DEFB 


176 


8770 


80 


08030 


DEFB 


176 


8771 


80 


08040 


DEFB 


176 


B772 


80 


08050 


DEFB 


176 


B773 


88 


08060 


DEFB 


184 


877 4 


BC 


08070 


DEFB 


188 


8775 


B4 


08080 


DEPB 


180 


B776 


00 


08090 


DEFB 





8777 


60 


08100 


DEFB 


128 


6778 


80 


08110 


DEFB 


126 


8779 


80 


08120 


DEFB 


128 


877A 


80 


08130 


DEFB 


128 


8778 


80 


08140 


DEFB 


126 


B77C 


80 


08150 


DEFB 


128 


B77D 


82 


08160 


DEFB 


130 


B77E 


83 


08170 


DEFB 


131 


B77F 


81 


08180 


DEFB 


129 


B780 


00 


08190 


DEFB 





8781 


8D 


08200 ASH9 


DEFB 


141 


B782 


BE 


08210 


DEFB 


190 


8783 


80 


08220 


DEFB 


17 6 


B784 


B0 


08230 


DEFB 


17 6 


8785 


80 


08240 


DEFB 


17 6 


8786 


B0 


08250 


DEFB 


17 6 


B787 


B0 


08260 


DEFB 


176 


B788 


88 


08270 


DEPB 


184 


B7B9 


BC 


08280 


DEFB 


186 


B7 8A 


B4 


08290 


DEFB 


180 


B7 8B 


00 


08300 


DEFB 





B7 8C 


80 


08310 


DEFB 


128 


B7 8D 


80 


08320 


DEFB 


128 


B7BE 


80 


08330 


DEFB 


128 


U78F 


80 


08340 


DEPB 


128 


8790 


80 


08350 


DEFB 


128 


8791 


80 


08360 


DEFB 


128 


87 92 


80 


08370 


DEFB 


128 


B793 


82 


08380 


DEFB 


130 


8794 


83 


08390 


DEFB 


131 


B795 


81 


08400 


DEFB 


129 


B796 


00 


08410 


DEFB 





B797 


AA 


08420 HEAD 


DEFB 


170 


8798 


80 


08430 


DEFB 


128 


B799 


91 


08440 


DEFB 


145 


B7 9A 


9D 


08450 


DEFB 


157 


87 98 


84 


08460 


DEFB 


132 


87 9C 


00 


08470 


DEFB 





87 9D 


80 


08480 BLANK 


DEFB 


128 


B79E 


80 


08490 


DEPB 


128 


879F 


80 


08500 


DEFB 


128 


B7A0 


80 


08510 


DEFB 


128 


87A1 


80 


08520 


DEFB 


128 


B7A2 


80 


08530 


DEFB 


128 


87 A3 


80 


08540 


DEFB 


128 


87A4 


80 


08550 


DEFB 


128 


B7A5 


80 


06560 


DEFB 


128 


B7A6 


80 


06570 


DEFB 


128 


87 A7 


00 


08580 


DEFB 


B 


87 A8 


00 


085 90 RND 


DEFB 





B7A9 


A0 


08600 


DEFB 


0A0H 


B7AA 


00 


08610 SCORE 


DEFB 





B7AB 


00 


08620 


DEPB 





B7AC 


13 


08630 TB 


DEFB 


19 


B7AD 


50 


08640 TG 


DEFB 


80 


B7AE 


02 


08650 


DEFB 


2 


B00e 




08660 


END 


0B000H 



10 FORX=-24576TO-20479:POKEX,RND(14) :NEXT 
Program Listing 3 



PRICE BRE AKTHRU— 


BU 


il! 


IT'S A IVIIR ACLE!! 


TRS-eo Mod 1 and III hardware 


83A $749,00 


16K RAM upgrade $13.50 


Okigraph $65,00 


External Disk Drives inc. p.s. 


NEC— 7710 RS232 


& enclosure" 


55 CPS $2495.00 


40tk 1 side $215.00 


NEC— 7730 parallel S2495.00 


40tk 2 sides $295.00 


NEC— 7720 KSR $2895.00 


80tk 2 sides $425.00 


Vertical Tractors $229.00 


Signal extender cable 


BiDirectional Tractors $325.00 


forext. drive $12.50 


Sheet Feeder $1175.00 


2 drive expansion cable 


Twin Feeder $1595.00 


(Mod 1 or III) $20.00 


Smith Corona— TP1 pitch 


4 drive expansion cable 


10/12 pitch— Serial/ 


(Mod 1) $25.00 


parallel interface 


Bare Drives— 


Super Deal 5595.00 


40tk 1 side $180.00 


Standard Cable $25.00 


40tk 2 sides $245.00 


Tabletop Printer stand— 


Drive Service Manuals $25.00 


12" (holds up (0 50 lbs.) $17.95 


Single drive p.s. 


Tabletop Printer stand— 


& enclosure $49.95 


16" (holds up to 50 lbs,) $24.95 


Hard Disk {Winchester) for 


Diskettes — 10 per box 


Mod 1, LNW— Includes 


Verbatim- 


DOSPLUS 4.0 


s'/-" SSDD S23.95 


6.3 meg $1649.00 


5%"DSD0 $39.95 


9.6 meg $1849.00 


Maxell— 5V<" $34.95 


19 meg $2449.00 


Elephant by Leading Edge $22.95 


2 x 6.3 meg $2449.00 


Disk head cleaners— 


2 X 9,6 meg $2849.00 


VR Data (5'/.") $14.95 


2x19 meg S3949.00 


Verbatim 5'/*" or 8" $29.95 


Hard Disk 6.3 + 40tk 


5V>" plastic library case 


floppy combination $1995.00 


8" plastic library case 


Percom Doubler— $149.00 




Data Separator— $27.00 

LNW products 

TRS-80 Mod III 

16K L III Basic S899.00 


Paper & Labels 

9Vi x 11 Fanfold — 

2700 ct. $27.50 

14% X 11 Fanfold-2700 ct, $35.00 


16K upgrade $13.50 


3Vi x '^,j labels— 5M $15.00 


48K— 1 disk $1349.00 


Modems 


48K— 2disk $1549.00 


Hayes 


2 sided disk upgrade $70.00 ea 


Smarlmodem $229.00 


VR RS232C— upgrade S70.00 


Micromodem II $278.00 


Direct Connect 300 


Micromodem 100 $305.00 


baud modem upgrade S275.00 


Novation 


Hard Disk for Mod III— IBM-PC 


Auto cat $229.00 


6.3 meg $1599.00 


DCat S165.00 


9.6 meg $1799.00 


Cat $155.00 


19.0 meg $2399.00 


4202B— 1200 baud 


2 X 6.3 $2399.00 


half duplex $475.00 


2 X 9.6 $2799.00 


Apple Cat II $339,00 


2x19.0 $3899.00 


Lexicon 




Lex— II $124.00 


Coming Soon— Internal 




Hard Disk tor Mod III 


Monitors— 




BMC 12" Mean Green $89.00 


Floppy Disk III kits for Mod III 


BMC 13" Composite 


include p.s. controller & cables 


Color $325.00 


40tk— 1 side $440.00 




40tk— 2 side $510.00 


Mod IMil software* 


2nd— 40tk 1 side $190.00 


DOSPLUS 3.4 Mod 1 S87.S0 


2nd— 40tk 2 side $250.00 


DOSPLUS 3.4 Mod III S87.50 




LDOS 5.1 Mod 1, III S117.50 


"We use VR Data hardware upgrades 


Micro Term (Best yet) $75.00 


exclusively. They are tiie best 


Super utility (Best yet) $45.00 


around!. 




Printers- 




C.ltoh F-10 40CPS 


Terms— COD or Prepaid Only 


letter quality $1399,00 
Clloh F-10 55CPS 
letter quality $1699.00 
C.ltoh tractor for 


F.O.B. Shipping Point 

(215)461-5437 

Prices Subject to Change 


F 10-40 $200.00 


Without Notice. 


F10-55 $225.00 
Ribbons lor above 


TRS-80 Trademailc of Tandy Corp. 


printers $4.50 ea 
Sheet feeder $1300.00 


DISK SUPPLY CO. 


C.ltoh Pro-writer 




parallel $475.00 


Suite 439 


serial $575.00 
Okidala 80 $375.00 


111 S. Olive St. 


82A $479.00 


Media, PA 19063 



-See List o! Advetlisers on Page 387 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 145 



32 FLAVORS 

IN LOW COST COMPUTERS 




CP/M 64K 

The Mod III Plus CX 140 system is an 
exciting new personal and small busi- 
ness computer that is both CPM & 
TRS-DOS compatible. 

• 80 X 24 Display for CP/M 

• 64K Bytes RAM Memory 

• Microsoft BASIC language in ROM 

• Internal Z80 ROM Diagnostic 

• Z80 processor. 2MHz 

• 4MHz speed up option 

• 64 X 16 screen-TRS-DOS-.DOS+ 

• Cooling system 

• Parallel printer interface included 

• Anti-glare screen 

• Cassette interface 

• 2 Internal 40tk Disk Drives 

• Compatible with TRS-80® Model III 
— RS-232 serial interface option. 

CPM applications software such as 
Wordstar. Datastar and Mailmerge 
launch this computer system into the 
small business and word processing 
marketplace. Includes DOS PLUS 3.3 
operating system. 



$2699 



Optional CP/M2.2 Operating System Available 



MOD III PLUS 140 

Computer consists of 48K bytes 
memory and a double density, 
dual disk drive system. The sys- 
tem is fully compatible with the 
Radio Shack® DOS and periphe- 
rals. Get 178,000 bytes of memory 
storage per disk. 



PRICE TOO 

LOW TO PRINT 

& 

INCLUDES 

DOS PLUS 3.3 



MOD III PLUS 240/280 

Double or Quadruple your stor- 
age capacity to 700 or 1.4 mega- 
bytes. These machines have all of 
the features of the MOD III FLOS 
140 and expanded storage. The 
240 has double headed 40 track 
drives, w/hile the MOD III PLUS 
280 has double headed 80 track 
drives. 



PRICES FROM M899 



MOD III PLUS B/140 

Especially designed for Business applications. 
Same as Model 140 and includes anti-glare 
screen, speed-up enhancement, RS-232 inter- 
face cooling unit and more. Also includes FREE 
business software package. 

WORD PROCESSING 

We are also offering a discount certificate enti- 
tilrng the purchaser to NEW SCRIPT by Pro Soft 

FREE SOFTWARE 
ACCOUNTING PACKAGE 

• ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE • INVENTORY/SALES • GAMES 

• ACCOUNTS PAYABLE ANALYSIS • EDUCATION SOFTWARE 

• GENERAL LEDGER • PAYROLL • DOS PLUS 3,3 

• INCLUDING AUDIO SELF- 
LEARNING CASSETTE 



WINCHESTER HARD DfSK 

Our desk top business computer system, with 
approximately 5.7 megabytes of on line storage. 
The system includes a 5 megabyte Winchester 
hard disk drive for ultra-fast business require- 
ments. An 80 track dual head disk driveJs used 
for backup and for conventional floppy disk oper- 
ation. 



M399 



146 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



32 FLAVORS 

IN ADD-ONS AND KITS 



MTI DOES IT. Our CP/M 64K turns your 
TRS-80 Model III into two computer sys- 
tems, with memory upgrade to 64K and an 
80" X 24" column video card, you will convert 
your computer to a CP/M base machine. 

LIKE THE BIG BOYS. That means you can 
access the single largest body of microcom- 
puter software used by companies like Xer- 
ox, Osborne, Eagle. Apple. Cromenco etc. 
What is better, is that you can switch back 
forth between TRS-DOS and CP/M modes. 
and our own Z-80 diagnostic monitor. 

SIMPLE INSTALLATION. The CP/M 64K 
system plugs directly into the TRS-80 CPU 
board. You are ready to go! 
HUNDREDS OF APPLICATIONS. You have 
available literally hundreds of programs writ- 
ten for many mini and micro computers un- 
der CP/M operating system. 



CP/M-64K 



CP/M 2.2 
5119 



Optional CP/M 2.2 Operating System Available 




ADD-ON WINCHESTERS 




Add 5.. 7,5. or 11. megabyte tiard disk 
drive to any Model I II. The complete self 
contained unil Includes a Winchester 
drive, conlroller, power supply cooling 
system and catjies in an attractive en- 
closure. 



From ^1899 



INTERNAL DISK 
DRIVE KITS 



5459 





A new tow cost Internal disk kit is available lo 
expand your storage capability. With this kit. 
you may expand your 16K TRS-80* Mod III 
computer. Includes: 1-MTI 40 track, double 
density disk drive, power supply, controller, 
cables and DOS PLUS operating system. 



EXTERNAL DISK DRIVES 




Add-on disk 
drives for the 
Model I and III 
are available in 
40 and 80 track. 
single and dou- 
ble head confi- 
gurations. 
Contact MTI or 
a local authoriz- 
ed dealer. 



From «289 



Fairbanks, AK (907) 456-2281 

Anniston, AL (205) 236-6396 

Mesa, AZ (602) 833-8949 

Phoenix. AZ (602) 241-1865 

Phoenix, AZ (602) 866-3233 

Tempe, AZr (602) 831-5376 

Anaheim: CA (714) 773-0240 

Burbank> CA (213) 841-4210 

Camarillo, CA (805) 987-1633 

Covina, CA (213) 332-4088 

Goleta. CA (805) 967-7628 

Lancaster, CA (805) 948-9807 

MissioekViejo. CA (714) 495-3782 

Montclair. CA (714) 626-4813 

Orange.'CA (714) 771-0880 

Piacervilfe-.-CA (916) 622-4640 

San Diego, CA (714) 275-4243 

San Jose, CA (408) 946-1265 

Santa Monica, CA (213) 393-5785 

StudiaCity. CA (213) 763-3425 

Walnut, CA (714) 594-9760 

Groton, CT (203) 445-5166 

Washjngron. DC (202) 363-9797 

Wilmington, DE (302) 762-0227 

Mary Esther, FL (904) 243-5793 

Panama €ity. FL (904) 769-8093 

Tampa, FL (813) 961-5269 

West PahTi Beach. Fl (305) 689-1200 

Norcross, GA (404) 449-8982 

Tifton. GA (912) 386-8367 

Bettendorf, lA (319) 355-2641 

Buckingham. lA (319) 478-2826 

Sioux City, lA (712) 255-8892 

Belleville, IL (618) 277-2354 

Colllnsville. IL (618) 345-5068 

Decatur, IL (217) 429-8510 



OVER 100 AUTHORIZED SALES AND 

SERVICE CENTERS 

CALL 714-979-9923 

(or the center nearest you 



ESA 



MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INC. 

3304 W. MACARTHUR, SANTA ANA. CA 92704 

(714) 979-9923 

^247 
U.S. PRICES F.O.B- SANTA ANA 
CALIFORNIA AND MAY VARY BY AREA 
CP/M II a lagisiarao irademark ol Oigilai Researcn inc 
Tns-SO" IS a (agislared trattomaik ol Tandy Corp. 
MTI IS a regiglrad irademart: ol Microcomputer 
Technology, INC 



Mundelein. IL (312)362-3440 

Shreveport. LA (318) 865-7189 

West Monroe. LA (318) 322-6479 

Hopkinton, MA (617) 435-4457 

Springfield, MA (413)737-4562 

Baltimore, MD (301) 944-0200 

Beltsville. MD (301) 953-9600 

Towson, MD (301) 337-3808 

Anoka, MN (612) 427-5783 

Minneapolis, MN (612) 869-3245 

Cameron, MO (816) 632-6528 

Columbia. MO (314) 874-3216 

Marshall, MO (816) 886-6823 

Slater. MO (816) 529-3444 

St. Louis. MO (314) 241-7393 

Bozeman. MT (406) 586-0511 

Missoula, MT (406) 549-9715 

Raleigh. NC (919) 755-1175 

Fargo, ND (701) 280-0580 

Paramus, NJ (201) 342-2284 

West Milford, NJ (201) 728-8080 



Las Vegas, NV (702) 870-4138 

Jericho, NY (516) 333-2266 

Lake Grove, NY (516) 724-4490 

Rome. NY (315) 336-0266 

Syracuse, NY (315) 474-1442 

Troy, NY (518)273-8411 

Utica, NY (315) 446-1028 

White Plains. NY (914) 761-9283 

Mayfield Height, OH . . . .(216) 449-4030 

Toledo. OH (419)535-5897 

Portland, OR (503) 281-7640 

Salem. OR (503) 581-80S6 

N. Charleston, SC (803) 747-5773 

Lubbock. TX (806) 763-5100 

Longview, TX (214) 759-2922 

Missouri City. TX (713) 499-5241 

San Angelo, TX (915) 658-3573 

Falls Church. VA (703) 536-5040 

Reston. VA (703) 471-0305 

Anacortes, WA (206) 293-5154 

Bellingham. WA (206) 647-1814 

Spokane. WA (509) 624-3203 

Cheyenne, WY (307) 632-9132 

FOREIGN DEALERS 

Argentina (54) 132-1858 

Australia 657-8023 

Belgium 1663-2452 

Burnaby. Canada (604) 522-9877 

Ottawa, Canada (613) 741-7937 

Helsinki. Finland 9064-4116 

France (341) 773-5493 

Holm, Germany 4103-7393 

Tel Aviv, Israel 325-8535 

Capetov/n, S. Africa 2145-1047 

Papeete. Tahiti 2-5447 

Bangkok, Thailand 314-1161 



^See List ol Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 147 



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Texas Res. CaU 512 441 7890 

MRS «0 nap IM lui rancKiltiKIU Shack Ad ' [liaaonfiia Lid . Oak Ha'tnM. Wain 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



LOAD 80 



Foreign Flag Quiz 



by Jennifer Neidenbach 

Third Place 

11-13 



This program prints the flags of 10 
different countries. The player tries to 
guess the country to which the printed 
flag belongs. If the answer is correct, 
the program continues with the next 
flag. If the player guesses incorrectly, 
the program gives the correct answer. 

Line Functions 

Lines 5-10 hold remark statements, 
Lines 15-75 are instructions. 

Line 80 begins the quiz. Lines 85-100 
hold flag 1, Poland. Lines 110-135 hold 
flag 2, Switzerland. Lines 145-185 hold 
flag 3, Greece. Lines 190-255 hold flag 
4, Jamaica. Lines 260-275 hold flag 5, 
Thailand. Lines 280-300 hold flag 6, 
Japan. Lines 305-415 hold flag 7, Great 
Britain. Lines 420^55 hold flag 8, 
Czechoslovakia. Lines 480-515 hold 
flag 10, Kuwait. 

Line 9999 directs the program to the 
goodbye routine. Lines 10000-10020 
hold a subroutine to outline the flag and 
print question. 

Lines 11000-11105 hold a subroutine 
to ask question and check the player's 
answer. Lines 11200-11240 hold the 
goodbye routine, and Line 11245 is the 
end.H 



The Key Box 

Model 1 or III 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 



Jennifer Neidenbach (age 13} can be 
reached at 3057 Shawnee Lane, 
Drayton Plains, Ml 48020. 



Program Listing 



5 'FOREIGH FLAG QUIZ 

10 "INTRODUCTION 

15 CLS:PKIKT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

20 PRINTTAB( 20) "FOREIGN FLAG QUIZ" 

25 PRINTTAB( 14) "WRITTEN BY JENNIFER NEIDENBACH" 

30 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINTTAB(14) "PRESS <ENTER> FOR INSTRUCTIONS 

"; : INPUT S 

35 CLS 

40 'INSTRUCTIONS 

45 CLS 

50 PRINTTAB(13) " THIS IE THE 'FOREIGN FLAG QUIZ'," 

55 PRINTTAB(12) " I WILL PRINT THE FLAGS OF TEN DIFFERENT" 

60 PRINTTAB(12) " COUNTRIES, AND YOU TYPE IN THE COUNTRY" 

65 PRINTTABdS) "THAT FLAG BELONGS TO.":PRIKT 

7 PRINTTABil3) " PRESS ANY KEY TO BEGIN." 

75 IS=IKKEYS:IP 1$="" THEN GOTO 75 

80 'BEGINNING OF QUIZ 

85 'FLAG ONE — POLAND 

90 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

95 FOR 1 = 14 TO 49:PRINT@I + 320,CeRS(191) ; :PRINT@I + 384,CHRg{191) ; : 

PRIKT@I+448,CHR$(191) ; :NEXT I 

100 C$="POLAND":GOSUB 11000 

110 'FLAG TWO — SWITZERLAND 

115 CLS:PRINT@653,"WHAT COUNTRY DOES THIS FLAG BELONG TO?" 

120 FOR 1=14 TO 49:PRINTei+128,CHRS(191) r :PRINT@I+192,CHRS(191) ; 

:PRINT@I+256 ,CHR$(191) ; :PRINT@I+320 ,CHR$ (191) ; : PRINT@I+3 84 ,CHRS( 

191) ; :PRINT@44 8+IrCHRS(19) ; :NEXT I 

125 FOR 1=52 TO 69: RESET( I ,13) : RESET(I , 14) :RESET( I ,15) :NEXT I 

130 FOR 1=58 TO 63:RESET(I , 10) ; RESET{ I ,11) :RESET( I , 12) :RESET( I ,1 

6) :RESET(I,17) :RESET(I,18) iNEXT I 

135 C5="SWITZERLAND":G0SUB 11000 

145 'FLAG THREE — GREECE 

150 CLSiGGSUB 10000 

155 FOR 1=15 TO 18 :PRINT@I+128 ,CHRS (191) ; :NEXT I 

160 FOR 1=21 TO 24:PRINT@I+128,CHR$(191) ; :KEXT I 

165 FOR 1=30 TO 37 :SET( I , 9] : SET(I ,12) : SET( I ,13) :SET{ I ,14) :SET(I , 

15) iNEXT I 

170 FOR 1=42 TO 49 :SET( I ,9) : SET( I ,12) : SET( I ,13) : SET(I ,14) i SET( I , 

15) iNEXT I 

175 FOR 1=50 TO 97 :SET( I ,7) : SET( I ,10) : SET(I ,11) :SET( I ,14) : SET( I , 

15) :NEXT I 

180 FOR 1=30 TO 97:SET(I,18} ;SET(I,19) :SET(I,22) :NEXT I 

185 C$=''GREECE":GOSUB 11000 

190 'FLAG FOUR — JAMAICA 

191 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

192 PRINT@147,CHRS(140) ; : PRINT@14 8,CHRS (140) ; : PRINT@170 ,CHR5 ( 140 
) ; ;PRINTei71,CHRS(140) ; : PRINT@14 9,CHRS ( 17 6) ; : PRINT@150 ,CHRS ( 176) 
; :PRINT(ai6 6,CHR$(17 6) ; ; PRINT@16 9 ,CHRS( 176) ; 

193 PRINTia23e,CHRS(131) ; : PRINTia231 ,CHR$ (131) ; :PRINT@217 ,CHR$ ( 140 
) ; :PRINT@218,CHRS(140) ; : PRINT@228 ,CBR5 (140) ; :PRINT@229 ,CHRS{140) 

194 PRINT@215,CHRS[131) ; :PRINT@216 ,CHR$ ( 131) ; : PRINT@209 ,CHR$U76 

); 

195 PRINT@219,CHR$(178) ; :PRINT@220 ,CHRS(176) ; :PRINT@227 ,CHR5 ( 17 6 
) ; :PRINTia226 ,CHRS(176) ; :PRINT@285 ,CHR$( 131) ; :PRINTia286 ,CHR5 ( 131) 
; :PRINT@287,CHRS(140) ; : PRINT@28 8 ,CHR$(140) ; : PRINT@289 ,CHRS (131) ; 



Lisiing continues 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 149 



W..I..D..E SEEOEX SOPBORI 

KID 11/16 and DAISY WHEEL II 

Print 15 and 20 Characters/indi 






D L P Caa^asy 
6798 Wetheridge Dr. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45230 

513 232-7791 -''^ 

VISA OR MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 

$75.00 

260 chara::ters in just 13" at 20 
CPI; 170 in 7". Excellent qua- 
lity 15 CPI printing; 195 Char. 
in 13"; 120 in 8". SCRIPSIT™ 2.0 
IRSDOS™ 2.0/4.1, VISICAU:®, PRO- 
FILE™, BASIC, COBOL, etc. 



COtOR COMPUTER 



PROGRAMMABLE 

SOUN D 



MODULE 



AT LAST — theCOLOR COMPUTERS 
audio capabilities even SURPASS its 
great graphics! If you can program in 
e^5/C — plug in the PSM cartridge 
and star! to create life-like explosions, 
engines, animals, wind, water and other 
sounds limited only by your imagination. 
Complex sound effects are continuously 
maintained independently of your 
program. The PSM is a power-packed 
hardware/software combination and 100^ 
compatible with ALL models of the 
Color Computer. 

PSM -I- complete instructions --$ 98-95 

Available from: 

MAPLE LEAF SYSTEMS 

P.O.BOX 2190, STATION C , Downsview 
Ontario, CANADA M2N 2S9 ^92 



SEND AND RECEIVE 

MORSE CODE 

•SEND UP TO 40 WPM 
•COPY OVER 100 WPM 

Your Model I or Ml becomes a pro- 
grammable keyboard keyer that can 
send morse from the keyboard or 
from stored messages. Keying Is done 
either by the relay or by the audio 
output. Received morse is decoded, 
displayed, stored and printed. The 
cassette earphone plug connects to 
the receiver speaker to copy off the 
air. No hardware except patch cords 
Is required for many setups. 

satisfaction guaranteed 

Caasetta with Instruction booklet 
only $19.95 postpaid. Model I or III, 
LEVEL II, with at least 16k required. 

ROGO Computer Products 

4752 DeBeers Drive 

El Paso, Texas 79924 ^343 



Listing conlinued 

197 FOR 1^31 TO 33 :PRINT@I+320 ,CHR$( 176) ; :KEXT I 

200 PRINT@413,CHRS(131) ; : PRIMT@414 ,CHR$ (131) ; :PRINT@418,CHRS( 131 

) ; :PRIKT@419,CHB$(131) ; : PRINT@431 ,CHR$( 140) ; ;PRINT@432 ,CHR$( 140) 

203 PRINT^218,CHR$(176) ; :PRIKT@219 ,CHR$ (140) ; :PRINT@40 9 ,CHR$( 17 6 
) ; :PRINT@410,CHRS(17 6) ; : PRINT@422 ,CHR$( l'?6) ; : PRINT@423 ,CHRS ( 17 6) 

206 PRIHT@471,CHRS(131) ; : PRINT@472,CHRS ( 131) ; : PRINT@488 ,CHRS (131 
) ! :PRINT@489,CHRS(131) ; :PRIHT@46 9 ,CHR$ ( 140) ; ;PRINT@470 ,CHRS( 140) 

209 PRINT@491,CHRS(140) ; : PRINT@411 ,CHR$ (140) ; :PRIigT@412 ,CHRS( 140 
) ; :PRINT@490,CHR$[140) ; : PRINT@420 ,CHR$ (140) ; :PRIHT@421 ,CHRS ( 140) 

212 FOR 1=15 TO 20 : PRINTtJ256+I ,CHR$ ( 191) ; : PRINTia320+I ,CHRS(191) ; 

iNEXTI 

214 FOR 1=15 TO 17 : PRINT@I+384 ,CHRS (191) ; :NEXT I 

216 FOR 1=21 TO 23 :PRINTgI+320 ,CHRS (191) ; : NEXT I 

218 PRINTia40 2,CHRS(143) ; : PRINT@403 ,CHRS( 143} ; : PRINT@463 ,CHR$ (131 

) ; :PRINT@404,CHR$(131) ; ;PRIHT@405 ,CHR$ ( 131) ; : PRINT@207 ,CHR$(188) 

; :PRINT@208,CHRS(188) ; : PRINT@210 ,CHRS ( 176) ; 

220 PRINT@277,CHRS(188) ; : PRINT@27 8 ,CHR$( 188) ; : PRINT@27 9,CHR5 (17 6 

) ; :PRINT@280,CHR$(17 6) ; : PRIfgT@344 ,CHR$(143) ; : PRINT@345 ,CHRS (143) 

:PRIKT@320+I,CHR$(191) ; 



:PRINT@3 20+1, CHR$( 131) ; 
■ :PRINT@320+I,CHR$(143) ; 

:PRINT@384+IrCHRS(131) ; 
■ :PRINT@3 84+1, CHRS( 143) ; 



225 FOE 1 = 41 TO 48: PRIfgTia256+I ,CHRg (191) 

:NEXTI 

230 FOR 1=37 TO 38: PRINT@256+I ,CHR$ (176) 

:NEXTI 

235 FOR 1=39 TO 40 : PRINT@256+I ,CHR$ ( 188) 

:NEXTI 

240 FOR 1=43 TO 44:PRINT@I+192,CHR$(176) 

:NEXTI 

245 FOR 1=45 TO 46 : PRINT@192+I ,CHRS( 188) 

:NEXT I 

247 PRINT(a218,CHR5(140) ; : PRINT@219 ,CHR$ ( 176) ; 

250 FOR 1=47 TO 48: PRINT@192+I ,CHR$( 191) ; : PRINT@384+I ,CHRS(191) ; 
:KEXT I 

251 GOSUB 10000 

255 C$="JAMAICA":GOSUB 11000 
260 "FLAG FIVE — THAILAND 
265 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

270 FOR 1=14 TO 49: PRIKTiai28+I ,CHRS ( 191) ; : PRINT@256+I ,CHR$( 191) ; 
:PRINT@320+I,CHRS(191) ; : PR1NT@448+I ,CHRS (191) ; :NEXT I 
275 CS="THAILAND":GOSUB 11000 
280 "FLAG SIX — JAPAN 
285 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

290 FOR 1=30 TO 33 :PRINT@I+255 ,CHRS (191) ; : PRINT@I+320 ,CHRS( 191) ; 
:NEXT I 

295 PRINT@284,CHRS(160) ; : PRINT@3 48 ,CHRS (13 0) ; :PRIKT@285 ,CHRS( 188 
) ; :PRINT@349,CHRS(143) ; : PRINT@290 ,CHR$( 188) ; : PRINT@35 4,CHRS( 143) 
;:PRINT0291,CHRS(144) ; :PRIigT@355 ,CHRS( 12 9) ; 
300 C$="JAPAN":GOSUB 11000 
305 'FLAij SEVEl^ ~ GREAT BRITAIN 
310 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

315 FOR 1=15 TO 49: PRINT@128+I ,CHRS (191) ; :PRINT@192+I ,CHR5 ( 191) ; 
: PRINT@I+256 ,CHRS( 191) ;:PRTKT@I+320,CHRS(191) ; : PRINT@3 84+I ,CHR$ ( 
191) ; :PRINT@44 8+I,CHR$(191) ; :NEXT I 

320 FOR 1=30 TO 61 :RESET( I ,13) :RESET( I ,15) :NEXT I:FOR 1=66 TO 97 
:RESET(I,i3) :RESET(I,15) :NEXT I 

325 FOR 1=7 TO 12: RESET(60 , I) : RESET(61 , I) :RESET( 67 , I) :RESET(66 , I 
) :NEXT I 

327 FOR 1=16 TO 22 :RESET(60 , I) : RESET(61 , I) :RESET( 66 , I) : RESET( 67 , 
I) :NEXT T 

330 FOR 1=34 TO 39: RESET( I ,7) :KEXT I : FOR 1=38 TO 44:RESET( I , 8) :N 
EXT I:FOR 1=30 TO 33 :RESET( I , 8) :NEXT I : FOR 1=33 TO 37 :RESET( I , 9) 
:KEXT I:PoR 1=44 TO 51 : RESET( I , 9) :NEXT I 

335 FOR 1=37 TO 43 :RESET( I , 10) :NEXT I : FOR 1=50 TO 57 : RESET( I ,10) 
:NEXT I:FOR 1=43 TO 49:RESET( I ,11) :NEXT I : FOR 1=46 TO 48:RESET{I 
,11) :NEXT I 

340 RESET(70,11) :RESET(71,11) :FOR 1=71 TO 77 : RESET( I ,10) :NEXT I: 
FOR 1=78 TO 84:RESET(I,11) :NEXT I:FOR 1=84 TO 90 :RESET( I ,10) ;NEX 
T I:FOR 1=77 TO 83 :RESET( I ,9) :NEXT I 

345 FOR 1=90 TO 96 :RESET( I ,9) :NEXT I : FOR 1=83 TO 89:RESET( I ,8) :N 
EXT l!RESETC96,8) :RESET(97,8) :FOR 1 = 89 TO 93 : RESET{ 1 ,7) :NEXT I 
347 FOR 1=66 TO 67 :RESET( I ,12) :RESET( I ,17) :NEXT I 
350 FOR 1=36 TO 40 :REEET( I ,22) :NEXT I : FOR 1=30 TO 35 :RESET(I ,21) 
:NEXT I:FOR 1=40 TO 44:RESET( I ,21) :NEXT IiPOR 1=35 TO 39:RESET(I 
,20) :NEXT I 

355 FOR 1=44 TO 48: RESET{ I , 20) :NEXT I : FOR 1=39 TO 43 :RESET( I ,19) 
jNEXT I:F0R 1=48 TO 52:RESET( I ,19) :NEXT I : FOR 1=43 TO 47:RESET(I 
,18) :NEXT I 

360 FOR 1=52 TO 56 :RESET( I ,18) : NEXT I : FOR 1=47 TO 51 :RESET( I ,17) 
iNEKT I:FOR 1=56 TO 58:RESET( I ,17) :KEXT I :RESET(70 ,17) : RESET( 71 , 
17) 

365 FOR 1=76 TO 80 :RESET( I ,17) :NEXT I:FOR 1=71 TO 75 :RESET( I ,18) 
:NEXT I:FOR 1=80 TO 84: RESET(I ,18) :NEXT I : FOR 1=75 TO 79:RESET(I 
,19} :NEXT I 

370 FOR 1=84 TO 89:RESET( I ,19) :NEXT I : FOR 1=79 TO 83 :RESET( I ,20) 
:NEXT IiFOR 1=88 TO 92 :RESET( I ,20) :NEXT I : FOR 1=83 TO 87:RESET(I 
,21) :WEXT I;FOR 1=92 TO 95: RESET( I , 21} :NEXT I 
375 FOR 1=87 TO 91 : RESET(I ,22) :NEXT I 
415 C$="GREAT BRITAIH" :GOSUB 11000 
420 'FLAG EIGHT — CZECHOSLOVAKIA 
425 CLS:GOSUB 10000 
430 FOR 1=15 TO 20 :PRINT@I+192 ,CHR$ (191) ; : PRINT@I+384 ,CHRS ( 191) ; 



Listing conlinues 



150 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lisling continued 

:NEXT I 

435 FOR 1=15 TO 26 :PRINT@I+256 ,CHR$( 191) ; :PRINT@I+320 ,CHRS ( 191) ; 

:NEXT I 

440 PRINT@143,CHR$(191) ; :PRINT@144 ,CHR$ ( 191) ; : PRINT@463 ,CHR$ (191 

) ; :PRINT@464,CHRS{191) ; :PRINT@465 ,CHR$ ( 17 9) ; : PRIKT@466 ,CHR$( 17 9) 

; :PRINT@145,CHR$(17 9) ; :PRINT(ai46 ,CHR$ (17 9) ; : PRINT@2i3 ,CHR$ (188) ; 

445 PRINT@214,CHRS(188) ; :PRINT@404 ,CHRS ( 143) ; : PRINT@40 5 ,CHR$ ( 143 
) ; :PRINT@406,CHR$(131) ; !PRINT(a407 ,CHR$ (131) ; : PRINT@215 ,CHRS ( 17 6) 
; :PRINTia216,CHRS(176) ; : PRTNT@283 ,CHRS (188) ; :PRINT@284 ,CHRS (188) ; 

450 PRINT@347,CHR$(143) ;:PRINT@348,CHR$(143) !:FOR 1=58 TO 97:SET 

(1,14) :SET(I,15) :NEXT I 

455 CS="CZECHOSLOVRKIA":GOSUB 11000 

460 "FLAG NINE — SOUTH VIETNAM 

465 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

470 FOR 1=30 TO 97 : SET( 1 ,12) : SET( 1 ,14) ; SET( 1 ,16) .-NEXT I 

475 C5="S0UTH VIETNAM" :GOSUB 11000 

480 'FLAG TEN -- KUWAIT 

485 CLS:GOSUB 10000 

490 FOR 1=15 TO 26 :PRIHT(a256+I ,CHRS (191) ; : PRINT@320+I ,CHRS ( 191) ; 

iNEXT I 

495 FOR 1=15 TO 20 :PRINT@192 + I,CHRS(191) ; :PRINT(a384+I ,CHR${191) ; 

:NEXT I 

500 PRINT@143,CHRS(191} ; : PRIHTiai44 ,CHRS(191) ; : PRINT@463 ,CHR$ (191 

) ; :PRINT@464,CHR$(191) ; : PRINT@46 5 ,CHR$(17 9) ; :PRINT@466 ,CHRS (17 9) 

; :PRINTiai45,CHR$(17 9) ; : PRINT@146 ,CHR$( 17 9) ; 

505 PRINT@213,CHR$(188) ; : PRINT@214 ,CHRS (188) ; : PRIKT@215 ,CHRS ( 17 6 

) ;:PRINT@216,CHR$(176) ; :PRINT@405 ,CHRS (143) ; : PRINT@406 ,CHR$ (143) 

; :PRINT@407 ,CHRS(131) ; : PRIHTe408 ,GHRS{131) ; 

510 FOR 1=54 TO 97 : SET( I ,12) :SET( I ,17) :NEXT I 

515 CS="KUWAIT":GOSUB 11000 

9999 GOTO 11200 

10000 'SUBROUTINE FOR OUTLINE OF FLAG AND PRINTING OP QUESTION 
10005 FOR 1=28 TO 99:SET(I,6) ;SET(I,23) :NEXT I 

10010 FOR 1=7 TO 22:SET(28,I) :SET(29,I) :SET[99rI) :SET(98,I) iNEXT 

I 
10015 PRINT@6 53 ,"WHAT COUNTRY DOES THIS FLAG BELONG TO?" 
10020 RETURN 

11000 'SUBROUTINE FOR ASKING OF QUESTION - CHECKING OF ANSWER 
11005 PRINT(a7 2,"": INPUT A$ 

11010 IP A$=C$ THEN H=H+1:PRINTTAB(13) "THAT IS CORRECT. " :GOT0 11 
025 

11015 PRINTTAB(13) "I AM SORRY; THE CORRECT ANSWER IS ";C$;"." 
11025 PRINT:PRINTTAB(13) "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 
11100 IS=INKEYS:IF 1$="" THEN GOTO 11100 
11105 RETURN 
11200 'END OF PROGRAM 
11203 CLE 

11205 FOR 1=6 TO 40 : SET( 46 , I) : SET( 47 , I) :NBXT I 
11210 FOR 1=48 TO 87 : SET( I ,6) : SET( I ,17) :NEXT I 
11215 FOR 1=7 TO 16 :SET( 86 ,1) : SET( 87 ,1) :NEXT I 
11220 FOR 1=48 TO 69: SET( I ,20) : SET( I ,24) :NEXT I 
11225 FOR 1=21 TO 23 :SET(68 , I) : SET(69 ,1) :NEXT I 
11230 PRINT@473, "GOODBYE!"; :PRINTe219, "YOU IDENTIFIED"; 
11235 PRINT@280,H;"FLAGS CORRECTLY"; 
11240 PRINT@896,""; 
12000 END 



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^Ses Lisi of Actverlisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 151 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



LOAD 80 



CASS-80 



by Scott Steele 

Third Place 

11-13 



Program Listing 



CLEAR24g0:DIMSM(60) ,DM(60) ,SD(60) ,HM(60) ,MGS[16) ,CH$(14) ,ULS(6 
0) ,MTS{60) ,DTS(60) :HP— 29000:DP=~16000 

1 OH ERROR GOTO 62000 

3 INPUt"DATE : (MM/DD/YR DAY) " ;DES : INPUT"CALLER # " ; A: INPUT"THIS 

WEEKS QUIZ QUESTI0N";Q1$ 

5 DOS=^INKEYS:IF INP(232)<32 THEN7ELSE POKE-186 , :GOT05 

7 KlK=l:TF-0:GOSUB11000:GOSUB29000:UL=UL+l:UL$(Ui:.) -rm$ 

8 GOSUBia995:GOSUB 24900 

9 GOSUB 14000 

10 PRINT"Welcome to Cass-80 Version 1.6" :PRINT" (C) ,1982 - Scott 
Steele":FOR DU=1T0 500:NEXT DU 

30 IFBU>0THENGOSUB3 4: PRINT: PRINT" BULLETINS:": PRINT :F0RED=1T0BU:P 
RINT" ("ED") ."BUS (ED) :NEXT 

33 GOTO40 

34 PRINT"CARE TO SEE THE BULLETINS?"; 

3b A?=INKEY$:IF A$=" "THEtO5ELSEIFAS-"y"0RASC { A5) =97THENPRINT"Yes 
":GOTO40ELSEIFA$="N"ORASC(AS) =110THENPRINT"No" : RETURNELSE35 

57 PRINT"The date is >>>>>>"DE$"<<<<<< ": PRINT: PRINT"Y 

ou are caller" ; :A=A+1 :GOSUB29400 :PRINTA: IFBD=2THENPRINT"You are 
in the MAIN board. "ELSEPRINT"You are in the DsD board." 

58 PRrNT"Want to skip menu (Y/N)?"; 

59 DUS=INKEY5:IF INP(232)>32 THEN 5 ELSE IF DU$=" "THEN59ELSEIF D 
US="Y"ORASC(DU$) -121THEN PRINT" Yes" : PRINT: PRINT; PRINT: PRINT: PRIN 
T:PRINT:PRINT:G0T0 65 ELSE IF DU$="N"OR ASC {DU$) =110THEN PRINT"N 
o":GOTO60 ELSE 5 9 

60 PRINT" — >> Cass-80 Commands <<— " :PRINT" (A) . . .Ads" : PRINT" (B) . 
..Bell (On/Off) ": PRINT" (C) .. . Chat" : PRINT" (G) ... Goodbye" : PRINT" ( I 
)... System inf o" :PRINT" (L) . . .Line feeds (On/Of f] " 

61 PRINT" (N) .. .Null adjustment":PRINT" (0) .. .Other systems ": PRINT 
" (P) . . .Post":PRINT" (Q) . . .Quiz question" : PRINT" (R) ... Read a messa 
ge": PRINT" (S) . . .Scan messages" : PRINT" (U) . . .User log": PRINT" (Y) . . 
• Any messages for you?" : PRINT" (*).. .Switches betv;een MAIN and D& 
D 

62 PRINT"(%) ., .Quick log-of f" : PRINT 

65 PRINT"Coramand ( A,B ,C,G, I ,K ,M ,N ,0,P,Q ,R,S , U , Y, * ,% or ? for com 

mands) — >";:0N ERROR GOTO 62000 : LN=0 : SB$-" ": F$-" ": P$=" " :MG$ ( 1) =" 

":SMS-"":RF-0:PQ$="":PAS="" 

67 IFNK=0THEN70ELSEFOR TA=lT05 : PRINTCHRS ( 7) ; : NEXT TA 

70 A$-INKEYS:IF INP[232)>32 THEN 5 ELSEIF PEEK [ 14400) =2 THEN 160 
00ELSEIF A$="" THEN 70 

71 IF ASC(A$)>95 AND ASC(AS)<127 THEN A5-CHR$ ( ASC ( A$) -32) 

80 IFAS=="A"THENPRINT"Ads" :GOTO10 0ELSEIFA$="C"THENPRINT"Chat " : GO 
TO2000ELSEIFA$="G"THENPRINT"Goodbye":GOTO3 000ELSEIFAS="O"THENPRI 
NT"Other systems" :GOTO4000ELSEIFAS="P"THENPRINT"Post a message": 
GOTO5000ELSEIFAS="Q"THENPRINT"Quiz questions ": GOTO 6000 

81 IFAS^"R"THENPRINT"Read a message" ;GOT06999ELSEIFA$="S"THENPRI 
NT"Scan messages " :GOT0 8000ELSEIFAS="L"THENGOTO 10000 

82 IF A5="?"THENPRINT:GOTO60ELSEIF A$-"N"THENPRINT"Null adjustme 
nt":GOTO310 00ELSEIF A$=" * "THENPRINT"Board Change" :GOTO4550 0ELSEI 
FA$="I"THEN18600 

83 IF A$="%"THEN3 90 ELSEIFAS="U"THENPRINT:PRINT"User log": PRINT :G 
OTO260 0ELSEIFAS="B"THENPRINT:PRINT"Bell adjustment" : PRINT: G0T02 
800 0ELSEIFAS="Y"THEN2910 0ELSE7 



Listing continues 



Adding a modem to my Model I, 
Level 11 TRS-80 expanded my use of the 
computer by allowing me to call various 
bulletin board systems. By locating 
boards locally and in other parts of the 
country 1 made a host of new aquain- 
tances and friends . 

I thought it would be great if I had 
my own bulletin board so people could 
call me from other areas of the country. 
So, I began to contact different system 
operators for advice on how I might put 
my own board together. Unfortunately, 
the consensus of opinion was that with- 
out at least one disk drive, a bulletin 
board system would be impossible. It 
looked as though my dream of becom- 
ing a system operator would have to be 
put aside until I could buy a disk 
system. 

The prospects of this happening were 
pretty dim, and I was not content to be 
just a user of other peoples' bulletin 
boards. 

1 decided to tackle the "impossible" 
and write my own program for a cas- 
sette bulletin board system. I had only 
48K of memory to hold the program 
and the messages, but nothing to lose by 
trying. 

My original program stored the mes- 
sages in arrays, which worked out okay 
until I found things that I wanted to 
change. If the changes required editing 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 
16KRAM 
Cassette Basic 
Modem 



152 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



You Are Being Attacked by a Raging . . . 



(• 




;%.' 



r'- 



'^'M\ 



^'1 '■■■ 




"1982 Soft Sector Marketing; Inc. 
Written by Larry Astimun > . 



^ , ] ©©Pi? ©@©ij®ra Ra5:^^3C3^ijT]R3@b 

I R A T I 

P.O. Box 340* C3arden Cit:y, Ml 481 35 • 800-551-6504/(313] 4S5-40S0 



Prices per Game: TRS-80* 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette $15.95 Talkingandsoundeffectsareplayablettirough 

TRS-80* 32K Level II Mod 1/ Mod III Diskette $19,95 thecassetteAUX plug. High scores are auto- 

moticcliy saved after each gome on disk 

10% discount for 2 items. 15% for 3 or more. Please add S2.50 per order for postage &. version. Joystick co mpatible 

handling, Michigan residents add 4% soles tax. Outside USA (except Canada) please Call or write for our L ■_ .1 ■■■ Hi 
odd $10.00 per order for postage & handing. complete catalog I 



Only The Fast Survive! 






■^•i^s^^ ±^'M 



1982 Soft Sector Marketing. Inc. 
Written by Larry Ashnnun 



Defend Planet from 

6 Different Types of Alien Attacks 

1982 Soft Sector Marketing, inc. 
Written by Larry Ashmun 



Listing continued 



1000 PRlNT"If you would like to leave an ad, leave me a comment 
when you leave and I'll post it. ..It's SI and it stays up at lea 
St two months. .. ":PRINT: IF AD-0 THEN PRINT"Sor ry ,no ads yet 
..." ELSE FOR AC^l TO AD ; PRINTADS (AC) : PRINT:NEXT AC : PRINT"That ' s 

al 
1010 GOTO 6 5 

2000 IFPG=1THENPRINT:PRINT"SYS0P not here now... Try later":PRINT 
:GOTO 65ELSECLS:PRINT"Paging SYSOP...'A' will abor t . . . " : F0RPQ=1T 
05:PRINT"Paging":PRINT#-l,"*" : IFPEEK ( 1440 0) -2THEN1 500 0ELSEFORAX= 
1TO10:IFINKEY$="A"THEN20 05ELSENEXTAX:NEXTPQ 

2001 PRINT"He's not here now. . .Recording attempt ..." :CH=CH+1 : IF 
CH>15THEN6 5ELSECHS(CH) =NMS: IF CHS(CH) =CHS(CH-1) THENCHS (CH-l) =CHS 
(CH-1) +"2":CH-CH-l:GOT055ELSE6 5 

2005 PRINT;PRINT"Chat aborted ..."; PRINT:GOTO 65 

3000 CLS:IF CA=1 THEN GOSUB 22000 ELSE PRINT"Goodbye . . .Want to 1 
save a message to the SYSOP (Y,N,A)?"; 

3001 AS=INKEY5:IF A$=" "THEN3001ELSE GOSUB27330 : IF A$="A"THEN PRI 
NT"Abort":PRINT:GOTO 65 ELSE IF AS="N" THEN PRINT"No" : GOTO3090EL 
SE IF AS="Y"THEN PRINT"Yes " : GOTO3002ELSE3001 

3002 IFBD=1THENCF=1:BD-2:GOSUB4 5 5 01 

3003 PRINT"This message will be marked so only the SYSOP may see 
it. ";SM(MG+1) =1 :RF=1 : GOSUB5 000 :RF=0 : CF-0 : GOTO3 90 

3004 LN-LN+1:IF LN>3 THEN LN=LN-1:G0T0 3010 ELSE INPUTSRS ( LN) : IF 
SR$(LN)="" THEN LN=LN-1:G0T0 3010 ELSE 3004 

3090 PRINT:PRINT"Goodbye "NMS" .. .Thanks for calling Cassette 80" 
:PRINT"Please call again..." 

3095 OUT23 4,171:OUT234,0:OUT234,i55:FORLN=lTO10:NEXTLN:GOTO3B95 
4000 CLS:PRINT"Other Known Operating Systems :" :PRINT"Any updates 
or changes would be appreciated (Leave SYSOP message) ": PRINT"NAM 
E "/'NUMBER", "HOURS ": PRINT" CHIPMUNK ","323 -37 41"," 24": PRINT"NORTH- 
PARK ","7 45-0 92 4","24":PRINT"ROGERS PARK" , "973-2227 "," 24" 
40 01 PRINT"LAMS", "740-9128", "24", , "GAMEMASTER" ," 47 5-4884" ," 24" , , 
"PMS/LINK"," 870-7176"," 24 ":PRINT"VIDEO ADVENTURE", " 47 5-52 82 "," 9A 
M TO 9PM", ,"CRT" , "37 3-8057 "," 24" , ,"CODE" ," 537-7 063 "," 24" , , "PIRAT 
ES SHIP", "93 5-2 933 ","24", , "APPLE-NET" , "685-9573 ", "24" , , 
40 02 PRINT"METRO WEST" , "26 0-0 6 40 "," 24 " , ,"NAPY" , " 42 0-7 995 " , "6PM-6 
AM(9PM FRI) ","PBBS", "359-9450", "24" ,, "WARD AND RANDY'S 545-8086" 
,"24", , "MESSAGE- 82" ," 622-4442 ", "24" , ,"NESSY" , "773-3308" ," 24" ,, "C 
AHS" , "927-1020" , "24" ,, "HIT <ENTER> TO RETURN TO MAIN MENU." 
4003 DU$-INKEYS:IF DUS=""THEN 4003 ELSE 65 

5000 PRINT:PRiNT:PRiNT"Post messages ": PRINT"This will be message 
";MG+1;". . . " :FS=NMS:PRINT"Please enter the subject "; :GOSUB 63001 
: PRINT 

5001 PRINT"Enter your message one line at a time... 15 lines at 
63 characters per line . . . <ENTER> on a new line ends mes 
sage. " :HL=1:MG=HG+1 

5002 PRINTHL") . "CHR5(14) 

5003 AS=INKEYS:IF A$=""THEN 5003 ELSE PRINTA$;:IF ASC(AS)=13 THE 
N 5004 ELSE IF ASC(A$)=8 AND LEN [MGS ( HL) ) >0 THEN MGS (HL) =LEFTS (M 
GS(HL) ,LEN(MGS[HL) )"1) :GOTO 5003 ELSE IF LEN (MG? (HL) ) >63THEN PRI 
NTCHRS(8) ; :GOTO 5003 ELSE 5099 

5004 IF LEN(MG$(HL) )=0 THEN HL=HL-1:G0T0 5005 ELSEIFLEN ( MG$ (HL) ) 
=1ANDASC(MGS(HL) ) =10THENHL=HL-1:GOTO5005ELSE IF HL=15 THEN 5005 

ELSE HG$(HL) =MG$(HL) 4-CHR$(13) :HL=HL+1:MGS(HL) ="":GOTO 5002 

5005 PRINT:PRINT"A-Abort C-Continue E-Edit L-List" : PRINT"S-Sav 
e":PRINT"Enter choice — >"; 

5006 AS=INKEYS:IF AS=""THEN 5006 ELSE GOSUB27330 : IF A$="A" THEN 
5100 ELSE IF AS="C"THEN 5200 ELSE IF AS="E" THEN 5300 ELSE IF A$ 
="L"THEN 5400 ELSE IF AS="S" THEN5010 ELSE 5006 

5010 PRINT"Save message" : GOSUB 39800:FOR NR=1T0LEN ( SBS) : POKEHP , A 
SC(MIDS[SB$,NR,1) ) ;HP=HP+1:NEXT NR:POKE HP, 255 : HP=HP+1 :GOSUB 397 
00: FOR NR=1T0LEN(PW$) : POKEHP, ASC (MID$ ( PW$ ,NR,1) ) :HP^HP+1 :NEXT NR 
:POKE HP,254:HP=HP+1 

5011 FOR HH=1T0HL:F0R MP=1T0LEN (MOS (HH) ) : AV^ASC (HIDS {MG$ (HH) ,MP , 
1)):P0KE HP,AV;HP=HP+1:NEXT MP:NEXT HM:P0KE HP, 253 : HP=HP+1 : PRINT 
"MESSAGE SAVED": PRINT: IFRF=1THENRETURNELSE65 

50 6 HM=HM+1:HG$(HM,LN) =MG$(HH,LN) +"END" : PRINT"MESSAGE" ;HM; "SAVE 
D. ":PRINT;LK=0:GOTO 65 

5099 MGS(HL)=MGS(HL)+AS:GOTO 5003 

5100 PRINT"Abort":PRINT:PRINT"Are you sure you want to abort thi 
s message (Y/N) ?" 

5101 AS-INKEYS:IF AS=" "THEN5101ELSEGOSUB27330 : IFA5="Y" THEN HG=H 
G-1:PRINT"MESSAGE ABORTED" : PRINT: PRINT: GOTO 65 ELSE IF AS="N" TH 
EN PRINT:GOTO 5005 ELSE 5101 

5200 PRINT"Continue":IFHL=15THENPRINT"All lines filled. Can not 
continue" :GOTO5O05ELSEPRINT: FOR ZV=1T0 HL:PRINTZV") ." :PR1NTHGS(Z 
V) :NEXTZV:HL=HL+1:G0T0 5002 

5300 PRINT"Edit a line" : PRINT: INPUT"Enter line to edit or to e 
nd";VN:IF VN=0 THEN 5005 ELSE IF VN<0 OR VN>HL THEN PRINT:G0T053 
00 ELSE PRINT"Line"VN". ":PRINT"01d line : " : PRINTMGS ( VN) : HGS ( VN) -" 
":PRINT:PRINT"Enter new line 

5301 AS-INKEYS:IF AS=""THEN 5301 ELSEPRINTA? ; : IFASC ( AS) =13THEN53 
02 ELSE IF ASC(A$) =8ANDLEN(HGS(VN) ) >0THENHGS(VN) =LEFTS(MGS(VN) ,L 



Lisling continues 



in Basic or adding lines, all of the 
variables were cleared. There had to be 
a way to store messages. 

I knew that messages couldn't be 
stored in variables; there had to be 
another way. Then I though of how 
Basic stores variables by POKEing 
ASCII values into memory. I recalled 
that the question "Memory Size?" ap- 
pears every time the computer is turned 
on. I knew this had something to do 
with protecting memory, so I figured 
that I would write a short subroutine to 
POKE strings into memory. But, the 
question was: "Would it work?" 

I tried to POKE something into pro- 
tected memory. I PEEKed at it and 
printed it, using a PRINT CHR$ 
(PEEK (X)) instruction (where x is the 
pointer to the next byte of the message). 
It worked flawlessly, but my next pro- 
blem was how to use it in my original 
program. 

1 decided that it would be necessary 
to save four major parts of any mes- 
sage: the subject, the password, the 
author, and the body of the message. 
Next, I determined the order in which 
the parts should be saved. I decided to 
save the subject and the author first, 
since only the author and subject are 
printed when a scan is done. Having 
these two items first would save time, 
since the program wouldn't have to 
search for them if they were placed at 
the beginning. 

The next thing I decided to save was 
the password, because when I got 
around to making a routine to kill mes- 
sages, the program would have to com- 
pare passwords to see if the person re- 
questing the kill was indeed the author. 
By having the password third I could 
avoid having the program go through 
entire bodies of messages to find the 
passwords. 

Finally, I placed the body of the mes- 
sage at the end, because when the body 
is printed, the author and subject ap- 
pear before it. 

Having determined the order of the 
parts, I proceeded to put them into my 
program. I used FOR X=l TO LEN 
(X$): POKE HP, ASC (MID$ {X$, X, 
1)); HP = HP + 1 : NEXT X: POKE HP, 
255 (x is a dummy variable, X$ is the 
string to save, and HP is the pointer to 
the next highest memory locafion). I 
saved the four message parts and the 
starting location for each message in the 
MM array, and the whole routine is 
located at lines 5010-5011 with a 
GOSUB to line 39700. 

I next had to modify the scan and 
read sections of the program to ensure 
that they would be compatible with the 



154 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




MISSION: 
Destroy Enemy Base 



S^^ 



"'1982 Soft Sector Marketing, lei 
Written by Barlow - -"' " 

—f ■ X^ si^^il Via ^-'-' 



w 






X 








3 ^ T I 

P.O. Box340* Garden City, Ml 4S135 • B00-5S1-6504/(3n 3)4S5-40S0 



Prices per Game: TRS-80' 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette S15.95 

TRS-80' 32K Level II Mod I/Mod III Diskette $19.95 

10% discount for 2 items. 15% for 3 or more. Please odd S2.50 per order for postage & 
tiandling. Michigan residents odd 4% sales tax. Outside USA (except Canada) please 
odd S10.00 per order for postage & handing. 



<i^ ♦- 



w 


^ 






P>;S^*j^ 


FRIED 
CHICKEN 


T^iji|l 






mS^' M 


ML 


^ 

^ 


¥1 


ken Out! 



''1982 Factory Programming, Inc. 
Written by J. Weaver, Jr. 



Talking and sound effects are playable through 
the cassetfe AUX plug. High scores ore auto- 
matically saved after each gome on disk 
version. Joystick compatible. 
Coll or write for our f '■ I ,„„ ,, .. 
complete catalog. -■ v / ■ '"" 



Is There Nothing 
Sacred? 



' J. Weaver. Jr. 




03 ELSE FS=F$+CHR 

4 ELSE P5=P$+CHR$ 



Listing continued 



EN(HGS{™) )-l) :GOTO5301ELSEIF LEN (MGS ( VN) ) >63THEN PRINTCHRS ( 8) ; : 
GOTO 5301 ELSE HG$ ( VN) =MGS { VN) +AS : GOTO 5301 
5302 PRINT:GOTO5005 

5400 PRINT"List" :PRINTCHRS{14) :INPUT"Starting line #";NL:IF NL<0 
OR NL>HLTHEN PRINT:G0TO 5400 ELSE FOR XH=NL TO HL : PRINTXH") . " : P 
RINTMG$(XH) :NEXT XH : PRINT:GOTO 5005 

6000 PRINT;PRINT:PRINT"Qiiiz Questions" : PRINT" I will post one que 
stion a week. Post answers in comments to me when you hang up. T 
hank You." 

6001 PRINT"Example; ":PRINT" 26=L of the A":PRINT" would be":P 
RINT" 26=letters ot the alphabet" :PRINT"Now for this weeks equa 
tion;":PRINT:PRINTQl$:PRINT:PRINT"Press <ENTER> to return to MAI 
N menu" 

6002 DUS=INKEYS:IF DU$="" THEN 6002 ELSE PRINT:GOTO 65 

6999 PRINTCHRS ( 14) ; "Read messages. ": IF MG=0THEHPRINT"No messages 
yet":PRINT:GOT065 ELSEPRINT"Cass-80 contains messages 1 to"MG 

7000 INPUT"ENTER MESSAGE TO READ, OR TO QUIT" ;DH : PRINTCHRS ( 14) ; 
:IFDH<0ORDH>HGTHEN7 900ELSEIFDH=0THENPRINT:GOTO65ELSEGOTO297 00 

7001 RJ=PEEK(KH) :IF RJ=255 THEN KH=KH+1 :GOTO7002 ELSE SBS=SBS+CH 
R$(RJ) :KH=KH+1:G0T0 7001 

7002 RJ=PEEK(KH) : IF RJ=255 THEN KH=KH+1:G0T0 7 
?(RJ) :KH=KH+1:G0T0 7002 

7003 RJ=PEEK(KH) :IF RJ=254THEN KH=KH+1:G0T0 70 
{RJ) :KH=KH+1:G0T0 7003 

7004 PRINT:PRINT"MESSAGE"DH".":PRINT"LEFT BY "FS , "SUBJECT: "SB$: P 
RINT 

7005 RJ=PEEK(KH) :IF RJ=253 THEN 7005 ELSE PRINTCHRS (RJ) ;: KH=KH+1 
:G0T0 70 5 

7006 PRINT:PRINT"END OF MESSAGE"DH" . " : GOTO 7000 

7900 PRINT"I'M SORRY, BUT THERE IS NO MESSAGE #"DH : DH=0 : PRINT: GOT 
07000 

8000 PRINT:PRINT"Scan messages":IF HG=0 THENPRIKT"No messages ye 
t. ":PRINT:G0T0 65 ELSEINPUT"Enter message # to start scan with"; 
GI:IF GKl OR GI>HG THEN GOTO 8000ELSE FOR SE=GITOMG:KR=MH ( SE) 

8001 EX=PEEK{KR) :IF EX=255 THEN 8002 ELSE SHS^SHS+CHRS ( EX) : KR=KR 
+1:G0T0 8001 

8002 KR-KR+1 

8G03 EX=PEEK(KR) : IFEX=255THEN8005ELSEFS=F$+CHR$ ( EX) : KR=KR+1 : GOTO 
8003 

8005 PRINT"MESSAGE"SE": ":PRINT"LEFT BY: "F$,"TO: "MTS(SE) :PRINT" 
SUBJECT: "SMS: SM$=" ": FS=" ": PRINT iNEXTSE : PRINT: PRINT"END OF "; :IF 
BD=1THENPRINT"D&D FILE. "ELSEPRINT"MAIN FILE." 

8006 PRINT:GOT065 

10000 PRINT"LINE FEEDS" :PRINT"LINE FEED MODE IS NOW >>>";: IF P 

EEK(-182) =1THENPRINT"0FF<<< ": PRINT: POKE-1 82 , 0ELSEPRINT"ON<<<~ 

— ": PRINT: POKE-1 82, 1:G0T06 5 

10001 GOT065 

11000 OP$="":PH$="":PQ$="":PAS="":NHS="":QNS^"":LNS="":PRINT"Wel 
come to Cass-80!":PRINT"Hickory Hills, II" 

11001 PRINT"Enter your FIRST name : " ; : GOSUB25000 : QZ S=0PS : IF QZS=" 
"THENOPS^"":GOTO11001ELSEOPS="" 

11002 PRINT"Enter your LAST name: " ; :GOSUB25000:LNS=OPS: IFLNS-" "T 
HENOPS="":GOTO11002ELSEOP$="" 

11003 NM$=QZS+" "+LNS:PRINT:PRINT"You are: " ;NMS ;: PRINT" ."; CHRS ( 
13);"Is that correct?"; 

11004 A$=INKEY$:IFA$^""THEN11004ELSEGOSUB273 30:IFA$-"Y"THENPRINT 
"Yes" :AS=INKEYS:RETURNELSEIFA?="N"THENPRINT"No":AS=INKEY5:0P$="" 
:GOTO110 01ELSE1100 4 

14000 PRINT"Need line feeds "Q2$" (Y/N)?"; 

14001 A$=INKEY$:IF AS=""THEN 14001 ELSE IF A$="N"OR ASC(AS)=110T 
HENPRINT"No": POKE-1 82, 0ELSEIFAS="y"ORASC( AS) =12iTHENPRINT"YeE" :P 
OKE-182,1ELSE14001 

14002 RETURN 

15000 CLS : PRINTCHRS ( 14) ; "CHAT MODE. ..TYPE 'BYE' TO EXIT" : LQS="yO 
U ARE TALKING TO "+NM$:FOR TY^ITOLEN ( LQS) : POKE 15807+TY , ASC (MIDS 
(LQS,TY,1) ) :NEXT TY 

15001 GOTO 16001 
15500 OUT234,165:GOT05 

16000 CLS:PRINT"SYSOP REQUESTS TO TALK WITH YOU":PRINT 

16001 PRINT" — ) "; :OPS="":GOSUB 25000:IF OP$="BYE"THEN PRINT:GOTO 
65 ELSE 16001 

16300 MM(1) =HP:FORAB=1TOMG-1:KH=MM(AB) 

16301 RJ=PEEK(KH) : IFRJ=255THENKH=KH+1 : GOTO16302ELSEKH=KH+1 :G0T01 
6301 

16302 RJ=PEEK(KH) 
16302 

16303 RJ=PEEK(KH) 
6303 

16304 RJ=PEEK(KH) 
16304 

16305 MM(AB+1) =KH:NEXTAB:HP=KH+1;END 

18600 PRINT"System info" : PRINT: PRINT"This system is made up of:" 
:PRINT''A TRS-80 Model 1" :PRINT"level 2 computer with 48K of RAM" 



Listing continues 



; IF RJ=255THENKH=KH+1:GOTO163 3ELSEKH=KH+1:GOTO 
;IFRJ=254THENKH=KH+1:GOTO16304ELSEKH=KH+1:GOTO1 
:IF RJ=253THENKH=KH+1:GOTO16 30 5ELSEKH=KH+1:GOTO 



save routine. The scan and read rou- 
tines check for the presence of a 255, 
254, or 253 to signal the ends of message 
sections, and then PEEK the various 
strings out of memory by doing the op- 
posite of the save routine. 

The scheme I used was ER - PEEK 
(KH): IF ER=255 THEN next line 
ELSE X$ = X$ + CHRS (ER): KH = 
KH + : GOTO this line (where X$ is the 
string to be PEEKed out of memory, 
KH is the pointer to next memory loca- 
tion to PEEK out of; and ER is the dum- 
my variable to store the value of the 
memory location pointed to by KH). KH 
starts out equalling an element of array 
MM. The precise element is determined 
by the message being read or scanned. 

There is one large addition to the read 
routine at lines 7000-7006 that isn't 
present in the scan routine at lines 
8000-8006. This is the routine to print 
the body of the message. This routine, 
located at line 7005, checks for a 253 to 
signal the end of the message body. If it 
fails to fmd a 253, it executes a PRINT 
CHR$(RJ), where RJ is the value of the 
memory location presently being 
PEEKed out of, and the program will 
keep looping until it finds a value of 253 
at the PEEK location pointed to by KH. 

After testing this routine and using it 
for awhile, I decided it would be nice to 
add another board devoted to playing 
Dungeons and Dragons. 

The addition of the D & D board re- 
quired another array (DM), another top 
of memory pointer (DP), another mes- 
sage pointer (DN), and a routine at lines 
45500--45551 to exchange the pointers 
and arrays. When the pointers and ar- 
rays are exchanged, the boards are ex- 
changed. 

Although this version ran extremely 
well, users eventually requested the abil- 
ity to place private messages on both the 
regular board and the D & D board. Al- 
though I knew this would be an en- 
hancement to the system, I was con- 
cerned that there just wouldn't be 
enough memory to make it a reality. 

I decided to try putting in another ar- 
ray, MT$ and adding a subroutine to 
the read message routine in line 1000, to 
determine whether the message is pri- 
vate or nonprivate. If the subroutine 
finds the message is private, it then 
checks to see if the message is for the 
user who is trying to read it. If the mes- 
sage is not for the user trying to read it, 
the program informs the user that the 
requested message is private. If the pro- 
gram determines that the user is autho- 
rized to read the message, than it 
returns and prints it. A special flag (des- 
ignated TF) can be set to allow whoever 



156 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



BUSINESS 



^\ The Ultimate in Mailing Packages 

^^ POSTMAN MASS MAILING SYSTEM 

^1982 Alger Software, Distributed exclusively by Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 

For the serious businessmanwhohasaslittleaslOO name mailing Iistor200,000 names, 
THERE !S ONLY ONE SYSTEM FOR YOU! 

FEATURES OF THE NEW POSTMAN MASS MAILING SYSTEM 

The Postman system (version 2) is an almost COMPLETE rewrite, rethink, redesign of the original POSTMAN. The manyfeoturesof the 
new POSTMAN system ore quickly outlined below. 



MULTI-DRIVE - True mulli-dnve operation is possible POSTMAN will search all drives fot 
addiess files and connect them together into one large file for the duration of thot session. 
Once POSTMAN has found the data files on the disks, the operator "sees" just ONE 
CONTIGUOUS sorted list of addresses The operator does not need to tell POSTMAN when to 
"switch" drives or monuollv "swap" sections ot the data file in and out of the computers 
mernorv. This is the foremost among the list of features because of its relative uniqueness 
among mail list handlers written for the TRS-30 

lAROE USTSUPPOBT- The multi-drive operation allows the user to access data files on ALL 
configured drives CONCURRENTLY (ot the SMvlE time) for truly large mailing lists Files need 
not be sectioned into smoller "byte size" chunks to fit into memory. 

HARD DISK SUPPORT - (HARD DISK POSTMAN only) The FULL utilization ol the space and 
speed of the new hard disl< drives is possible with POSTMAN. For example, a 7.5 megabyte 
drive con be configured to hold almost 60,000 labels Multiple herd drivescan be accessed 
CONCURRENTLV allowing 200,000++ entry mailing lists 

FORM LETTERCAPABILITY- With the purchase of the separate POSTRITE program, the user is 
provided with an easy to use form letter generator which will merge o generalized letter 
producedfrom a word processing system(i e. LAZY WRITER, etc), with the nome and address 
information from the POSTMAN MASS MAILER data bose. POSTWRITtR allows the user to 
insert any field from a POSTMAN label entr>/ anywhere in the letter 

MENU OPERATION -As you would in o restaurant, choose your dinner from a list (or MENU) 
POSTMAN will allow you to direct its actions by selecting from various menus that it will 
display A complete discussion of each menu is presented in the monuo! 
INSERT -New names con be quickly added toyour list at any time The new addresses are 
placed into the file in their proper sorted order eliminating the r>eed for a separate sort 
operotion after entering a stack of new names. POSTMAN will allow the operator to enter a 
"botch" of labels without returning to the control menu between each label insertion, thus 
speeding entry and reducing the aggravation of extio menu control keystrokes 
DEUTE - Names can loe removed at any time when they are no longer needed. 
EDIT- Information in any name entr^ can be quickly changed at will with "word processor" 
ease A"tronsparenf' cursor simply is movedtothe label displayed on the computer screen 
ond corrections arejust typed over the existing label Ifyou happen tochange a field which 
is also used as a sort key. POSTMAN will automatically move the changed label to its correct 
position in the list to mointoin the sorted arrongement of the labels 

OVERLAY- When identicol changes are neededon many addresses, the OVERLAY feature 
can make them with one keystroke. The needed changes which are common to many 
labels are entered into the "overlay mask" When youwishto apply these common changes 
to any lobel, one comrnond will do it 

SORT- Arronge your list in any alphabetic or numeric order. The ordering may use one or 
more fields to control the sort. A mochine language heap sort assures fast execution The sort 
need only be performed once, the sorted list will stay sorted through all subsequent 
insertions, deletions, and changes to existing labels NO NEED to leave the POSTMAN 
progrom to use a separate program to sort your data, Yourdato is sorted quickly and after 
sort completion. POSTMAN is reody for your next commond! 



SPECIAL STREET ADDRESS SORT - For the user with many addresses on the same street, 
POSTMAN will sort your entries bythe house NUMBER oftergroupingthoseon the same street 
together Local city lists can be quickly sorted to aid post office dispatching 

PURGE - Unwanted duplicate addresses can be removed from your list aulomaticolly or 
under operator control 

SEARCH - Any address in your list Can be quickly found with fast search and positioning 
commands Three different types of searches are provided. A "fasf' search which uses a 
hashing technique, a "selective sequential" search for labels with common fields, and 
"quick" positioning using the first or mojoi sort field to get you into thegenerar'bail park" of 
a label or sequence of labels 

LABEL PRINTING -One, o few or all addresses in your list can be printed on standard or non- 
standard label stock Up to 6 labels across can be printed with a formot YOU can easily 
control TWO user definoble'ATTN lines are provided for any use Labels can be printed from 
many ol POSTMAN'S menus, search, edit, or during lobel insertion 

EFFICIENCY - POSTMAN is written in the machine's notive language to gam the full 
odvantage ot the microcomputei's speed. Extensive use of piagram segmentation 
reduces the amount of use RAM needed to hold the program allowing a greater number 
labels to be kept in core, resulting in faster operation. Little used routines need only be 
brought into memory when they are needed and once through with theirtask. release their 
space back to POSTMAN. 

REPORT LISTINGS - A special program to produce columnar listings of address dato from 
your lobel data base is provided. You con easily specify the information to be printed 
DATA DISK MERGING- Labels can be quickly transferred from one disk to another with the 
PSTMERGE program callable from the main FOSTMAJ^ SYSTEM menu Source ond destination 
drives needed not be separate drives, prompts to exchange diskettes if the same drive is 
used, ore provided 

DATA DISK PREPARATION UHIITY - Provided with POSTMAN is the DPREP program which 
allowstheuserto prepare ofloppy/harddiskfor use with POSTfvlAN Thiseasytouse utility con 
be told to prepare any portion of the available space on a disk 

DATA INTEORITY-AII data transfers to the disk filesaremadeusing special write commands 
which instructs the Operating system to check the validity of EACH write to the disk 

DATA GUARD*' - Is d special programming technique only offered by Soft Sector 
Marketing, Inc If by chance your machine resets while writing information to the disk you 
only lose the information that you were writing Your files are always protected from the 
danger of losing all the work that you have put in that day NO OTHER PROGRAM ON THE 
MARKET OFFERS THIS PROTECTION If you reset with ANYBODY'S MAILING PACKAGE DURING 
WRITING you would destroy your ENTIRE data disk We can't stop your mochine from failing 
but we can protect your data. 



Description of Label Record Fields; 



Length 


Name 


10 


Code 


15 


Lost Nome 


15 


First Nome 


26 


Company 


26 


Address 



Description 

User defined printable field 
Lost nome of oddressee 
First name of addressee 
Name of compony 
Street address 



Lengtii 


Nome 


15 


City 


5 


State 


9 


Zip 


2 


Dato 1 


5 


Doto 2 



Description 

City, township, village 
State, province, territory 
Zip code, zone, route 
User definable field 
User definable field 



IDEAL SYSTEIVL 



Mod Hi 48K 1-40 Track Drive • 2-80 Track Dual Headed Drives • Dosplus or LDOS Operating Systems 
Gives space for over 11,000 names- 5 second overage name insertion - time sorts all 11,000 names in less than 4 minutes 

'Speclol version to work on Dosplus 4.0 Hord Disk operating system. 



- Overview Available - 
Tine POSTMAN system requires Mod I or Mod III, 48K, 2 disk drives minimum. 



2 



Standard Version 
Only $125.00 



standard Version with 
POSTWRITER form letter writer 

$175.00 



For DOSPLUS Hard Disk4.0 Operating System 
& Radio Shacks Hard Drive System 

$225.00 



- DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 



SOFT SECTOR MARKETING, 

INCORPORATED 

P,0, Box 340 • Garden City, Michigan 48135 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 



PAYMENT- paymontarcop'i.xttivrtxirgi.' pL>rsori,;k-M-,'c 
or' C O D only under tne following corniiiions Charges 
p roc OS scii when s til p peel usually wittiin48 nour^ Personal 
Checks deiGy btiippmg [M.Tidmy 3 weeks to ole;ir C.O.D. 
o^dfjrs are cefified choc< or ros'i uniy odd G' bO Ml lesiot'nts "lust oJo J% jolei tux 
SHIPPING a HANDLING - Shipping Charges: Send Itie inrgor amount 2% oi S2 bli uni.ss 
stipLilatedottierwise Any oideneceivod without sinppingant] nondhng will DeshippeOlreighl 
collect Air Moil Shipping outside Ol NorttA America pitioie iond 'tie lorgor amoijni 1U% o- 
JICOO Ovorpoyrpenl will l)o refunded 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 157 



set it to read any message, whether pri- 
vate or nonprivate. 

At this same time I added a routine 
that scans the MT$ array, allowing 
users to quickly determine whether any 
board messages are specifically for 
them. I also added a user's log so any- 
one coming into the board could see 
who had used the bulletin board that 
day. This log can be reset by setting the 
value of UL to 0. 

The latest version of my bulletin 
board has been up and running for sev- 
eral weeks now with absolutely no prob- 
lems. The users are happier than ever 
with the board, and usage keeps on ex- 
panding. 

The only negative comment I have 
had is that sometimes string input is 
slow. This occurs at times because I 
cleared only 2,400 bytes in line 0. While 
I could probably clear 400 more, I de- 
cided against it because it would leave 
no room for further modifications. 

Some future enhancements that I an- 
ticipate are an expert's users mode, 
where all menus can be skipped, and a 
machine-language kill routine to quick- 
ly relocate messages and pointers. 

The program has run smoothly and 
flawlessly, serving 933 users in slightly 
over two months. There have been a tre- 
mendous number of favorable com- 
ments, and even a number of "I see it 
running, but I still don't see how it can 
be done" statements. ■ 



Scott Steele, age 13, can be reached at 
8738 HiUside Drive, Hickory Hills, IL 

60457. 



EPROM 

PROGRAMMER 



FOR: 
2704 
2708 
2758 
2716 
2532 
2732 




$144.95 
Kit 

$229.95 

assembled 

& tested 



Programmer was feahiretl construction projecl in July and August 
1982 issuas of Popular EleclroniDS, Mono style drivar program 
checks EPROM tor erasure, lists EPROM and programming buffer 
contents, programs, copies EPROM 1o EPROM. and verifias 
Specify tape or disKette. All cower supplies and ZIF socket in- 
cluded. Connection to Modei I or lit is by ribbon cable with 4G 
pin Bdgectird connectors (add S21.95) Model ill requires addi- 
honal 40 to 50 pin adapter (add S15.95|. Add S5.00 postage 
and handling. California residents add 6% tax. 

PARHELION CO. 

P.O. Box 3602 *"^^^ 

Statiford, CA 94305 



O 



Lisiinn continued 



:PRINT"A Radio Shack Expansion Interface" :PRINT"An RS-232 serial 

interface":PRINT"A Radio Shack direct connect Modem 2" 
18601 PRINT"And a Radio Shack cassette recorder " :PRINT:GOTO 65 
18990 POKE-1 83, 0:POKE-1 82, l:POKE-185,l: RETURN 
22001 DU$=INKEYS:IFDU$="Y"THEN30 90ELSEIFDU$="N"THEN6 5ELSE220 01 

24900 PRINT"Need nulls "QZ$" (Y/N)?"; 

24901 A$=INKEY$: IFINP(232) >32THEN5ELSEIFA$=" "THEN24901ELSEIFA$=" 
N"ORASC(A$) =110THENPRINT"No":RETURNELSEIFA$="Y"ORASC(AS)=121THEN 
PRINT" Yes": PRINT :GOT024 90 2ELSE2 4901 

24902 PRINT"How niany,"QZS" (0-255)?"; 

2490 3 A$=INKEY$:IFA$-""THEN24 903ELSEPRINTA$;:IFASC(A$)=13ORASCCA 

$)=10THEN24904ELSEIFASC{A$) <480RASC(A$) >57THEN24903ELSEDU$=DU$+A 

S:IFLEN(DUS) >3THENPRINT: GOTO2490 2ELSE24903 

24904 NU=VAL(DUS) : IFNU<0OR NU>255THEN24902ELSEPOKE-183 ,NU : PRINT: 

RETURN 

2 5000 IP$=INKEYS:IFIP$-""THEN2500 0ELSEIFIPS=CHRS(95)ORIP$=CHR$(1 
27)THEN25 479ELSEPRINTIP$; : IFASC ( IP$) =8ANDLEN (OPS) >0THENOP$=LEFT$ 
(0P5,LEN(0P$) -1) :GOTO25000ELSEIFASC(1P$)=13THENRETURNELSEIFLEN{O 
PS) >253THEN25500ELSEOPS=OP$+IP?:GOTO25000 

25479 EC-EC+1:IF EC=5THENEC=0 : GOTO3095ELSE25000 

25500 RETURN 

260 00 PRINT" User log for: " ;DES; PRINT: FORDU^lTOUL: PRINT" ( "DU") ."; 

UL$(DU) iNEXTDU 

26001 PRINT:PRINT"END OF FILE . " : GOT065 

27 00 HT$(HG+1) -"":P0RAZ=1T0LEN(DU$) : AB=ASC (MID$ ( DUS , AZ ,1) ) : IFAB 

>95THENAB=AB-32 

27001 IFAB=95THENNEXTAZELSEMT$[HG+1)=MTS(HG+1)+CHR$(AB) :NEXTAZ:R 

ETURN 

27330 IF ASC(A$) >95AND ASC ( A$} <127THENAS=CHRS ( ASC (AS) -32) ;RETURN 

ELSERETURN 

28000 IFNK=lTHENNK=0:NKS="OFF"ELSENK=l:NK$="ON" 

28001 PRINT"The bell is now — >"NKS"< — " : PRINT:GOT065 

290 FORDU=lTOLEN[NMS) : GG=ASC (MID$ (NM? ,DU , 1) ) : IFGG>95THENGG=GG- 

32 

29001 PHS=PH$+CHR${GG) iNEXTDU : RETURN 

29100 PRINT:PRINT"Your messages" : PRINT: PRINT"Checking for your m 
essages":PRINT"on the "; : IFBD=lTHENPRINT"D&D board . "ELSEPRINT"MA 
IN board." 

29101 IF MG=0THENPRINT"SORRY,NO MESSAGES YET. " :GOT065ELSEFORMW=l 
TOHG: IFMTS(MW) =PH$QRLEFT$ (MT$ (MW) ,LEN(PHS) ) =PHSTHENPEINT"HESSAGE 
"MW"MAY BE FOR YOU , "QZ$ : NEXTMWELSENEXTMVJ 

29102 PRINT:PRINT:GOT065 

29400 IFA^1000THENPRINT:PRINT"YOU'RE THE 1000TH CALLER! " :C1=1000 

:C1S^NM?:RETURNELSE RETURN 

29700 IFTF=1THEN29707ELSEIFHT$(DH)-"ALL"THEN297 07ELSEIFMT5(DH)=P 

H$THEN29707ELSEIFRIGHT$(MT$(DH) ,1) =CHR$(16) THEN29707ELSEPRINT"ME 

SSAGE"DH"IS A PRIVATE MESSAGE .": PRINT: GOTO7000 

29707 KH=MM{DH) : PRINTCHR$ (14) ; : SBS=" " : PS=" " : FS=" " : GOTO7001 

31000 PRINT:PRINT"NULL ADJUSTMENT" : PRINT"yOU NOW ARE SET AT"PEEK 

(-183) "NULLS. " :PRIKT"HOW MANY NULLS DO YOU NEED ( 0-255) ";: INPUTNL 

:IF NL<0 OR NL>255THEN 31000 ELSE POKE-183 ,NL:PRINT: GOTO 65 

3 97 00 F0RWY=1T0LEN[F$) :POKE HP, ASC (MIDS ( FS ,WY,1) ) : HP=HP+1 :NEXTWY 
:POKE HP,255:HP=HP+1:RETURN 

39800 PRINT"Saving message. Please wait . . . " :MH(MG) =HP:RETURN 

45500 IFBD=lTHEN45550ELSEPRINT"Going to D&D board, Please wait... 
":BD=1 

45501 DU=DP:DP=HP:HP=DU 

45502 IF MG>DN THEN45510ELSEFOR S0=1T0DN!DU=DM (SO) : DM ( SO) =MM(SO) 
:MM(SO) =DU:DU=SM(SO) :SM{SO) =SD(SO) :SD(SO) =DU: DUS=MT$ ( SO) :MT$[SO) 
=DT$(SO) :DT$(SO) -DU$:NEXT SO: PRINT"DONE. ": PRINT 

45503 DU=DN:DN=MG:MG=DU 

4 5505 IFCF=1THENRETURNELSEG0T065 

45510 FOR S0=1T0MG:DU=DM(S0) :DM(SO) =MM(SO) :MH(SO) =DU : DU^SH( SO) :S 
M{SO) =SD(SO) :SD(SO) =DU :DU?^MT$ ( SO) : NTS (SO) =DT$(SO) :DT$(SO) -DUS:N 
EXTSO : PRINT"DONE . " : PRINT: GOTO45503 

45550 PRINT"Going to MAIN board ... Please wait . . . " :BD=2 

45551 GOTO45501 
54257 GOTO45501 

52000 PRINT"AN ERROR HAS BEEN ENCOUNTERED. PLEASE INFORM THE SYSO 
P OF ERROR "ERR/2+l;CHR$(8) ;"IN LINE"ERL" .THANK YOU" : PRINT:RESUH 
E65 

63001 INPUTSBS 

63002 INPUT"Enter a password for erase (password must be at lea 
St 1 char. long)" ;PW$:1F PWS=""THEN63002ELSE63003 

63003 IFSM(MG+1) =1THENMTS{MG+1) ="SYSOP":RETURNELSEINPUT"Who is t 
his message to (name must be spelled CORRECTLY) or ALL" ;DUS: IFDU 
$=""THEN63 003ELSEGOSUB270 00 

63004 IFMT$(MG+1) ="ALL"THEN63005ELSEINPUT"Is this a private mess 
age (Y/N) " ; YN$: IFYN$="N"0RYN5="n"THENMT$(HG+-l) =HT$(MG+1) +CHR$(16 
) 

6300 5 PRINT"Message"MG+l". ","To: "MT$(HG+1) : PRINT"Sub ject : "SBS, : I 
FRIGHT$(HTS(MG+1) ,1) =CHRS(16) 0RMT$(MG+1) ="ALL"THENPRINT"Non priv 
ate. '-ELSEPRIMT" Private." 

63006 INPUT"Is THIS information correct? (Y/N) ";YN$: IFYN$="Y''ORY 
NS="y"THENRETURNELSEPRINT"PLEASE Enter the SUb ject : " ; :GOTO63001 



158 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



HARDWARE SPECIALS 

LYNX MODEM 

Auto Answer - Auto Dial 



Mod I 8c III 
No RS-232 
Board Required 

Shipping 
from Stock 

$218.00 




RIBBONS 



MX-80 Replacement Cartridges 

2 for $15.00 
MX-100 Replacement Cartridges 

2 for $20.00 

Offer extended through January, 1983 




ORCHESTRA 85/90 



Stereo music synthesizer with 
percussion for your Mod I or II 

Was S 149,95 

SPECIAL $99.95 

Please state Mod I or II & Cass, or Disk version 
Offer extended ttirougti Jonuary, 1983 



^^ 



Our Catalog 

is Now 
Available! 



There Are Only 2 Ways to Increase the 
Processing Speed of Your Model III 



Holmes Board 



Other Brand 





The Right Way The Wrong Way 

We Offer Only The Quality Producf 

But the Choice is Yours 



They both listfor$99,95 assembled and 
Tested. 

They both speed up your machine, 

Holmes Other 

Board Brand 

Installation Time .... 15 min, 4 hrs, 

Requires Soldering NO YES 

RequiresCutting Traces . , . NO YES 

Easily Removed if Logic 

Board Requires Repair . . , YES NO 

c^t^^Q List S99,95 

^^^^ Or^ly $89.95 

Plus Shipping 

Offer extended thirough January, 1983 



^ 

^ 



- DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 



^ 



SOFT SECTOR MARKETIISJG;^ 

INCORPnRATED 

P.O, Box 340 • Garderi City, Michigan 48135 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 

^See Lis! ot Advertisers on Pane 387 



PAYMENT- paymeritaccepteabvcharge personal check 
■^ or C O D only under the followir-ig conditions Charges 
_ '■ processed when shipped Lisudilvwittiin48 hours Personal 
Checks deiov shipping pending 3 weeks to cieor C.O.D. 
orders are certified check or cosh only add SI bC Ml residents must add 4% soles tax 
SHIPPING ft HANDLING - Shipping Charges: Se;nd the larger amount 2% or S2 50 unless 
stipulated otherwise Any ordei received without shipping and handling uviii be shipped freight 
collect Air Mail Shipping outside of North America please send the idrger amount 10% or 
S1000 Oyerpdymenl will be 'etunded 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 159 



YOUNG PROGRAMMER'S CONTEST 



C» — •) 



LOAD 80 



Math Countdown 



by Adam Wells 

Third Place 

10 and under 



Lines Purpose 

10 Clears the screen 

15 Clears 1000 bytes for string space 

20 Makes double-sized letters 

30-50 Makes the title page 

60 Clears the screen 

65 Makes double-sized letters 

70 Asks if you need instructions 

75 Clears the screen and makes double-sized letters 

80-90 Figures out your answer 

100 Tells you if you answered incorrectly 

105 Clears the screen 

1 10-210 Prints the instructions 

220 Asks you if you understand the instructions 

230-240 Figures oul your answer 

250 Teils you if you answered incorrectly 

255-256 Clears the screen and asks what operation ( + ,-, x,/) you'd like to do 

258 Tells you if you were wrong 

260 Clears the screen 

270-282 Makes the spaceship 

285 Clears the screen 

290 Prints the spaceship 

300-305 Sets up the loop to give 10 problems and prints 10 

310 Makes the addition problem 

320 Prints the addition problem and figures out if your answer is correct 

330 Tells you if you were wrong 

340 Returns control 

500 Clears the screen and makes the spaceship take off 

505 Returns control 

510 Clears the screen 

520 Prints the ship 

530-540 Prints 10 

550 Makes the subtraction problem 

560 Prints the subtraction problem and figures out if your answer is correct 

570 Tells you if you are incorrect 

580 Clears the screen 

590 Prints the ship 

600-610 Makes 10 

620 Makes the multiplication problem 

630 Prints the multiplication problem and figures out if you are correct 

640 Tells you if you are wrong 

650 Makes the division problem 

670 Prints the division problem and figures out if you are correct 

680 Tells you if you are wrong 

690 Gets rid of the Ready prompt by creating an endless loop 

Table I. Line Functions 



At my computer programming class, 
I was assigned to write a math program 
that would help little children learn ba- 
sic ideas. Since I like astronomy, I de- 
cided to put a spaceship in the program. 

Math Countdown will ask if you 
need directions. If you don't, the pro- 
gram goes right to the math. You can 
choose the operation you want: multi- 
plication, division, addition, or subtrac- 
tion. Then a spaceship appears at the 
bottom of the screen, with the number 
10 to the left and a math problem above 
it. If you answer the problem correctly, 
the 10 will change to 9, and you will see 
another problem. If you get that one 
right, the 9 will change to an 8. 

When you get alt the way down to 
zero, the spaceship takes off. If you get 
a problem wrong, the program will say 
"Try again!" and repeat the problem. 

To revise my program, you could add 
sound, or give a time limit for solution 
of each problem. ■ 

/Lisimn on p. 163} 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 



Adam Wells, age 9, can be reached at 
5229 S. Brentwood Drive, Las Vegas, 
NV 89120. 



160 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



Verbatim Datalife™ flexible 
disks now come in a bold, 
new storage box. But more 
important, they now come to 
you with a five year warranty* 

We can give you a war- 
ran 



191 iii3 wiTtui 



confident the way w 
Datalife disks will i 
them perform better, last 
even longer 

All 01 our Datalife disks 
feature seven data-shielding 
advances for greater disk 
durability, longer data life. 
To protect your data from 
head-to-disk abrasion. To 
shield your data against loss 
due to environmental condi- 
tions. To insure a longer 
lifetime of trouble-free data 



recording, storage and 
retrieval. 

Every Datalife disk is 
extensively tested under the 

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Critically-certified to be 100% 




operating conditions. 

And we back it up with 
^ '^ive 



illll^O ll^llV^^l LliCllI Ul^:i III. 

dustry standard. Because 
Verbatim is the standard 
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For flexible disks you 
can depend on-a lot longer 
-can (800) 538-1793. 
In California, or outside 
the U.S. cafl (408) 737-7771 



collect for the name of your 
Verbatim dealer 

If you want longer data 
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Verbatim Datalife. Our name 
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\ferbatim 



Here's the most exciting part of 
Verbatim's new pacl^ging. 



i-IJ!B2 VwtiaiFm Corp DfiiaiitB wa mKleniarli o( '•ctUijmu t nrp 



SUPER PRICES 





COMPUTERS 

Complete MODEL III COMPUTER '"'^ 

Model III with 48K memory. 2 disk 

drives, 370K storage, and ready to run with 

TRSDQS 1.3 and manual. 120 day Simuiek warranty parts and 

labor. Compalible with all Radio Shack software $1899.99 

Model III with 48K. 2 double sided 40 track disk drives with 750K 
storage. Comes with MULTIDOS and manual. 120 day SImuIek war- 
ranty pans and labor. Compatible with Radio Shack software. Com- 
plete and ready tor jn $2195.99 

MODEL III INTERNAL DISK DRIVE KITS 

If you can use a phillips screwdriver, you can easily install 
Simutek's Model III disk drives and controller in less Ihan an hour. 
Absolutely NO SOLDERING, TRACE CUTTING OR TECHNICAL 
KNOWLEDGE REQUIREOI The J & M controller is the best on the 
markel today. We've tried others and found J & M's the linest and 
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against detects in workmanship. 

ONE 40 TRACK TANODN DISK DRIVE WITH 185K STORAGE, and J 
& M conlroller. Radio Shack DOS. manual. No soldering or trace 

cutting required. Beady lo install with instructions S5B9.99 

TWO 40 TRACK TANDON DISK DRIVES 370K STORAGE, with J & M 
controller Radio Shack DOS. manual. No soldering or trace cutting. 

Ready lo install and run. Instructions $849.99 

TWO DOUBLE SIDED 40 TRACK DISK DRIVES with 750K storage 
and J & M conlroller MULTIDOS and manual and Model III DOS. No 
soldering or trace cutting. Ready to install and run. Full instruc- 
tions S999.99 

MODEL III HARD DISK DRIVES 

FIVE MEGABYTE hard disk with LDOS disk operating system, all 

cables, connectors, ready to plug in SI 799.99 

TEN MEGABYTE Hard disk with LOOS, all cables, connectors ready 

to plug in S1999.99 

PRINTERS 

DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS: 

NEW SMITH CORONA DAISY WHEEL 12 CPS $699.99 

NEW BROTHER DAISY WHEEL 16 CPS S1199.95 

TRACTOR FEED FOR BROTHER $250.00 

C-ITOH STAR WRITER II F 10, 40 CPS S1649.99 

C-ITOH STARWRITER III F-1055CPS 51999.99 

TRACTOR FEED FOR STARWRITERS S250.00 

HIGH QUALITY DOT MATRIX: 

C-ITOH PROWRITER I 8510A 2K BUFF, . PRL. ONLY $499.99 

C-ITOH PROWRITER I 8510ACD 2K BUFF. SER/PRL $649.99 

C-ITOH PROWRITER II 1550. .. 15 INCH. . .3K BUFFER S799.99 

EPSON MX-80WITH GRAFTRAX S479.99 

EPSON MX-80/FT WITH GRAFTRAX S549.99 

EPSON MX-100 S799.99 

OKIDATA MICROLIN£80,(80CPS) S369.99 

OKIDATA HICROLINE82A(1Z5CPS) W/TRACTOR S499.99 

OKIDATA HICR0LINE83A(125CPS) W/TRACTOR 5749.99 

OKIDATA HICROLINE 84 (200 CPS) W/TRACTOR S11 99.95 

PRINTER CABLE FOR MOD I EXPANSION INTERFACE OR MODEL 

III (SPECIFY) S29.95 

PROWRITER RIBBONS $12.99 

EPSON MX-80 0R FT RIBBONS $9.99 

OKIDATA RIBBONS,., (BO, 82A,83A) 53.49 



CAU TOU FREE to order: 



1-800-528-1149 ~ 

WE ACCEPT AMERICAN EXPRESS. VISA and MASTERCARD. NO 

SURCHARGE FOR CREDIT CARD ORDERS! 

SORRY, PERSONAL CHECKS REQUIRE 4-5 WEEKS TO CLEAR, 




TRS-BO TMol 



EREE SHIPPING 



DISK DRIVES 

MODEL I DISK DRIVES 

ONE TEC DISK DRIVE 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE with 5ms track tD 

track access time, with power supply chassis, extender cable and 

shipping for TRS-80. One year warranty on parts and labor. Ten day 

money back guarantee. 

Model I or III 5279.00 

ONE TEAC 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE, 30 ms track to track, with P/S 
and chassis, ready to run as drive 0-4. 10 day money guarantee. 
One year warranty $279.00 

ONE TANDON 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE. 5 ms track to track, with P/S 
and chassis, ready lo run as drive 0-4 or Model III external, 10 day 
money back warranty $279.00 

ONE 2DRIVEcal)lelorModellorlll.(Specify) 525.00 

ONE 4 DRIVE cable lor Model I only 535.00 

ACCESSORIES/ 
SOFTWilRE.ETC. 

16K MEMORY UPGRADE FOR MOD I. Ill OR COLOR 4K. 

UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED FOR 2 YEARS 515.95 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS 

NEWDOSeOVER.2 $139.95 

LOOS $129.95 

DOSPLUS 5139.99 

MULTIDOS. BEST BUY! SPECIFY DOUBLE OR SINGLE DENS $79.95 

DOUBLE DENSITY MODI 

PERCQM DOUBLER II, (NEW LOW PRICE!) S139.99 

DISKETTE STORAGE 

SMOKED PLASTIC HOLDS 50 DISKETTES $21.95 

HARD BOX HOLD TEN $3.99 

MODEMS 

., ^. LYNX MODEM FOR MOOl 

. ., „..^.. OR III $239.95 

-> -^ OMNITERM SMART TERMINAL 

PROGRAM S99.99 

, SUPER BOOKS FROM IJG 

^^atP-ihJMAm _ I MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED 

^^ AND OTHER MYSTERIES 529,95 

■■' '■-^**^ TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER 

MYSTERIES $22.50 

BASIC FASTER AND BETTER AND OTHER MYSTERIES $29,95 

BASIC FASTER AND BETTER PROGRAMS ON DISKETTE $19.95 

CUSTOM TRS-80 AND OTHER MYSTERIES $29.95 

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ZENITH GREEN SCREEN 12' 5139.95 

BMC 12 INCH GREEN SCREEN 5109.95 

BMC 13 INCH COLOR 5299.99 

AMDEK 12" BLACK AND WHITE 597.50 

OCI AMBER SCREEN M0NIT0R12' S1B9.95 

CABLE TO CONNECT MONITORS TD MODEL I COMPUTER $14.95 

C.O.D.'S S5.00 EXTRA. NO C.O.O.'S FOR MODEL III COMPUTERS OR PAR- 
CELS THAT CANNOT BE SHIPPED UNITED PARCEL SERVICE. ALL C.O.O.'S 
REQUIRE CASH OR CERTIFIED CHECK AT TIME OF COLLECTION, 

SIMITEK 

^64 Computer Products Inc. 

Hailio Shack a Tandy corp 4897 I. SPEEDWAY ILVO,, TUCSON. «Z 85712, (60Z| 323-9391 




10 CLS 

15 CLEAR 10130 

20 PRINTCHR$(23) 

30 PRIKT@4*64+20,''HATH COUNTDOWN!" 

35 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

40 PRINT"By Adam Wells " 

50 FOR X=0 TO 1000:NEXT 

60 CLS 

65 PRINTCHR$C23) 

70 INPUT"Do you need instructions";R$ 

75 CLS:PRINTCHB$(23) 

80 IF AS="YES"THEN 110 ELSE 90 

90 IF AS="NO" GOTO 255 

100 PRINT"I hope you said 'yes' or 'no' and not 'YES' or 'MO' I": 

GOTO 7 

105 CLS 

110 PRINT" INSTRUCTIONS!" 

115 PRINT" _*_*_*_*_*-*_" 

120 PBINT"I will give you a math" 

130 PRINT"problera.A spaceship will be" 

140 PRINT"in the background.lt will" 

150 PRINT''have a '10' by it. If you" 

160 PRINT"solve the problem right the '10'"; 

170 PRINT"will change to a '9'." 

180 PRINT''The '9' will change to an '8'" 

190 PRINT"and so on " 

200 PRINT"If you get all the way to '0'" 

210 PRINT"the spaceship will take off," 

220 INPUT"Now,do you understand" ;B$ 

230 IF B$="YES"THEN 255 

240 IF BS="NO"THEN 120 ELSE 250 

250 PRINT"What did you say7'':G0T0 220 

255 CLS:PRINTCHR${23) ; "Type in the number that correspon 
ds to the type ot problem that you'd like to practice, 

please. ":PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"1 => addition" iPRINT "2 => subtracti 
on":PRINT"3 => multiplication" :PRINT"4 => division" :PRIHT"5 => q 
uit 

256 GOSUB 270:INPUT "Now, what would you like to practice";Q 
:0N Q GOSUB 285,510,580,1000 

258 PRINT "Piease enter 1,2, 3, 4, or 5. " :FORQ=1TO500:NEXT:CLS:PRIN 

T CMR5(^3) :GOTO 255 

260 CLS 

27 SHS=CHRS{17 6)+STRING$(3,188)+CHRS(176)+CHRS{26)+STRING$(8,24 

)+CHR$(176) +CHRS(188) +STRING$ (3 ,131) +CHRS{191) +STRING$ (3 ,131) +CH 

R$(188)+CHR$(17 6)+CHR$(26}+STRING$(14,24)+CHR$(176)+CHR5(188)+ST 

RING5(2,191)+STRING$(4,188)+CHRS(191) 

280 SHS=SH$ +STRING$(4,188)+STRING$(2,191)+CHR$(188)+CHR?(176)+C 

HRS{26) +STRINGS{10,24) +STRING$ ( 3 ,191) 

282 RETURN 

285 CLS 

290 PRINTiai0*64+30,SHS; 

300 FOR I=1TO10 

305 PRINT@64*12+15,11-I; 

310 S=RND(4) :T=RND(5) :U=S+T 

320 PRINT@6*64+29,S"+"T'' = "; :INPUT X:1F X=U THEN NEXT:GOSUB 500!E 

ND 

330 PRINTia7*64+20, "SORRY, THAT'S INCORRECT. ": FORX=1TO500 :NEXT: PRI 

NT§6*64,STRING$(64,"'") !PRINT@7*64,STRING$(64," ") :GOTO 320 

3 40 RETURN 

500 CLS:FORI=10 TO STEP-1 :PRINT@I*64+30 ,SH$:F0RX=1 TO 10:NEXT: 

NEXT 

505 RETURN 

510 CLS 

520 PRINTiai0*64+30,SH$; 

530 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

540 PRINT@64*12+15,11-I; 

550 S=RND(10) :T=RND(S) :U=S-T 

560 PRINT@6*64+29,S"-"T"="; :INPUT X:IF X=U THEN PRINT@5*64+29 ,ST 

RINGS(20," ") ; :NEXT:GOSUB 500:END 

570 PRINT@7*64+20,"THAT IS WRONG. ":FOR X=l TO 500 sNEXT: PRINT@6*6 

4,STRING$(64," "}: PRINT@7*64 , STRINGS ( 64 , " "):GOTO 320 

580 CLS 

590 PRINT@10*64+30,SH$ 

600 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

610 PRINT@64*12+15,11-I 

620 S=RND(10) :T=RND(10) :U=S*T 

630 PRINTia6*64+29,S"X"T" = "!:INPUT X:IF X=U THEN PRINT@6*64+29 ,ST 

RING$(20," ") ;:NEXT:GOSUB 500:END 

640 PRINT@7*64+20,"THAT IS WRONG. ":FOR X=l TO 500 :NEXT:PRINT@6*6 

4,STRING$(64," ") !PRINT@7*64 , STRINGS (64 , " ") :GOTO 630 

650 U=RND(10) :T=RND(10) :S=T*U 

670 PRINT@6*64+29,S"/"T"=";:INPUT X:IF X=U THEN PRINT@6*64+29 ,ST 

RINGS(20," ");: NEXT: GOSUB 500:END 

680 PRINT@7*64+20,"THAT IS WRONG, ":FOR X=l TO 500 :NEXT:PRINT@6*6 

4,STRING$(64," " ) : PRINT@7*64 ,STRING$( 54 , " ") :GOTO 670 



Program Listing' 




If you use a Word 
Processor, you need 

QRAMMATlk 

Beyond Spelling Checking 

Grammatik can find over 15 
different kinds of common errors 
missed by simple spelling 
checkers alone, including 
punctuation and capitalization 
errors, overworked and wordy 
phrases, and many others. Use 
Grammatik with Aspen Software's 
spelling checker Proofreader, 
featuring the Random House 
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Read what the experts say: 

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"A surprisingly fast and easy tool for 
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processing in any way is encouraged 
to get this excellent program." 

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"A dynamic tool for comprehensive 
editing beyond spelling corrections." 

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"A worthy and useful addition to your 
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Stephen Kimmel, Creative Computing, 6/83 

Works with CP/M®, 
IBM-PC®, TRS-80® 

Grammatik $75.00 
Proofreader $50.00 

Order directly from Aspen 
Software, or see your local dealer. 
Specify your computer system 
configuration when ordering! 
Visa, Mastercard accepted. 



Random House is a registered trademark of Random 
House, Inc. Other registered trademarks: CP/M: Digital 
Research - TRS-80: Tandy Corp. - IBM IBM -- 
Proofreader, Grammatik Aspen Software Co 



Aspgn, S'QifliWaxf: Cio.. 

P.O. Box 339 Tijeras, NM 87059 

(505)281-1634 ^55 




t'See Lis! ot Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 163 



Aerocomp's 
Proven 
Best-By Test! 
The 



11 



• • 




Double Density Controller 

• Technical Superiority 

At last! A double density controller for Model i with HIGHER PROBABILITY OF data recovery than with any other 
DOUBLE DENSITY CONTROLLER ON THE MARKET TODAY! The "DDC" from Aerocomp. NO need to worry about the pro- 
blems that keep cropping up on existing products. AEROCOMP'S new analog design phase lock loop data separator 
has a wider capture window than the digital types currently on the market. This allows high resolution data center- 
ing. The finest resolution available with digital circuitry is 125 ns (nano seconds). The "DDC" analog circuit allows in- 
finately variable tuning. Attack and settling times are optimum for 5-1/4 inch diskettes. 
The units presently on the market use a write precompensation circuit that is very "sloppy. Board to board 
tolerance is extremely wide - in the order of + 100 ns. The "DDC" is accurate to within+ 20 ns. 
The bottom line is state of the art reliability! 

• Test Proven 

Tests were conducted on AEROCOIVIP'S "DDC ", Percom's "Doubler A"' and "Doubler ii"* and LNW's"LNDoubler"'* using 
a Radio Shack TRS80'** Model i, Level 2, 48 K with TRS80 Expansion interface and a Percom tfdioo " disk drive 
(Siemens Model 82). Diskette was Memorex 5401. The test diskette chosen was a well used piece of media to deter- 
mine performance under adverse conditions. The various double density adapters were installed sequentially in the 
expansion interface. 

The test consisted of formatting 40 tracks on the diskette and writing a 6DB6 data pattern on all tracks. The 6DB6 
pattern was chosen because it is recommended as a "worst case" test by manufacturers of drives and diskettes. An 
attempt was then made to read each sector on the disk once - no retrys. Operating system was Newdos/80, Version 
1.0, with Double Zap, version 2.0. Unreadable sectors were totalled and recorded. The test was run ten times with 
each double density controller and the data averaged. Test results are shown in the table. 



* Features 



• TEST RESULTS • 



TRS80 Mode! I owners who are ready for reliable double 
density operation will get (1) 80% more storage per 
diskette, (2) single and double density data separation 
with far fewer disk I/O errors, (3) single density com- 
patibility and (4) simple plug-in installation. Compatible 
with all existing double density software. 



• Value 

$139.95 for the BEST double density 
controller on the market. 

$1 79.95 for "DDC" complete with dosplus 3.3D 
$229.95 for "DDC" complete with ldos 



MFR & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT(avc) 


AEROCOMP "DDC" 





PERCOM "DOUBLER 11" 


18 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 


LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 



Note: test results available upon written request. All tests conducted prior to 8-25-81 

Aerocomp's 14 day monev back guarantee applies to hardware only. 

Specials will be prorated. Shipping S2.00 In Cont. us. See opposite page for details. 



Data Separators 

The advances that make the "DDC" great are incorporated in the new AEROCOIVIP Single Density Data Separator ("SDS") 
and Double Density Data separator ("DDS"). 



• Has your original manufac- 
turer left you holding the bag? 

If vou already own a Percom 'Doubler A", "Doubler ii " or LNW 
"LNDoubler", the aerocomp "DDS will make it right. Look at the test 
results: 



MFR. & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT 


WITHOUT "DDS" 


WITH "DDS" 


PERCOM "DOUBLER 11" 


18 


1 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 





LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 






Note: Same test procedures as "ddc". 
* Trademark of Percom Data Co. 
** Trademark of LNW 
*** Trademark of Tandy Corporation 



* "DOS" $49.95 

(Use 1791 chip from your DD Con- 
tnsller) 

'W ^L/^ with disk controller 

chip Included ^ /y.yS 

• Disk controller 

chip $34.95 

(Shipping $2.(M Cont US ■ see opposite 
page for details) 



Plugs directly into your existing 
Double Density Controller. 



Do you need a 
Single Density Data 
Separator? 

The internal data separator in the 
WD1771 chip (R/S Expansion interface) 
is NOT recommended by WD for 
reliable data transfer. Do vou have any 
of these problems; Lost data, tracks 
locked out, CRC errors, disk retry? YOU 

NEED ONE! 

* "SDS" $29.95 

(For Mod. I; shipping $2.00) 



See opposite 
pageim^l 



164 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




TRS80 



as low 



f X'H 




DISK DRIVES 

40 & 80 TRACK 

$199.« 



V.:«* 



NEW LOW PRICES 

Thanks to you our sales volume has 
allowed us to cut costs and we're pass- 
ing the savings along. We offer the best 
disk drive value in the market place. 
Reliability, features and cost tough to 
beat. We deliver... and we stand behind 
our products. AEROCOMP is the only 
manufacturer to offer FREE TRIALI Buy 
Aerocomp drives today. You deserve the 
best. 

BEST FEATURES 

* Fast 5 ms, track-track access time. 

* Operates single or double density, 

* "FLIPPY" feature for lower media cost 
(40-1 &8&1).. 

* Head load solenoid. 

* Disk ejector 

* Easy entry door. 

* NEW EXTERNAL DRIVE CABLE 

CONNECTION, [no longer ne<^L' [u .-n-cvr tnr 
(Livci io hoot up table) 



MODEL III 

DISK DRIVE 

SYSTEMS 



Disk Drive System Kirs for your AAodel III 
complete wirh 40 Troch Aerocomp Dish 
Drives (one or rwo), Disk Conrroller 
Doord, Power Supply Mounting Towers 
ond oil necessor/ cobles ond hordwore 



System Kit with One Drive $499 

System Kttwith Two Drives . . . $699 



Convert your cosserre based iVtodel 
to Disk Drives Today! 



J259.95 
S409.95 
S329.95 
S419.95 
S4i9,95 
S569.95 



ORDER TODAY! 

40-Track Drive 

'-Track Drive 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive, . 
80-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. , 
40-Track Dual-Head Drive 
SO-Track Dual-Head Drive 

AN dtjove liuvei, <*rf compielt wirh Mlver tf>closu'e DOwe' Mjpp'y 
jndeilemjl drive (Jble connexion I I 5 VAC SQIbOH/ / 10 VAC 
50/60 H/ =tv=ii'<(t)le or- ■.[lecirtl orilcr Add S15C0 

* 40-Track Bare Drive $199.95 

• 80-Track Bare Drive S359.95 

* 40Track "FLIPPY" Bare DriveS279.95 

• 80-Jrack "FLIPPY" Bare DriveS369.95 

• SPECIAL PACKAGES* 

STARTER A $299,95 

40-Track Drive, 2-drive cable. TRSDOS 
2 3 Disk 8. Manual, Freight & Ins. 

STARTER B S369.95 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive.cable, TRSDOS 
2.3 Disk & Manual, Freight & Ins. 

COMBO C 



S07900 



40-Track Drive, 2-drive cable, 
LDOS- Freights Ins, 

COMBO D S559.00 

80-Track "FUPPY" Drive, 2-drive cable, 
LDOS' FraghtS. Ins. 

COMBO E $63900 

Two 40-Track Drives, 2 -Drive 

cable, TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Mannual, 

Freight & Ins, 

COMBO F S989.00 

Two 80-Track "FLIPPY" Drives, 4-drive 
LDOS Ins 

COMBO G $889.00 

Two 40-Track Dual-Head Drives, cable, 
■smalLDOS Disk & Manual, Freight & 

Ins, 

COMBO H SI 289.00 

Two 80-Track Dual-Head Drives, cable, 
LDOS . Freight & INS. 

DOSPLUS 0.4 or NEVD05 / 80,2.0 
ovoiloble wirh or^y pod'iage or exrro cosr 

AddSS 00 per dnvp (or shipping g hjndliny |Coni USj 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Order your AEROCOMP Disk Drive and 
use it with your system for up to 14 
days. If you are not satisfied for ANY 
REASON [except misuse or improper 
handling), return it, packed in the 
original shipping container, for a full re- 
fund, (iharaware only Special packages wril be proiaied). 

We have complete confidence in our pro- 
ducts and we know you will be satisfied! 

ORDER TODAYrrr 



WARRANTY 

We offer you a 1 20 day unconditional 
warranty on parts and labor against any 
defect in materials and workmanship. In 
the event service, for any reason, 
becomes nescessary, our service depart- 
ment is fa.st, friendly and cooperative, 

100% TESTED 

AEROCOMP Disk Drives are completely 
assembled at the factory and ready to 
plug in when you receive them. Each 
drive IS 100% bench tested prior to ship- 
ment. We even enclose a copy of the 
test checklist, signed by the test techni- 
cian, with every drive. AEROCOMP 
MEANS RELIABILITY!! 

ORDER NOWl! 

To order by mail, specify Model 
Number(S) of Drive, cable, etc, {above], 
enclose check, money order, VISA or 
MASTERCHARGE card number and ex- 
piration date, or reguest CO.D. ship- 
ment, Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
Add S 5 ,00 per drive for shipping & handl- 
ing (Cont, US). Please allow 2 weeks for 
personal checks to clear our bank. No 
personal checks will be accepted on 
C,0,D. shipments-cash, money orders or 
certified checks only. You will receive a 
card showing the exact C,0,D, amount 
before your shipment arrives. Be sure to 
include your name and shipping address. 
You will be notified of the scheduled 
shipping date. Your bank credit card will 
NOT be charged until the day we ship,ll 

DRIVE CABLES 

2-DRIVE S24,95 

4-DRIVE, .. . S34.95 

WRITE AEROCOMP TODAY 
FOR MORE VALUES III 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 24 

FOR VrSA/MASTERCHARGE/C.O.D. ORDERS 

California diol (800) 852-7777, Operator 24. Alasko 
and Howoii dial (600) 824-7919, Operator 24, 
TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLY) 

For Applications ond Technical intormation call 
(214) 337-4346 or drop us o card. 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Dealers inqiries invited 

AERGCCfilP 

Redbird Airport, Bidg. 8 

P.O. Box 24829 

Dallas, TX 75224 "^'^ 

80 Micro, February 1983 • 165 



EDUCATION 



States and Capitals 



COLUMBUS 



by Dennis Weide 




Q 



uick — what's the capital of Ohio? If you 
guessed Cleveland, or Toledo, you'd better use 
this states program to refresh your memory. 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
32KRAM 
Extended Color Basic 



My kids needed to learn the names of 
the states and their capitals, so I wrote 
this program to help them. It runs on 
the Color Computer and requires 32K 
of RAM and Extended Color Basic. For 
those of you with only 16K of RAM, I 
have included a short program that 
draws the map and leaves enough 
memory free for you to write your own 
program. 



What Does It Do? 

Start by entering PCLEAR 8. This 
clears all the graphics memory avail- 
able. When you run the program a menu 
asks if you want to name the states or 
their capitals. After you enter your 
choice, the program draws a map of the 
continental United States on the screen. 
One state or one of the five Great Lakes 
is colored in and a dashed cursor ap- 



Program Listing 1. 32K Version 






10 ' STATES AND CAPITALS 


180 DIHC{1) :DIHD[1) 




20 ' 


190 DIHE(l) :DIHF[1) 




30 ' BY DENNIS H. WEIDE 


200 DIHGd) :DIMH(1) 




40 ' 


210 DIMI(l) :DIMJ(1) 




50 ' (C) 1982 


220 DIMK(l) :DIML(1) 




60 CLS 


230 DIMH(l) :DIMN(1) 




70 PHODE4,5:PCLS;PMODE4,l:PCLS 


240 DIMO(l) :DIMP{1) 




80 PRINT:PRINTSTRINGS(32,"%") ; 


250 DIMQ(l) :DIHR(1) 




90 PRINTTAB(6) "STATES AND CAPITALS" 


260 DIMS(l) :DIHT(1) 




100 PRINTTAB(14) "BY" :PRINTTAB{9) "DENNIS WEIDE" : PRINTTflB ( 11) " (0) 


270 DIMU(l) :DIMV{1) 




1982" 


280 DIMW(l) :DIMX(1) 




110 PRINTSTRINGS(32,"%") 


290 DIHY(l) :DIMZ(1) 




120 PRINTTAB{6) "1. NAME THE STATES" : PRINT 


300 DIMZZ(l) :DIMAA(1) 




130 PRINTTAB(6) "2. NAME THE CAPITALS" 


310 DIMSC$(53) 




140 H$="CORRECT" :JS="WRONG" 


320 FORY=1T053:READS$[Y) 


,S1{Y) ,S2{Y) 


150 DIHA{1) :DIMB(1) 


330 NEXTY 




160 DIHSS(53) :DIHS1(53) 






170 DIHS2(53) :DIHIC{53) 




ListiiJ); I cimlinui.", 



166 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Liili'ifi I cunliiiued 

340 FORY=lT053:READSC$(Y) :NEXTY 

350 ' DRAW LETTERS 

360 PM0DE4,1 

37 PCLS5:COLOR0,1:DRAW"BH12,104;U8R4D8U4L4" 

380 GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,A,G 

3 90 PCLS:DRAW"BMl2,104;UaR3D4L3R4D4L4" 
400 GET[12,96)-(16,104) ,B,G 

410 PCLS :DRAW"BM12, 104 ;U8R4D2BD4D2L4": GET (12, 96) -(15,104) ,C,G 

4 20 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R2F2D4G2L2":GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,D,G 
43 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;R4L4U4NR3U4R4":GET(12,96) -[16, 104) ,E,G 
4 40 PCLS:DRAW"BH12,104;U4NR3L14R4":GET{12,96) -(16,104) ,F,G 

4 50 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R4BD4NL2D4L4" :GET (12, 96) -(16,104) ,G,G 
460 PCLS;DRAW"BM12,104;U8D4R4U4D8" :GET(12, 96) -(16,104) ,H,G 
47 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;R4L2U8L2R4":GET(12,96) -(16,104) ,I,G 
4 80 PCLS:DRAVJ"BM12,104;U4D4R4U8" : GET (12, 96) -(16, 104) ,J,G 

4 90 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8BR4G4E2":LINE-(16,104) ,PSET: GET( 12 , 96) - 
(16,104) ,K,G 

50 PCLS:DRAW"BMl2,104;NR4Ue":GET(12,96) -(16,104) ,L,G 

510 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R2ND3R2D8" : GET (12, 96) -(16, 104) ,M,G 

520 PCLS:DRAW"BM12, 104, -08": LINE (12, 96) -(16,104) ,PSET: LINE- ( 16 , 96 

) ,PSET:GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,N,G 

530 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R4D8L4":GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,0,G 

540 PCLS:DRAW"BH12,104!L18R4D4L4":GET(12, 96) -(16,104) ,P,G 

550 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R4D8NH3L4":GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,Q,G 

560 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8R4D4L4F4":GET(12, 96) -(16,104) ,R,G 

57 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,10 4;NU1R4U4L4U4R4D1" : GET {12, 96) -(16,104) ,S,G 

5 80 PCLS:DRAW"BH12,104;BR2U8L2R4":GET(12,96) -(16,104) ,T,G 
5 90 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;U8BR4D8L4": GET (12, 96) -(16,104) ,U,G 
600 PCLS:DRAW"BM12,104;BU8D6F2E2U6":GET(12,96) -(16 jl04) ,V,G 
610 PCLS:DRAW"BMI2,104;U8BR4D8L2NU2L2":GET(12, 96) -(16,104) ,W,G 
620 PCLS:DRAW"BH12,104;U2E4U2BL4D2P4D2":GET[12,96) -(16,104) ,X,G 
63 PCLS :DRAW"BM12, 104 ;BU8D2F2ND4E2U2":GET( 12, 96) -(16,104) ,Y,G 
640 PCLS:LINE{12,96)-(16,96) ,PSET: LINE- ( 12 ,104) , PSET: LINE- ( 16 ,10 
4) ,PSET:GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,Z,G 

650 PCLS:GET(12,96)-(16,104) ,ZZ,G 

660 DRAW"BH12,10 4;R4" :GET (12, 96) -(16,104) ,AA,G 

670 PRINT:PRINT 

680 PRINTTAB(5) "ENTER ONE OF THE ABOVE"; 

690 WW-RND(9999) :GS$=INKEY$; IF GSS=" "THEN690 

700 GS=VAL(GS$) : CLS : IFGS<10RGS>2THENGS=1 

710 NQ=10 

7 20 PMODE4,1:PCLS5:SCREEN1,1;GOTOI090 

730 B$=B$+A$ 

7 40 RETURN 

750 Al-Al+8:A3=A3+8 

760 IFAS^"A"THENPUT(A1,A2) -[A3,A4) , A,PSET:GOTO7 3 

770 IFA$="B"THENPUT(A1,A2) -[A3,A4) ,B ,PSET:GOTO730 

780 IFA$-"C"THENPUT(Al,A2)-(A3,A4) ,C ,PSET;GOTO730 

790 IFA$="D"THENPUT(A1,A2) -{A3,A4) ,D,PSET: GOTO730 

800 IFA$="E"THENPUT(A1,A2) -(A3,A4) , E ,PSET: GOTO730 

810 IFA$="F"THENPUT[A1,A2) -(A3,A4) ,F ,PSET: GOTO730 

820 IFA$-"G"THENPUT(Al,A2)-(A3,A4) ,G,PSET: GOTO730 

830 IFA$-"H"THENPUT(A1,A2) -(A3,A4) ,H ,PSET: GOTO730 

840 IFAS-"I"THENPUT(Al,A2) ~(A3,A4) , I ,PSET: GOTO730 

l.isliiiy I i'onlhun'^ 



NRnE THE 5TnTE5 







BOX 1 



BOX 3 



BOX 2 



BOX ^ 



pears in box 1 (see Fig. 1). As you type 
your answer it appears in this box. 

Press enter after completing your an- 
swer and you will hear a short musical 
tune. Then box 2 tells you whether you 
are correct. If you are wrong, the cor- 
rect answer appears in box 3; otherwise, 
this box remains blank. Box 4 is used to 
display the complement of the correct 
answer. (If you are naming states, it dis- 
plays capitals, and vice versa.) 

After every 10 questions, the program 
displays your score and asks if you wish 
to answer 10 more questions. This will 
continue until you respond with " no " or 
name all the states or capitals. There are 
48 questions if you choose to name the 
capitals and 53 questions if you choose 
to name the states and Great Lakes. 

Here's How It Works 

To see how the program works, let's 
look at Program Listing 1 and Table 1 . 
Lines 1150 and 1160 choose which 
graphics pages are displayed on the 
screen. While one map is displayed on 
the screen, another is being drawn on 
the pages not displayed. After you have 
answered the question, the program 
switches graphics pages and the map ap- 
pears with another state colored in. 



Figure I 




TEACH YOUR 
CHILDREN 



SPANISH DRILL AND PRACTICE— An 18 program 

sel Ihat gives intensive drill and practice for the firsl 
or second year spanisti sludenl. The complele set 
consists ol verbs, vocabulary, grammar usage, and 
reading. It costs S49.95! 



ALPHA— Alphabet recognition lor pre-schoolers. 

ALPHA II— More alphabet exercises. 

SIGMA— Addition problems for grades 1-3. 

SIGMA-EX— Addition problems for the younger or 
slower learner. 

SIGMA-82— Addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division. Nine speed levels. 



Learning to Count Money— A three program system 
that leacfies how to count money. 



Available on cassette only lor TRS-80 Models I and I 
$6.95 each, two tor $12.00, four for $21.00. 
Learning to Count fvloney $19.95. 

Add $1.00 to total order lor first c/ass shipment 
^188 



^ ^ 



Mercer Systems. Inc. 

87 Scooler Lane 
Hicksville, N.Y. 11S01 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 167 



Lisliti^ I ronfim^eii 



IFA$="J"THENPUT(A1,A2) ~(A3,A4) , J ,PSET: GOTO730 
IFA$-"K"THENPUT(A1,A2)-{A3,A4) ,K ,PSET:GOTO730 
IFA$="L"THENPUT(A1,A2) -(A3,A4) ,L,PSET:GOTO730 
IFAS="H"THENPUT(A1,A2)-(A3,A4) ,M, PSET: GOTO7 30 
IFAS="N"THENPUT(Al,A2)-(A3,A4) ,N ,PSET: GOTO730 
IFAS="0"THENPUT(A1,A2) -(A3,A4) ,0, PSET: GOTO7 30 
IFA$="P"THENPUT{Al,A2)-(A3,A4) ,P ,PSET:GOTO730 
IFA$="Q"THENPUT(Al,A2) -(A3,A4) ,Q,PSET:GOTO7 30 
IFAS-"R"THENPUT[A1,A2) -{A3,A4) ,R,PSET:GOTO7 30 
IFA$="S"THENPUT(Al,A2) -(A3,A4) ,S ,PSET:GOTO730 
IFA$="T"THENPUT{A1,A2) -Ca3,A4) ,T,PSET:GOTO730 
1FA$="U"THENPUT(A1,A2)-CA3,A4) ,U ,PSET:GOTO730 
IFA$="V"THENPUT(Al,A2)-{A3,A4) , V,PSET:GOTO730 
IFA5='"W"THENPUT(A1,A2)-(A3,A4) ,W, PSET:GOTO730 
IFAS=''X"THENPUT(A1,A2)-(A3,A4) ,X,PSET:GOTO7 30 

IFAS="Y"THENPUT{Al,A2) -(A3,A4} , Y, PSET: GOTO7 30 

IFA$="Z"THENPUT(A1,A2)-(A3,A4) , Z ,PSET:GOTO730 

IFAS=". "THEN4690 

IFA$=" "THENPUT(Al,A2) -{A3,A4) , ZZ ,PSET;GOT073[ 

IFA$-CHRS(8)THEN107 

Al=Al-8:A3^A3-8 



850 

860 

870 

880 

890 

980 

910 

920 

930 

940 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 GOTO740 

1070 GOSUB4350:GOTO740 

BS-BS+A$:GOTO740 

' DRAW MAP 

NP=KP+1:N0=N0+1:IF NO>NQ THEN4230 

IFNP>53THEN4230 

IFGS-2ANDNP>48THrN4 23 

NR=NR+1 

IFV=1THEK1160 

PMODE 4,1:PCLS5:GOTO1170 

PHODE 4,5:PCLS5 
1170 A5="":B$="" 
1180 COLOR0,1 

1190 LINE{0, 0)-(255, 191) , PSET, B 
1200 LINE(135,142)-(135,192) ,PSET 

LINE(0,142)-(255,142) ,PSET 

LINE(0,166)-{2S5,166) ,PSET 

LINE (34, 4) -(42,16) ,PSET: DRAW"BM3 4 ,16 ;U12BR8D1 



1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 



121( 
1221 
123( 



Lines 1320-3780 each use a full state- 
ment to draw the map rather than a 
series of For... Next loops. This method 
draws the map faster since the program 
does not have to read data for the loops. 



Line Numbers Function 



10-50 

60-130 

140 

150-310 

320-340 

350-660 

670-710 

720 

750-1060 

1090-3780 

3790 

3800-3890 

3900 

4130^210 

4220 

4230-4330 

4410-4450 

4500-4580 

4700^720 



2BR4U12R8D8NL8 

Lining / coriii/iiies 



Program header 

Display program menu 

Define answer string (H$,J$) 

Dimension all arrays 

Read data statements 

Draw and save high-resolution graphics letters 

Select game (states or capitals) 

Display hi-res screen 

Display letter pressed on hi-res screen 

Drawmap of U.S.A. 

Clear keyboard buffer 

Choose state and screen, draw cursor 

Scan keyboard buffer for key pressed 

Data (name of states) 

Additional Paint command for Michigan 

End of round — try again? 

Data (name of capitals) 

Convert INKEYS to string for display 

Sound routines for right or wrong answer 



Table J. Line Description 



'^■^f 




Ifaide. 



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We think ttiis one is the best- 
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CASSETTE |16K] .... i2A.9S 
DISK 132KI . ..$29 95 



Outsmart the 
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CASSETTE (16K) . . . $24,95 
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Wave after wave ol alien attackers 
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We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseas add $3,00. California residents 
pleaseadd6%saleslax. We are always looking for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 



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80 Micro. February 1983 • 169 



l.iMiii)( I ionliniied 

D4BR4U12R4ND8R4D12BR4NR8U4NR4U8R8" 

1240 IFGS=2THEN1260 

1250 DRAW"BR7" 

126 DRAW"BR12R4ND12R4BR4D12U4R8NU8D4BR4KR8U4NR4U8R8" 

1270 IFGS=2THEN1310 

1280 DRAW"BR7" 

1290 DRRW"BRl2BD12R8U4L8U8R8BR4R4NDl2R4BR4NDl2R8DaNL8D4BR8U12NL4 

R4BR4NR8D8KR4D4R8BR4R8U4L8U8R8" 

1300 GOTO1320 

1310 DRAVJ"BR12R8ND2L8D12R8NU2BR4U12R8D8NL8D4BR4U12R8D8L8U8R8BR4R 

2NR2D12NL2R2BR8U12NL4R4BR4R8D12BL8U4NR8U8R8BR4D12R8BR4NU2R8U4L8U 

8R8D2" 

1320 LIKE(36,20)-(36,22) ,PSET 

1330 LINE-(34,22) ,PSET 

1340 LINE-(36,34) ,PSET 

1350 LINE-(36,41) ,PSET 

1360 LINE-(33,47) rPSET 

1370 LINE-(32,64) ,PSET 

1380 LINE-(35,75) ,PSET 

1390 DRAW"R2D2L2" 

1400 LINE-(41,89) ,PSET 

1410 LINE-(45,90) ,PSET * 

1420 LINE-(54,101) ,PSET 

1430 LINE-(54,103) ,PSET 

1440 LINE-(64,103) ,PSET 

1450 LINE-{77,107) ,PSET 

1460 LIKE-(87,107) ,PSET 

1470 DRAW"U1R5" 

1480 LINE-(97,112) ,PSET 

1490 LINE-(97,115) ,PSET 

1500 LINE-(103,117} ,PSET 

1510 LINE-(104,115) ,PSET 

1520 LINE-{109,116) ,PSET 

1530 LINE-(116,125) ,PSET 

1540 LINE-{124,128) ,PSET 

1550 LINE-(124,122) ,PSET 

1560 LINE-(126,118) ,PSET 

1570 LINE-(129,122) ,PSET 

1580 LINE-(130,115) ,PSET 



1590 


LINE- 


1600 


LINE- 


1610 


LINE- 


1620 


LIHE- 


1630 


LINE- 


1640 


LINE- 


1650 


LINE- 


1660 


LINE- 


1570 


LINE- 


1680 


LINE- 


1690 


LINE- 


1700 


LINE- 


1710 


LINE- 


17 20 


LINE- 


1730 


LINE- 


1740 


LINE- 


1750 


LINE- 


1760 


LIHE- 


1770 


LINE- 


1780 


LINE- 


17 90 


LINE- 


1800 


LINE- 


1810 


LINE- 


1820 


LINE- 


1830 


LINE- 


1840 


LINE- 


1850 


LINE- 


1860 


LINE- 


1870 


LINE- 


1880 


LINE- 


1890 


LINE- 


1900 


DRAW" 


1910 


LINE- 


1920 


DRAW" 


1930 


LINE- 


1940 


LINE- 


1950 


LINE- 


1960 


LINE- 


1970 


LINE- 



(139,115) ,PSET 
(141,117) ,PSET 
(148,117) ,PSET 
(145,113) ,PSET 
(156,112) ,PSET 
(160,114) ,PSET 
(163,112) ,PSET 
(167,118) ,PSET 
(167,121) ,PSET 
(171,127) ,PSET 
(171,129) ,PSET 
(173,131) ,PSET 
(178,129) ,PSET 
(178,121) ,PSET 
(177,116) ,PSET 
(172,107) ,PSET 
(175,102) ,PSET 
(178,101) ,PSET 
(179,98) ,PSET 
(191,85) ,PSET 
(189,75) ,PSET 
(193,77) ,PSET 
(194,75) ,PSET 
(194,72) ,PSET 
(197,72) ,PSET 
(200,65) ,PSET 
(198,64) ,PSET 
(199,61) ,PSET 
(197,59) ,PSET 
(207,56) ,PSET 
(212,53) ,PSET 
U2R2D1" 
(215,51) ,PSET 
U2L2U1L2U6" 
■(220,40) ,PSET 
(221,35) ,PSET 
(218,34) ,PSET 
(218,26) ,PSET 
(215,27) ,PSET 



Lisling I i-onlinu 



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ALLOW 2 WEEKS TO CLEAR). MASTER CARD AND 
I'ISA ADDJ<^„. NOC.O.D. NO NET TERMS 




VESP A COMPUTER OUTLET 

W ■■*#■ <#^ ]6727Patton. Detroit Ml 4a? I Q 



170 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lis ling 


conliniied 


2370 


LINE(76,60)-(105,60) ,PSET 


27 80 


LINE-(151,70) ,PSET 






23 80 


LINE(84,60}-(84,107) ,PSET 


2790 


LINE-(149,73) ,PSET 


1980 


LINE-(210,25) ,PSET 


23 90 


LINE(68,81)-(127,81) ,PSET 


2800 


LINE-(145,75) ,PSET 


1990 


LINE-(207,35) ,PSET 


2400 


LINEC105,60)-(105,81) ,PSET 


2810 


LINE-{143,78) ,PSET 


2000 


LINE-(204,36) ,PSET 


2410 


LIHE( 102, 81) -(102,104) ,PSET 


2820 


LINE(137,65)-{145,8i) ,PSET 


2010 


LINE-(192,36) ,PSET 


2420 


LINE-(92,104) ,PSET 


2830 


DRAW"D3L3U2L14" 


2020 


LINE-{181,43) ,PSET 


2430 


LIKE-(92,106) ,PSET 


2840 


LINE(142,84)-(137,97) ,PSET 


2030 


LINE-{178,43) ,PSET 


2440 


LINE(102,84)-(112,84) ,PSET 


2850 


DRAW"D1L6" 


2040 


LINE-(174,47) ,PSET 


2450 


LINE-(112,93) ,PSET 


2860 


LINE(137,97)-(139,100] ,PSET 


2050 


DRAW"R2D2L2" 


2460 


LINE-(119,96) ,PSET 


2870 


LINE-(138,103) ,PSET 


2060 


LINE-(163,54) ,PSET 


2470 


LINE-(131,96) ,PSET 


2880 


LINE-(140,108) ,PSET 


2070 


LINE-{168,43) ,PSET 


2480 


LIKE-(133,115) ,PSET 


2890 


LINE-(144,108) ,PSET 


2080 


DRAW"U3R2D2R2U2" 


2490 


DRAW"BH127 ,81;D2R2d14" 


2900 


LINE-(145,113) ,PSET 


2090 


LINE-(169,34) ,PSET 


2500 


LINE(119,20)-(119,26) ,PSET 


2910 


LINE(139,90)-C158,90) ,PSET 


2100 


LINE-(159,32) ,PSET 


2510 


LINE-(121,29) ,PSET 


2920 


LINE(149,90)-(148,112) ,PSET 


2110 


DRAW"U7L4U2" 


2520 


LINE-(118,37) ,PSET 


2930 


DRAW''R4U4R8" 


2120 


LIKE-(147,22) ,PSET 


2530 


LINE-{97,37) ,PSET 


2940 


LIKE-(158,90) ,PSET 


2130 


LINE-(142,25) ,PSET 


2540 


LINE{118,37)-(121,40) ,PSET 


2950 


DRAW"BM15 9,109;R9UlR4" 


2140 


LINE-(126,20) ,PSET 


2550 


LINE-(121,54) ,PSET 


2960 


LINE(173,104}-(168,93) ,PSET 


2150 


LINE-(36,20) ,PSET 


2560 


LINE-{118,53) ,PSET 


2970 


DRAW"D1L2" 


2160 


LINE{36,34)-(39,35) ,PSET 


2570 


LINE-(117,54) ,PSET 


2980 


LINE-(169,89) ,PSET 


2170 


DRAW"D2" 


2580 


LINE-{115,53) rPSET 


2990 


DRAW"R5D1R6" 


2180 


LINE-{48,36) ,PSET 


2590 


LINE-(97,53) ,PSET 


3000 


LINE(180,90)-(183,93) ,PSET 


2190 


LINE-(57,36} ,PSET 


2600 


LINE(121,53)-(123,56) ,PSET 


3010 


DRAW"BM14 4,83;R4U1R41" 


2200 


LrNE(57,20)-(57,44) ,PSET 


2610 


LINE-(122,62) ,PSET 


3020 


LINE(158,90)-{160,87) ,PSET 


2210 


LINE-{55,46) ,PSET 


2620 


LINE-{125,66) ,PSET 


3030 


LINE-(X63,87) ,PSET 


2220 


LINE-{58,47) ,PSET 


2630 


LINE-(127,69) ,PSET 


3040 


LINE-(168,82) ,PSET 


2230 


LINE-{58,53) ,PSET 


2640 


LINE-C127,81) ,PSET 


3050 


LINE{149,73)-(150,74) ,PSET 


2240 


LINE(32,54)-C75,54) ,PSET 


2650 


LINE(105,66)-(125,66) ,PSET 


3060 


LINE~(153,72) ,PSET 


2250 


LINE{49,54)-(49,72) ,PSET 


2660 


LINE(143,25)-(136,32) ,PSET 


3070 


LINE~(154,72) ,PSET 


2260 


LINE-(65,87) ,PSET 


2670 


DRAW"D2L2" 


3080 


LINE-(160,69) ,PSET 


2270 


LINE-(67,90) ,PSET 


26 80 


LINE-(134,40) ,PSET 


3090 


LINE-(160,54) ,PSET 


2280 


LINE-(64,93) ,PSET 


2690 


LINE-(137,51) ,PSET 


3100 


LINE(160,67)-(161,69) ,PSET 


2290 


LItIE-(64,103) ,PSET 


2700 


LINE-(148,51) ,PSET 


3110 


LINE-{162,68) ,PSET 


2300 


LINE[68,54)-(68,84) ,PSET 


2710 


DRAW"D1R2" 


3120 


LINE-{165,70) ,PSET 


2310 


DRAW"L3D3" 


2720 


LINEC121,48)-(135,48) ,PSET 


3130 


LINE-(170,78) ,PSET 


2320 


DRAW"BH62,20;D8R2D8" 


2730 


LINE(138,51)-(141,57) ,PSET 


3140 


LINE-{173,78) ,PSET 


2330 


LINE-(67,37) ,PSET 


27 40 


LINE-(137,65) ,PSET 


3150 


LINE-(174,74) ,PSET 


2340 


LINE-{69,44) ,PSET 


2750 


LINE-(124,65) ,PSET 


3160 


LINE-C177,73) ,PSET 


2350 


DRAWR7U2D2D16R21U40" 


2760 


LINE(149,51)-(150,53) ,PSET 






2360 


LINE(75,42)-(97,42) ,PSET 


2770 


LINE-{151,56) ,PSET 




Lisunn I continues 




AT LAST!!! A Micro-Design 
iVIodel III System Upgrade. 

rihE MicRO'DisiqN Model III upqRAde iNcludEs Micro DEsiqNs excEpiioNAl MDX-6 disk 

CONTROLLER bOARd/ ONE 40 TRACk doubLE dENSiiy Disk DRiVE, NECESSARY iNSTAlUliON CAbLES ANd 
IhARdWARE. C 



For Moiit ImIodmaiiun & [hll LiilhaiijIil 

CaU or WrIte 

MICRO-DESIGN 

6501 MANchACA RoAd 
Austin Texas, 78745 

Toll Fdee 

1-800-531-5002 




See our ads on pages 148 & 324 



^See Ust of Adveriise'S on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 171 



Listing 1 coiilinuecl 


3560 LIME-!164,70) ,PSET 
3570 DRAVJ"BH175,68;D4R5" 
3580 DRAW"BM175,51;D4R13" 




3170 LINE-(178,72) ,PSET 


3590 LIKE-(193,58) ,PSET 




3180 LINE-(181,71) ,PSET 


3500 DRAW"R4U9R2U12" 




3190 LINE-(187,72) ,PSET 


3610 LINE(I92,58)-(191,63) ,PSET 




3200 LINE-(189,77) ,PSET 


3620 LINE-(193,64) ,PSET 




3210 LINE(163,81)-(168,78) ,PSET 


3630 LINE-(191,68} ,PSET 




3220 LINE(135,31)-(140,30) ,PSET 


3640 LINE(197,51)-(209,51) ,PSET 




3230 LINE-(144,34) ,PSET 


3650 LINE-(210,54) ,PSET 




3240 LINE-(146,34) ,PSET 


3660 LItIE(205,51)-(205,57) ,PSET 




3250 LINE-(148,40) ,PSET 


3670 LINE(199, 46) -(207,47) ,PSET 


I 


3260 LINE-(151,38) ,PSET 


3680 LINE-(210,44) ,PSET 




3270 LINE-(149,44) ,PSET 


3690 LIKE(204, 36) -(205,39) ,PSET 




3280 LINE-(148,51) ,PSET 


3700 LIKE-(203,43) ,PSET 




3290 LINE(142,31)-{150,27) ,PSET 


3710 LINE-(203,47) ,PSET 




3300 LINE-(149,30) ,PSET 


3720 LINE(209,32)-(208,35) ,PSET 




3310 LINE-(152,31) ,PSET 


3730 LINE-(209,43) ,PSET 




3320 LINE-(156,29) ,PSET 


3740 LINE-(210,43) ,PSET 




3330 LINE-(159,33) ,PSET 


3750 LINEC202,60}-C209,58) ,PSET 




3340 LINE-(155,34) ,PSET 


3760 LINE-(210,60) ,PSET 




3350 LINE-{150,35) ,PSET 


3770 LINE-(206,61) ,PSET 




3360 LINE-(149,39) ,PSET 


3780 LINE-(ii02,60) ,PSET 




3370 LINE(159,33)-{155,37) ,PSET 


3790 POKE135,B 




3380 LINE-(153,43) ,PSET 


3800 IPNP>53THEN4230 




3390 LINE-(153,47) ,PSET 


3810 IFGS=2ANDNP>48THEN4230 




3400 LINE-(150,53) ,PSET 

3410 LINE(157,35)-(161,37) ,PSET 

3420 DRAW"D7R2U3" 

3430 LINE-{165,42) ,PSET 

3440 LINE-(166,47) ,PSET 

3450 LINE{150,54)-(169,54) ,PSET 

3460 LrNE-(i76,50) ,PSET 

3470 LINE-(176,47) ,PSET 

3480 LINE-(183,44) ,PSET 

3490 LINE-(184,42) ,PSET 

3500 LINE(172,52)-(172,68) ,PSET 

3510 LINE-(191,68) ,PSET 

3520 LINE-(194,69) ,PSET 

3530 LINE-(194,72) ,PSET 


3820 X=RND(53) :IFIC(X)=1THEN3820 

3830 IFGS-2ANDX>48THEN3820 

3840 IFX=35THENGOSUB4220 

385 IC {X) ^1: PAINT { Si (X) ,S2{X) ) ,0,0 

3860 IFV=0THENV=lELSEV-0 

3870 SCREENl,l 

3880 Al=8:A2=lb2:A3=12:A4=160 

3890 PUT{Al+8,A2)-(A3+8,A4) ,AA,PSET 

3900 WH=RND(9999) : A$=INKEYS : IFA5=" "THEN3900 




3910 IFA$=CHRS(13)THEN3940 

3920 GOSUB750 

3930 GOTO3890 

3940 TF-TF+1:PUT(A1+8,A2) -(A3+8,A4) ,Z2,PSET 


IFGS=2THEN4590 


3540 DRAW"BM189,68;D3R6" 






3550 LINE{172,64)-{169,67) ,PSET 




t.istiiiK 1 CKiilinucs 



TRS-80 

100% Radio Shack Equipment 

SAVE A BUNDLE 

Order Toll Free 1'800'874'1551 

FLA Residents 904-438-6507 collect 

EPSON OKIDATA CITOHetc. 



fWf^ SALES CO. 



704 W Michigan Ave; P.O. Box 8098 
Pensacola, FLA 32506 



'TRS-80 is a lodemark ol Tandy Corporalion. 



172 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Lisling I ai'innufiJ 

3950 IFS$(X) =BSTHEN4050 

3960 A1=135;A2^152:A3=139:A4=160 

3970 GOSUB4700 

3980 GOSUB4500 

3990 A1=8:A2=172:A3=12:A4=180 

4000 GOSUB4530 

4010 Al=135:A2=172:A3=139:A4=180 

4020 GOSUB4460 

4030 FORSA=1TO100:NEXTSA 

4040 GOTO1090 

4050 A1=135:A2=152:A3=139:A4=160 

4060 GOSUB4720 

4070 GOSUB4S60 

40 80 A1=135:A2=17 2:A3=13 9:A4=180;GOSOB4 460 

4090 F0RSA=1T05:NEXTSA 

4100 B$="":A$="" 

4110 TC=TC+1 

4120 GOTO1090 

4130 DATASOUTH CAROLIKA,176 , 98 ,GEORGIA, 164 , 100 ,FLORIDA,172 , 116 ,K 

ENTUCKY, 160, 7 6, TENNESSEE, 16 0,84, ALABAMA, 152, 100 

4140 DATAHISSISSIPPI, 144, 100, ARKANSAS, 13 2, 88, LOUISIANA, 13 6, 10 8,0 

KLAHOMA, 120, 88, TEXAS, 116, 10 8, MONTANA, 80, 3 2, IDAHO, 6 4, 4 4 

4150 DATAWYOHING, 88, 52, COLORADO, 92, 72, NEW MEXICO, 92 , 92 , ARIZONA,? 

5, 92, UTAH, 7 6, 7 2, NEVADA, 6 0,7 2, WASHINGTON, 4 8, 28 

416 DATAOREGON,48,44,CALIFORNIA,44,80,MAINE,212,32,MASSACHUSETT 

S, 20 4, 4 8, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 204 , 44 , VERMONT, 200 , 40 

4170 DATARHODE ISLAND, 208 , 52 , CONNECTICUT, 200 , 52 , NEW YORK, 188, 48, 

NEW JERSEY ,196,64, PENNSYLVAN I A , 184,64 

4180 DATAOHIO, 164, 6 0, INDIANA, 156, 60, ILLINOIS, 14 4, 6 0, MICHIGAN, 160 

,48, WISCONSIN, 140, 40 

4190 DATAMINNESOTA,128,3 6,IOWA,128,56,HISSOURI,132,7 2,NORTH DAKO 

TA, 108, 28, SOUTH DAKOTA,108 , 44 ,NEBRASKA, 108 , 60 

4200 DATAKANSAS, 108, 76, DELAWARE, 192, 70, MARYLAND, 134, 7 0, VIRGINIA, 

180, 76, WEST VIRGINIA, 172, 72, NORTH CAROLINA, 176 , 84 

4210 DATALAKE ONTARIO , 180 ,44 , LAKE SUPERIOR, 148 , 24 , LAKE MICHIGAN, 

152, 36, LAKE HURON, 164 ,36 , LAKE ERIE, 170, 52 

4220 PAINT(148,32) ,0,0:RETURN 

4230 FORX-1TO1000:NEXTX:PCLS5:CLS:PRINT:PRINTTAB(5) "YOUR TEST IS 

FINISHED" 
4240 PRINT:PRINTTAB(6) "TOTAL QUESTIONS =";TF 
4250 PRINT:PRINTTAB(7) "YOUR SCORE IS" INT( (TC/NR) *100) ; "% " 
4260 IFNP>53THEN4330 
4270 IFGS=2ANDNP>48THEN4330 
4280 PRINT:PRINTTAB(8) "TRY AGAIN{ Y/N) ?" ; 
4290 D5=INKEYS:IFD$=""THEN4290 
4300 IF D$="Y"THEN4310ELSE4330 
4310 NP=NP-1:NO=0:V=0:NQ=10 
4320 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : PM0DE4 , B : PCLS : G0T07 20 

4330 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTTAB(10) "GAME IS OVER. ": PRINT: PRINTTAB ( 8) "S 
EE YOU LATER! ! !" 

43 40 END 

4350 PUT(Al,A2)-(A3,A4) , Z Z ,PSET: Al=Al-8 : A3=A3-8 

4360 PUT(A1,A2) -(A3,A4) ,ZZ,PSET 

4370 IFB$=''"THENRETURN 

4380 L=LEN(BS)-1:C$=LEFTS{B$,L) :BS=C$ 

4390 A1=A1-8:A3=A3-8 

4400 B$=C$:RETURN 

4410 DATACOLUMBIA, ATLANTA, TALLAHASSEE, FRANKFORT, NASHVILLE, HONTGO 

MERY, JACKSON, LITTLE ROCK, BATON ROUGE, OKLAHOMA CITY, AUSTIN, HELENA 

, BOISE 

4420 DATACHEYENNE, DENVER, SANTA FE , PHOENIX , SALT LAKE CITY, CARSON 

CITY, OLYMPIA, SALEM, SACRAMENTO, AUGUSTA, BOSTON, CONCORD, MONTPELIER 

4 430 DATAPROVIDENCE , HARTFORD , ALBANY , TRENTON , HARRISBURG , COLUMBUS , 

INDIANAPOLIS, SPRINGFIELD, LANSING, MADISON, ST. PAUL,DES MOINES, JEF 

PERSON CITY 

4440 DATABISMARCK, PIERRE, LINCOLN, TOPEKA, DOVER, ANNAPOLIS, RICHMOND 

, CHARLESTON , RALEIGH 

4450 DATA" "," "," "," "," " 

4460 L=LEN(SCS{X) ) : FORT=lTOL : A$-MID$ {SC$ (X) ,T,1) :GOSUB750 

4470 NEXTT 

44 80 RETURN 
44 90 RETURN 

4500 L=LEN{JS) :F0RT=1T0L:AS=MID$( JS,T,1) ;GOSUB750 

4510 NEXTT 

4520 RETURN 

4530 L=LEN(SS!X)) : F0RT=1T0L: A5=MID$ ( SS (X) ,T,1) :GOSUB750 

4540 NEXTT 

4550 RETURN 

4560 L=LEN(HS) : F0RT=1T0L: A5=HID$ (HS ,T,1) :GOSUB750 

4570 NEXTT 

4 580 RETURN 

4590 IFSCS(X)=B$THEN4660 

4600 A1=135:A2=152:A3=139:A4=160 

4610 GOSUB4700 

4620 GOSUB4500 

4630 Al=8:A2=i72:A3=12:A4=180:GOSUB4460 

4640 A1=135:A2=172!A3=139:A4=180:GOSUB4530 

4650 GOTO4030 

l.i'tfirig I conlinuei 



^ 



a 



^ 







^See Lisi of Adi/ertisers on Page 387 



THE SOFT 
SOLUTION 

USE YOUR TRS-80 
WHILE IT PRINTS! 

Don't Spend 
Hundreds For A 
Buffer Box, Get 
Ihe Soft Solution: 

SPOOl IT Works 

Automatically with 
Almost Any TRS-80 
Program! 

SPOOlIT uses techni- 
ques similar to those 
used on large computers 
to allow you to print in 
the 'Background' while 
doing other tasks in the 
'Foreground.' 

SPOOlIT: Only $40 

ORDER NOW 

(212) 807-7033 

NEVIN$ MICROSYSTEMS INC. 

210 Fifth Ave. 
N,Y„ N.Y. 
10010 



80 Micro. February 1983 • 173 




SUPERVENTURE IS HERE! 

An incredible journey awaits you in — 

A NEW EXPERIENCE 
IN TEXT ADVENTURE! 

As BAZUL, the Royal Runner, you will 
journey through enchanted forests, hidden 
caves, dismal swamps, and magical lands. 
Your mission^ To recover 26 rare ingredi- 
ents tor a healing potion— the only cure for 
the deathly ill King Ritraf Can you save the 
Kingdom, or will it fall under the control of 
the Evil Jester? Machine Language, Save- 
a-Game Feature. Over 400 Word Vocab- 
ulary, Requires 1 disk drive and 32K. 
Available for Models I and III 



$29.95 




P, O. Box 502 

Florence, Alabama 35631 

(205) 766-0030 



TAX PLANNING 

PERSONAL FINANCE 

BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

for the 

Model III Computer 

TAX/BUDGET PLANNER— a valuable tool for 
personal budgeting and tax planning. The pro- 
gram calculates personal cash flow including 
federal income taxes. It can be used for such 
things as determining the liming for capital 
gains/losses, amount of income tax withhold- 
ings and more. Usmg the keyboard, the user 
fills in six spreadsheets displayed by the com- 
puter. The user can go back and change any 
amounts on the spreadsheets. The program 
includes the relevant parts of the 1981 Eco- 
nomic Recovery and 1 982 Fiscal Responsibility 
Acts, plus automatic calculation of; 

1 . tax liability per the tables or schedules, 

2. tax liability per the averaging 

method (uses lower of 1 or 2) 

3. capital loss and charity contribution 

carryforwards 

4. new minimum tax and self 

employment tax 
BUSINESS BOOKKEEPER— General journal, 
general ledger accounting system. Accounts 
are created by keying in the journal entries. 
Features automatic posting to the ledger. Auto- 
matic report generation includes: (1) Balance 
Sheet, (2) Income & Expense, (3) General Jour- 
nal and (4) Charl of Accounts. 
MONEY MANAGER— Personal bookkeeping 
system that allows the user to track and report 
on his income and expenses plus checking 
account, savings account and credit card bal- 
ances. Separate reports for business and 
personal income and expenses. 

TAX/BUDGET PLANNER $99 

BUSINESS BOOKKEEPER/MGNEYMANAGER $49 

(with purchase of TB PLANNER! $39 

aEMG{TSPUNNER& MONEY MANAGER) $ 7 

Capital Software 

1 627 Peach Ct. E. , Seattle, WA 981 1 2 



Lisniii: I conliniied 

4660 GOSUB4720:A1=135:A2=152:A3=139:A4=160:GOSUB4560 

467 Al=13 5:A2=17 2:ft3-13 9:A4=180:GOSUB4 53 

4680 GOTO4090 

4690 PUT(A1,A2)-(A3,A4) , ZZ ,PSET: Al-Al-l-2 : A3=A3-l-2 : PSET( Al ,A4) :PSET 

(Al,A4-l) :PSET(A1+1,A4) : PSET{ Al-hl ,A4-1) : Al=Al-4 ; A3-A3-4 : GOTO730 

47 00 PLAY"V30;T4;O2;L2;C;P255;L4;C;C;L2;C;L4;D#;L4;D;D;C;C;O1;B; 

02;L2;C;" 

4710 RETURN 

47 20 PLAY"T2;V3 0;L8;O3;C;O2;A;L4;F;A;O3;C;L2;F;L8;A;G;L4;F;O2;A; 

B;03;L4;C; ": RETURN 



Program Listing 2. I6K Version 



USA MAP 



BY DENNIS H. WEIDE 



(C) 1982 



CLS; PRINT; PRINT; INPUT" 1 .STATES 2 .CAPITALS" ;GS 
80 PHODE 4,1:PCLS5:SCREEN1,1:COLOR0,1 
90 LIME(0,0) -(255,191) ,PSET,B 
100 LINE{135,142)-[135,192) ,PSET 
110 LINE(0,142)-(255,142) ,PSET 
120 LINE(0,166)-(255,166) ,PSET 

13 LINE (34, 4) -(42,16) ,PSET: DRAW"BM3 4 ,16 ; U12BR8D12BR4U12R8D8NL8D 
4BR4U12R4ND8R4D12BR4NR8U4NR4U8R8" 
140 IFGS-2THEN160 
150 DRAW"BR7" 

160 DRAW"BR12R4NDl2R4BR4Dl2u4R8NU8D4BR4NR8U4NR4tl8R8" 
170 IFGS=2THEK210 
180 DRAW"BR7" 

190 DRAW"BR12BD12R8U4L8U8R8BR4R4ND12R4BR4ND12R8D8NL8D4BR8U12NL4R 
4BR4NR8D8NR4D4R8BR4R8U4L8U8R8" 
200 GOTO220 

210 DRAW"BR12R8ND2L8D12R8NU2BR4U12R8D8NL8D4BR4U12R8D8L8U8R8BR4R2 
NR2D12NL2R2BR8U12NL4R4BR4R8D12BL8U4NR8U8R8BR4D12R8BR4NU2R8U4L8U8 
R8D2" 

220 LINE(36,20)-(36,22) ,PSET 

230 DATA6, 3 4, 22, 3 6, 34, 36, 41, 33, 47, 3 2, 64, 35, 7 5 
240 GOSUB1020 
250 DRAW"R2D2L2" 

260 DATA7, 41, 89, 45, 90, 54, 101, 54, 103, 64, 103, 77, 107, 87, 107 
270 GOSUB1020 
280 DRAW"UlR5" 

290 DATA4 2,97 ,112,97,115,103,117,104,115,109,116,116,125,124,128 
,124,122,126,118,129,122,130,115,139,115,141,117,148,117 
3 00 DATAl 4 5, 113, 156, 112, 16 0,114, 163, 112, 167, 118, 16 7, 121, 17 1,127, 
171,129,173,131,17 8,129,178,121,177,116,172,107,175,102,17 8,101, 
17 9,98,191,85 ,189,75,193,77,194,75,194,72,197,72,200,65,198,6 4,1 
99,61,197,5 9,207,56,212,53 
310 GOSUB1020 
320 DRAW"U2R2D1" 
330 LINE-[215,51) ,PSET 
340 DRAW"U2L2U1L2U6" 

35 DATAl 2, 220, 40, 2 21, 3 5, 21 8, 3 4, 21 8, 26, 215, 27, 210, 25, 207, 35, 20 4, 
36,192,3 6,181,43,17 8,43,17 4,47 
360 GOSUB1020 
370 DRAW"R2d2l2" 

3 80 DATA2, 16 3, 5 4, 16 8, 43, 2, 16 9, 3 4, 15 9, 3 2, 4, 147, 22, 142, 25, 126, 20, 3 
6,20,36,34,39,35 
390 GOSUB1020 
40 DRAW"U3r2d2r2u2" 
410 GOSUB1020 
420 DRAW"U7L4U2" 
430 GOSUB1020 :GOSUB1090 
440 DRAW"D2" 

45 DATA2, 4 8, 36, 57, 36, 57, 20, 57, 44, 3, 55, 46, 58, 47, 5 8, 53 

46 GOSUB10 20:GOSUB10 90:GOSUB10 20 

470 DATA2, 32, 54, 75, 54, 49, 54, 49, 72, 4, 65, 87, 67, 90, 64, 93, 64, 103 

480 GOSUB1060:GOSUB1020 

490 DATA6 8, 5 4, 6 8, 84, 2, 67, 3 7, 6 9, 44, 6, 7 5, 4 2, 97, 42, 7 6, 6 0,105, 6 0,84, 

60,84,107,68,81,127,81,105,6 0,105,81,102,81,102,104 

500 GOSUB1090 

510 DRAWL3D3" 

520 DRAW"BM62,20;D8R2D8" 

530 GOSUB1020 

540 DRAW"R7U2D2D16R21U40" 

550 GOSUB1060 

56 DATA2, 92, 10 4, 92, 106, 10 2, 84, 112, 84, 4, 11 2, 93, 11 9, 96, 13 1,96, 133 
,115,119,20,119,26 

57 GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020 
580 DRAW"BM127,81;D2R2D14" 

Lisiini: 2 cvnii'iues 



174 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Computer Peripheral 
Resources 

5 'A" Disk Drive Power Supplies 



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■See List of Advertisers on 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 175 



Most microprocessors don't generate 
truly random numbers, and the Color 
Computer is no exception. At first, the 
program would always select the states 
in the same order. I found a very simple 
solution— human delay. I added the 
statement WW = RND(9999) to lines 
690 and 3900. Each time the program 
scans the keyboard buffer for a key 
pressed, it must first generate a random 
number. If no key is pressed, then the 
line statement repeats. Since it is almost 
impossible for a person to respond with 
microsecond accuracy, the program ex- 
ecutes these lines a different number of 
times on each pass. 

Hints 

The program must convert the keys 
pressed into graphics characters to be 
displayed on the hi -res screen. There- 
fore, use a moderate typing speed. If 
you make an error, just backspace to 
the incorrect character using the left ar- 
row and retype from there. 

The program will only recognize the 
letters A-Z, space bar, left arrow (for 
backspacing), break, enter, and period. 

You must spell out names of the 
states completely (use North Carolina, 
not N. Carolina). Abbreviate Saint (use 
St. not Saint). 

A 16K Version 

The short program in Listing 2 (and 
Table 2) allows you to choose the game 
you wish to play and then draws the 
map for you. By using a lower graphics 
mode, you can save a lot of memory. 
(Table 3 shows the modes and how 
much memory each uses.) By leaving 
out the sound and graphics text, you 
should be able to write a workable pro- 
gram using this map. The map will be 
drawn much slower because the pro- 
gram must read data statements for 
each line statement, but you can prob- 
ably live with that. ■ 

Dennis Weide can be reached at 
14201 Marquette NE, Albuquerque, 

NM 87123. 



Command FMODE 

PCLEARl 0,1 



PCLEAR2 
PCLEAR4 



2,1 
4,1 



Free Memory 

9067 
7531 
4459 



Note; PMODE 4, 1 works best. FMODE 2, 1 is 
very good and PMODE 0,1 is acceptable. 

Table 3. PMODEs 



/.nlma 2 continued 

590 GOSUB1090 

600 DATA3, 121, 2 9, 118, 37, 97, 37, 11 8, 37, 121, 40, 5, 121, 5 4, 118, 53, 117, 

54,115,53,97,53,121,53,123,56,4,122,62,125,66,127,69,127,81 

610 GOSUB1020:GOSUB10 90:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090:GOSUB10 20 

620 DATA2, 10 5, 6 6, 12 5, 6 6, 143, 2 5, 136, 3 2, 3, 134, 4 0,137, 51, 14 8, 51, 2,1 

21,48,135,4 8,13 8,51,141,57,2,137,65,124,6 5,14 9,51,150,53 

630 GOSUB1060 

640 DRAW"D2]:,2" 

650 GOSUB1020 

660 DRAW"D1R2" 

67 GOSUB106 0:GOSUB1020:GOSUB10 90 

6 80 DATA5, 151, 56, 151, 7 0,14 9, 7 3, 145, 7 5, 143, 7 8, 137, 65, 145, 81, 142, 8 

4,137,97,137,97,139,10 0,4,13 8,103,140,10 8,14 4,108,145,113,2,139, 

90,16 8,90,149,90,148,112,15 8,90 

690 GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090 

700 DRAW"D3L3U2L14" 

710 GOSUB1090 

720 DRAW"D1L6" 

730 GOSUB10 90:GOSUB10 20:GOSUB1060 

740 DRAW"R4U4R8" 

750 GOSUB1050 

760 DRAW"BM159,109;R9UlR4" 

770 DATA17 3, 10 4, 16 8, 93, 169, 89, 180, 90, 183, 93, 15 8, 90, 160, 87, 2, 163, 

87,168,82,149,73,150,74,4,153,72,154,72,160,69,160,54,160,67,161 

,69,10,162,6 8,165,70,170,7 8,173,7 8,174,74,177,73,178,72,181,71,1 

87,72,189,77 

780 GOSUB1090 

790 DRAW"D1L2" 

800 GOSUB1050 

810 DRAW"R5D1R6" 

820 GOSUB1090 

830 DRAW"BM144,83;R4U1R41" 

840 GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020:GOEUB1090 

85 GOSUB10 20:GOSUB1090:GOSUB10 20 

860 DATA2, 163, 81, 168, 78, 136, 31, 140, 30, 6, 144, 34, 146, 34, 148, 40, 151 

,38,14 9,44,148,51,142,31,150,27,7,14 9,30,152,31,156,29,159,33,15 

5,34,150,35,149,3 9,159,33,155,37,3,153,43,153,47,150,53,157,35,1 

61,37 

87 GOSUB106 0:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090 

880 GOSUB10 20:GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090 

890 DRAW"D7R2U3" 

90 DATA2, 16 5, 4 2, 166, 47, 150, 54, 16 9, 54, 4, 176, 50, 17 6, 47, 183, 4 4, 184 

,42,17 2,52,172,68,3,191,6 8,194,6 9,194,72,172,6 4,16 9,67,16 4,70,19 

3,5 8,192,58,191,63,2,193,6 4,191,6 8,197,51,2 9,51,210,54 

910 GOSUB10 20;GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020 

920 DRAW"BM189,68;D3R6" 

930 GOSUB1090:GOSUB1050 

940 DRAW"BM175,68;D4R5" 

950 DRAW"BH175,51;D4R13" 

960 GOSUB1050 

970 DRAW"R4U9R2U12" 

9 80 GOSUB1090:GOSUBI020:GOSUB1090:GOSUBi050:GOSUB1060:GOSUB1050 

990 DATA2, 205, 51, 20 5, 57, 199, 46, 207, 47, 21 0,44, 204, 36, 20 5, 3 9, 2, 2 03 

,43,203,47,209,32,208,35,2,209,43,210,43,202,60,209,58,3,210,60, 

206,61,202,60 

1000 GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020:GOSUB1090:GOSUB1020 

1010 GOTO1010 

1020 READA 

1030 F0RX=1T0 A:READB,C 

1040 LINE-(B,C) ,PSET:NEXTX:RETURN 

1050 READA, B:LINE-(A,B) ,PSET:RETURN 

1060 READA 

1070 F0RX=1T0 A:READB,C,D,E 

1080 LINE[B,C) -(D,E) ,PSET:NEXTX:RETURN 

1090 READA, B, C, D:LINE(A, B) -(C,D) ,PSET:RETURN 



Line Numbers 


Function 


70 


Chooses whether you name states or capitals 


80 


Selects hi-res graphics mode 


90-130 


Draws screen border and boxes 


140 


Selects screen title 


150-220 


Completes title on screen 


230-1000 


Draws map of U.S.A. 


1010 


Keeps map on screen-delete when using map in program 


1020-1040 


Subroutine for LINE(x,y) (multiple statements) 


1050 


Subroutine for LINE{x,y) (single statements) 


1060-1080 


Subroutine for LINE(a,b)-(c,d) (multiple statements) 


1090 


Subroutine for LINE(a,b)-(c,d) (single statements) 




Table 2. Map Line Description 



176 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



THE COLORQUEST EXPERIENCE 

For the TRS-80C and the TDP System 100 Color Computers 

Written by Kevin HerriMldl « Tim Nelson 




■iVBrf"yftpVr™v*T(»VA 






BEYOND THE CIMEEON MOON Areal-timesciencefictionadventuregameofmind-blowing magnitude — staged in deep space on a 
malign, sentient spacecraft. Written in fast machine code with S-dimansional high-res graphics and sound. Choose from a myriad of fate*. Survive 
the laser barrage set up by a guantlet of robots bent towards your destruction. 




WriHen by Kevin Herrboldt A Tim Nelson 






.-_ V 



T3 ...xi^fej 



ADVENTURE TRILOGY a Trilogy of quests featuring 3-D high-ras graphics in machine code. First comes ritual combat on the WORLD 
UNDER THE CIMEEON IMOON, to test your worthiness as a warrior. Once proven, you will be teleported to DAZMAR'S UNDERWORLD OF DOOM to 
search for the Eye of Dazmar. Tfie FORSAKEN GULCH Is the final arena, where a wicked idol awaits restoration. 



^p^^^^'^V^W//^'^ 




^ 




THE NIBBLER & MS. NIBBLER a fast maze chase game featuring the nlbbler man and three bumbling preditors.Wrf((en/nmac/)/ne 
code and joystick compatible, this tun packed game is enjoyed by all. MS. NIBBLER is similar to THE NIBBLER described above but features a 
different maze and MS. NISBLER for the ladies. 









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COMBAT GAMEPACK 3 action packed games featuring lifelike graphics and sound. EXTENDED BASIC required 2-1-0 TANK COMBAT 
pits two players against each other in 5 different terrains. STELLAR BATTLE lets you pilot a f lexwing fighter through deep space fighting dorian 
squadrons. GALACTIC BLOCKADE is a favorite two-player arcade game of speed and skill. ... ^ 



ORDERING 
ALL GAMES ARE $24.95 for 16K Cassette; $29.95 for 32K Disk. 

Include S3.00 for shipping in the U.S. & Canada, $6.00 for Foreign orders. C.O.D. add $2.00 

AVAILABLE AT DEALERS EVERYWHERE. IF NOT, ASK WHY! 



VEGAS GAMEPACK The thnils of a Las 
Vegas casino at home! Extended BASIC required^ 
CASINO CRAPS, 21, ONE ARMED BANDIT, UP 
AND DOWN THE RIVER, & KENO. A bank tracks 
players winnings from game to game. 



NELSON^ 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 



■ 


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dUMKCNHHIl V0t*. 



9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 



A Division of Soltlaw Corporation Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U.S.A. 



EDUCATION 



Spelling Challenger 



by Larry Krengel 



u 



r 



se these three word games — Scrambler, Three 
Strikes, and Synonyms — to help your children 
memorize their spelling words each week. 



You'd think that a spelling test would 
be easy to prepare for. After all, the stu- 



dent only has to memorize a list and re- 
peat it on command. 



Program Listing 



100 REM ***************************** 
110 REM * * 

* SPELLING CHALLENGER * 

* 3/82 * 

* BY LARRY KRENGEL * 



TRS-80 MODEL I LEVEL II 



120 REM 

130 REM 

140 REM 

15 REM 

160 REM 

170 REM * * 

180 REM ***************************** 

400 CLEAR10000 

500 DIM W$(25) ,S${25) ,C(25) ,WC(25) 

520 FORX=1TO10:READWS(X) :NEXT:FORX=1TO10:READ S$(X):NEXT 

530 DATA FURNISH, TIMBER, SUPPORT, COUNCIL, PORTABLE, FEVER, OB JECT,AU 

TOMATIC, COMMAND, VARIOUS 

540 DATA TO PROVIDE, LUMBER OR TREES, TO HOLD UP, A GROUP OF DELEGA 

TES, MOVABLE, HIGH BODY TEMPERATURE, TO OPPOSE , SELF-WORKING , TELL WH 

AT TO DCDIFFERENT KINDS 

550 N=10 

590 ON ERROR GOTO6500 

600 CLS: PRINTTAB{12) ">>>> SPELLING CHALLENGER <<<<": PRINT: PRINT 



610 


PRINT"1- enter/chanq 


e words" 


620 


PRINT"2- missing letter" 


630 


PRINT" 3- synonyms" 




640 


PRINT"4- 3 strikes" 




650 


PRINT"5- scramble" 




660 


PRINT"6- @FREEZE" 




665 


PRINT"?- save words 


on tape" 


667 


PRINT"8- read words 


from tape 


670 


A$="":A$=INKEY$ 




680 


IFA$="1"GOTO1000 




690 


IFA$="2"GOTO2000 




700 


IFAS="3"GOTO3000 




710 


IFA$="4"GOTO4000 




720 


IFA5="5"GOTO5000 




730 


IFA$="6"GOTO6000 




735 


IFA$="7"GOTO7000 




737 


IFA$="8"GOTO8000 





Listing continues 



But it isn't as easy as it sounds. So 
when the teacher assigned my daughters 
20 words a week for the entire school 
year, I wrote a program to make study- 
ing more enticing — enticing enough, I 
hoped, to beget good grades. 

Spelling Challenger is actually three 
programs. The first scrambles a series 
of words and then presents them ran- 
domly. The child can either play it on 
the screen or from a printout. 

The second, called Three Strikes, pre- 
sents a word in which the letters have 
been replaced by asterisks. The task is 
to guess the letters. Three wrong guesses 
and you're out. 

The third is a synonym quiz. You en- 
ter a list of synonyms along with the 
original spelling list. The child's job is to 
match the properly spelled word with its 
synonym. 

I developed Spelling Challenger to 
take advantage of my Exatron Stringy- 
Floppy's ©FREEZE option. Later, I 
added the option of storing data on 
tape. You can use the original (and 
shorter) ESF version by deleting lines 
665, 667, 735, 737, and 7000-8080. If 
you're using a Model I with disks, add 
10CMD"T".H 

Larry Krengel can be reached at P. O. 
Box 94, Elmhurst, IL 60126. 



The Key Box 

Model I or lU 

16K RAM, 48K RAM 

Cassette or Disk Basic 

Printer (optional) 

Exatron Stringy-Floppy (optional) 



178 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Listing continued 

lie GOTO670 

1000 REM ### enter/correct words ### 

1010 FORX=lT025 

1020 CLS:IFW$(X)=""GOTO1090 

1030 IFW$(X) <>""PRINT"ThG #";X!"word is " ;W$ (X) ; ". "ELSE GOTO1090 

1040 INPUT"Enter change if you wish. ";W$(X) 

1050 PRINT:IFS$(X) <>""PRINT"A synonym for ";WS(X);" is ";SS(X);" 

."ELSEIKPUT"Enter synonym - " ;S${X) :GOTO1070 

1060 INPUT"EntGt new synonym if you wish - ";S$(X) 

1080 GOTO1110 

1090 PRINT"Enter word ";X;" (''=iiienu) - " ; : INPUTW$(X) : IFW${X) ="" 

GOTO1120 

1100 INPUT"Enter synonym - ";S$(X) 

1110 NEXTX 

1120 N=0:FORX=1TO25:IFWS(X) <>" ''N=N+1 :NEXT 

1130 GOTO600 

2000 REM ### missing letter ### 

2010 CLS:RANDOM 

2020 W=RND(25) : IFWS (W) =""GOTO2020 

2030 L=LEN(W$(W) } 

2040 K=RND(L) 

2050 F0RX=1T0L 

2060 1FX=KPRIKT"C-) ";:GOTO2080 

2070 PRINTM1D$(W${W) ,X,1) ; 

2080 NEXTX 

2090 PRINT:PRINT"GntGr missing letter -"; 

2100 A$=''":A$=INKEYS 

2110 IF(A$<>MIDS(W$(W) ,K,1)}AND(A$<>"")PRINT"B00 !!! NO...";FORX 

=1TO1000:NEXT:CLS:GOTO2050 

2120 IFAg=HID$(W$(W) ,K,1}PRINT"VERY GOOD ! ! ! " : FORX=lTOl000 : NEXT: 

GOTO2140 

2130 GOTO2100 

2140 PRINT:PRINT"Do you wish another missing letter? y/n"; 

2150 A$="":A$=INKEY$ 

2160 IF(A$="n"}OR{A$="N")GOTO600 

2170 lF(A$="y"}OR(AS="Y")GOTO2010 

2180 GOTO2150 

3000 REM ### synonym ### 

3010 CLS:RANDOM 

3020 RANDOM:X=RND(K) :T=0 

3030 PRINTTAB(10} "Synonym spelling practice" 

3040 PRINT:PRINT"WritG the spelling word that means - ";SS(X) 

3050 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 10) ">>>"; :INPUTG$ 

3060 IFG$=W?(X)PRINT"That is cor tect. . . " :GOTO3100 

3070 IFT=2:CLS:PRINT:PRINT"The correct answer is " ;W$(X) ; ". " :GOT 

03100 

3080 PRINT:PRINT"No... Try again. " :T=T+1:GOTO3050 

3100 PRINT:PRINT"do you want another synonym?" 

3110 A$="":A$=INKEY5 

3120 IF(AS="y")ORCA'S="Y")GOTO3010 

3130 IF(AS=''n'')OR(AS="N")GOTO600 ■ 

3140 GOTO3110 

4000 REM ### three strikes ### 

4010 CLS: RANDOM :X=RND(N} 

4020 L=LEN(W${X)) :GC=0:C=1 = T5=W$(X) Listin, continues 



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»O9-41»-!309 



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Grand Opening Sale 
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26-3001 Color Comp. 4K Uv. I 299.00 

26-3002 Color Comp, 16K Lev, II ext. 429.00 

26-3003 Color Comp, 32K Lev, II ext. 590.00 

26-3022 G-Dnve for C.C. 520.00 

26-3023 1-3 Drives for C.C. 340.00 

26-5000 Videotext 4K 320.00 

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Comet Printer 




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^ 138 



Additional ^vxr\gs in wjiume 
{ill) ^I'^-i'Sm 



*^See List oi Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 179 



POWER LINE 
PROBLEMS? 




SPIKE-SPIKER® ...THESOlUTKm 



Protects, organizes, controls computers & 
sensitive electronic equipment. Helps prevent 
software "glitches", unexpbined memory loss, 
and equipment damage. Filter models attenuate 
conducted RF interference. 120V, ISAmps. 
Other models available. Ask for free literature. 




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Listing continued 

4030 PRINTTABC20) "*** 1-2-3 STRIKES ***" 

4040 S={48fl-L} :FORY=STO(S+2*L)-1STEP2:PRINT@Y,"*":HEXT 

4050 PRINT@602,L;" letters" 

4060 PRINT@716,"make a guess - ":A=735 

4070 G$="":G$=INKEY$:IFGS=""GOTO4070 

4080 PRINT@A,GS:T=0 

4090 F0RY=1T0L:IFGS=MID$(T$,Y,1) PRINT© (S+2*(y-l}) ,GS: T=l : C=C+1 : T 

$=LEFT$(T$,Y-l)+"!"+RIGHTS{TS,L-y) 

4100 NEXT 

4110 IFT=0 :GC=GC+1 : PRINT@923 , "STRIKE" ;GC 

4120 IFGC=3:PRINTia832,"YOU LOSE!!! The word was " ;W$(X} :GOT0415 



4130 IFC=L+l:PRINT@832,"YOU WIKM ! " :GOTO4150 

4140 A=A+2:PRINT@A+1," ";:GOTO4070 

4150 PRINT"do you wish another word?" 

4160 A$="":A$=INKEYS 

4170 IF{A$="y"}OR(A$="y")GOTO4010 

4180 IF(A$="n")OR(AS="N")GOTO600 

4190 GOTO4160 



### 



5000 REM ### scramble 

5010 CLS:RANDOM 

5020 PRINT"i3o you wish the scrambled words on a printer?" 

5030 A$="":A$=INKEY$ 

5040 IF(AS="y")OR(A$="Y")LP=l:GOTO5070 

5050 IF(A$="n")OR(A$="N"}LP=0:GOTO5070 

5060 GOTO5030 

5070 IFLP=l:INPUT"Enter when the printer is ready. " ;WS:LPRINTCHR 

$(14)TAB(4) "** SCRAMBLED SPELLING WORDS **"CHRS{10) 

5 080 CLS:FORX=1TON:C(X)=0:NEXT:C(0) =1 

5090 F0RNS=1T0N 

5100 RANDOM: X=RND(N) : IFC (X) =1GOTO5100 

5110 C(X)=1 

5120 L=LEN(WSCX) ) :SW$="" 

5130 FORY=1TOL:WC(Y)=0:NEXT 

5140 Y-^RND{L} tIFWC(y)=lGOTO5140 

5150 WC(Y)=1 

5160 SW$=SW$+MID$(W$(X) ,Y,1) 

5170 IFLEN(SWS) <>LEN(W5(X) )GOTO5140 

5180 IFLP=1LPRINTTAB(15)NS;SW$;TAB(35)STRING$(15,".")CHR$(10) : GO 

TO5320 

5190 CLS:T=1:PRINTTAB(20} "SCRAMBLE":PRINTTAB(15) "enter 'G' if yo 

u give up" 

5200 PRINT:PRINTT,SW$ 

5210 A$="":PRINT:INPUT"enter unscrambled word - ";AS 

5220 IF(A5="G")0R{A$="g") : CLS : F0RF=1T06 : PRINT@725 ,WS (X) :PRINT@72 

5,STRING$(20," ") :FORE=1TO50:NEXTE:NEXTF:PRINT@725,W$(X} :GOT0527 



5230 IFAS<>W$(X) :T=T+1 

5240 IFT=4A$="g":GOTO5220 

5250 IFA$=W$(X)PRINT:PRINT"good job!! 1 " :GOTO5270 

5260 GOTO5200 

5270 PRINT: PRINT"Want to try another?" 

5280 AS="":AS=INKEYS 

5290 IF{A$="Y")OR(A$=' 



5300 
5310 



IF(A$="n' 
GOTO5280 



'y")GOTO5320 
iOR(A$="N")GOTO600 



532 NEXTNS 

5330 CLS: INPUT"you have completed the entire list of words.. .";W 

$:GOTO600 

6000 REM ### ^FREEZE ### 

6010 CLS 

6020 INPUT"Has the llFREEZE program been loaded?" ;A$ 

6030 IF{LEFTS(A$,1} <>"y") AND(LEFT$ (A$ ,1) <>"Y") :GOTO600 

6040 INPDT"enter file number when wafer is ready. ..";F 

6050 @FREEZEF 

6060 GOTO600 

6500 PRiNT"an error has been encountered - has ©FREEZE really be 

en loaded?":INPUTW$:GOTO600 

7000 REM ### SAVE ON TAPE ### 

7010 CLS:W$="" 

7020 INPUT"ENTER WHEN TAPE IS READY (E=ESCAPE) " ;W$ 

7030 IFW$="E"GOTO600 

7040 FORX-1T025 

7050 PRIKT#-1,W$(X) ,S?(X) 

7060 IFW$(X+1) =""PRINT#-l,"XX"r"XX":GOTO600 

7070 NEXT 

7080 GOTO600 

8000 REM ### READ FROM TAPE ### 

CLS:W$="" 

INPUT"ENTER WHEN TAPE IS READY ( £=ESCAPE) " ;W$ 

IFW$="E"GOTO600 

F0RX=1T025 

INPUT#-1,W$(X} ,SS{X) 

IFW$(X)="XX"WS(X)="":S$CX)="":GOTO600 



8010 
8020 
8030 
8040 
8050 
8060 
8070 NEXT 



180 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



iFoiwiiar^ ooTT 




TO ""J"» 



ADLC TO con\/ian 



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80 Micro, February 1983 • 181 



-a 
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DAY 

WARRANTY 




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MODEL III with 48K, dual 40 track double density disk drives, complete systems with TRSDOS and ONE BOX 
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PLUG IT IN AND GQ.^: .... $2,049.00 

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111 Marshall St., Litchfield, MI 49252 
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Radio Shack Authorized Dealership at: 
111 Marshall Street, LitchfleWrMlchigan 49252 #P142 

To Order: Call (313) 426-5086 or (313^ 482-4424 or (517) 542-3280 or write DISPLAYED VIDEO, 

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•TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corporation Prices subject to change without notice 






EDUCATION 



LOAD 80 



Math Fun 



by David Haan 



Y 



our children will have so much fun playing 
with your micro that they won't even notice 
they're learning addition and subtraction. 



My 5-year old is very interested in 
simple arithmetic, and even more inter- 
ested in my TRS-80. It seemed only rea- 
sonable to satisfy both his interests by 
letting him learn arithmetic on the 
computer. 

The Basic and Assembly programs in 
Listings 1 and 2 form an exercise drill 
my son can use on his own (after I load 
it). The Basic program generates the 
random problems, sets limits of diffi- 
culty, checks answers, and keeps score. 
The Assembly- language program dis- 



plays problems in large block letters, 
produces graphics displays, and plays 
sound routines. 

Although I wrote these programs to 
run on a Model III disk system with 48K 
RAM, I've included a version that runs 
on a 16K Model 111 tape system. 

The Assembly-Language Program 

The Assembly-language routine is 
made up of five USR functions and a 
data base. 

The first USR function, USRO, fills a 



3 IXE3=1 13 

RIDHT 



400H-byte local buffer with blanks. 
USR2 will use this blank area later to 
clear the screen. 

USRl puts the messages LEVEL = 
and + - x/= on the screen in block 
letters. Two portions of the data base, 
starting at the labels LVLSTR and 
OPRSTR, move to the CRT memory to 
produce these letters. The LEVEL = 
message asks for the difficulty of the 
problems, and the + - x/= message 
asks for the type of math operation. 

USR2 is executed in response to a 
correct or incorrect answer. When the 
student enters the correct answer to a 
problem, this USR saves the contents of 
the CRT memory (after the Basic pro- 
gram generates a random graphics pat- 
tern). Then the routine moves the blank 
area produced by USRO to the CRT 
memory. This clears out the screen. Af- 
ter a short delay, the random pattern is 
put back into the CRT memory. This 
process of flashing the random pattern 
on the screen is repeated eight times, 
followed by a musical tune. The musical 
tune indicating a correct answer is part 
of the data base starting at SNDBFW. 

If the answer to the problem is incor- 
rect, the routine plays a tune starting at 



Photo 1 



The Key Box 

Model III 

48K RAM (disk) 

16K RAM (cassette) 

(with changes in text) 
Cassette or Disk Basic 
Editor/ Assembler 
TRSDOS and One Disk Drive 

Optional 



184 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Extra! Extra! 




Volume 4 



All The News Ihat's Fit To ZAP! 



Users vote no to the same 
OLD ARCADE GAMES 








(DV 1982) Blurry eyed users have turned to DISPLAYED 
VIDEO to answer their need for new and exciting arcade 
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arcade type games feature sound, graphics, joystick compa- 
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speed! Both disk and tape versions allow the user to save 
high scores, a feature not usually found on cassette based 
games. Maze enthusiasts seem to like Ghost Hunter and Killer 




t^Cr-'^Ul 





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Pricing for these programs is $15.95 for tape and $19.95 
for disk. Reliable sources inside the company indicate Killer 
Gorilla will be available by the time you read this. 



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or 

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D ISPLAYE D 
IDEO 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 




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SNDBFL. The storage location WIN- 
LOS is used to tell USR2 whether the 
screen is to be flashed, and which tune is 
to be played. If the student's answer is 
correct, 1 is POKEd from Basic into the 
location WINLOS. If the answer is 
wrong, a is POKEd into this location. 
USR2 tests this flag to determine which 
routine it should execute. 

The next USR function is USR3. 
When 10 problems have been answered 
either correctly or incorrectly, USR3 
puts the word RIGHT in block letters 
on the bottom of the screen. Basic then 
calls USR4 to display the number of 
correctly answered problems (see 
photo). 

USR4 is the routine used most often. 
Its function is to display in block letters 
the numbers 0-9 and the symbols for 
addition, subtraction, multipUcation, 
division, an equal sign, a question 
mark, and a blank at the correct loca- 
tions on the CRT. 

This routine uses two storage loca- 
tions into which the Basic program 
POKEs data. The first of these two lo- 
cations is PNTLOC, where Basic 
POKEs an index into a table called 
LOCTBL. LOCTBL contains ad- 
dresses of different locations on the 
CRT. The second storage location, 
NUMBER, is where the Basic program 
stores a number used by USR4 as an in- 
dex into a table called NUMTBL. Each 
16-bit entry in NUMTBL points to the 
data-base address where the character 
to be displayed starts. Using these two 
locations, the desired character is put 
into the correct area of the CRT memo- 



ry. The photo shows a problem 
displayed using USR4. 

The Basic Program 

The Basic program that calls each of 
these USR functions is shown in Listing 1 . 

Lines 140-220 perform initialization 
and setup. This portion defines the ad- 
dresses of the entry points of each USR, 
loads the Assembly program, and de- 
fines the addresses of PNTLOC, NUM- 
BER, and WINLOS. This portion also 
initializes the 400H-byte buffer of 
blanks via USRO. The variable LO de- 
fines the address of PNTLOC, VA de- 
fines the address of NUMBER, and WI 
defines the address of WINLOS. 

"7b hear the sound, 

I recommend 

the audio amplifier 

sold by Radio Shack. " 

In lines 280-410, the LEVEL = and 
H — x/= questions are displayed by 
calling USRl. Then a subroutine at line 
1870, via USR4, flashes a question 
mark behind each question. You can 
answer either question first. The LEV- 
EL = question accepts a difficulty fac- 
tor from one to four. The shift key is 
not required to indicate the math opera- 
tion required, since the program checks 
for the unshifted value of the key, 
where necessary. 

To put a question mark (or for that 
matter, any valid character) in the cor- 
rect screen position, the index corre- 



Notes 


Frequency (Hz) 


Hex Value 


Middle C 


261.6 


FE 


C Sharp 


277.2 


FO 


D 


293.7 


EO 


D Sharp 


311.1 


D5 


E 


329.6 


C6 


F 


349.2 


BC 


F Sharp 


370.0 


B3 


G 


392.0 


A6 


G Sharp 


415.3 


9C 


A 


440.0 


92 


A Sharp 


466.2 


8D 


B 


493.8 


86 


C 


523.2 


7C 


C Sharp 


554.4 


73 


D 


587.4 


6C 


D Sharp 


622.2 


65 


E 


659.2 


5F 


F 


698.4 


59 


F Sharp 


740.0 


54 


G 


784.0 


4F 


G Sharp 


830.6 
Table 1. Music Parameters 


4B 



sponding to the character to be dis- 
played is POKEd into NUMBER via 
POKE VA, 15 (15 is the index for the 
character ?— see NUMTBL in Listing 
2). To specify the CRT location where 
this character is to be displayed, an in- 
dex value is POKEd into location PNT- 
LOC via a POKE LO,0. An index of D 
indicates the CRT display location be- 
hind the question LEVEL = (see LOC- 
TBL in Listing 2). The messages LEV- 
EL = , + - x/-, and RIGHT are cod- 
ed to be displayed at specific locations. 

The third part of the Basic program, 
lines 470-810, uses the difficulty level 
and the type of math function desired to 
generate and display a random prob- 
lem. Once the elements of the problem 
have been determined based on the dif- 
ficulty desired (Hues 470-680), the prob- 
lem is displayed (Hnes 690-810). 

The fourth part of the program looks 
for and checks answers (lines 870- 
1150). Since I used the 1NKEY$ func- 
tion, you need not press the enter key. 
Simply type in the number or character 
desired. Each digit of the answer is 
checked as it is entered. If it is incorrect, 
the error subroutine at line 1650 POKEs 
a into WINLOS and USR2 is called to 
play a tune indicating an error. The stu- 
dent is then given another chance on the 
same problem. If he enters three wrong 
answers, lines 1740-1810 display the 
correct value. The program generates a 
new problem if this was not the tenth 
problem. 

The fifth part of the Basic code gen- 
erates the random graphics pattern and 
musical tune if the answer is correct 
(lines 1210-1400). Once the graphics 
pattern is finished, a value of 1 is 
POKEd into location WINLOS and 
USR2 is executed to generate the musi- 
cal tune. 

The sixth and last part (lines 
1460-1590) tests to see if 10 problems 
have been answered. If so, the word 
RIGHT is displayed on the bottom of 
the CRT (see photo), and the number of 
problems answered correctly on the first 
try is flashed on the screen. Then, the 
whole process starts over at line 280, al- 
lowing a new level of difficulty or a dif- 
ferent math function. 

Tape-System Modiflcations 

In the Basic program, replace lines 
10-210 of Listing 1 with lines 10-210 of 
Listing 3. Depending on the size of your 
computer memory, you will have to as- 
semble the Assembly program at a dif- 
ferent origin address to stay within the 
confines of your RAM. Also, remem- 
ber to redefine the locations in lines 
180-210 of Listing 3 appropriately. 



186 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



The only other change you need 
make to the Basic program is in the 
USR calls. Since a tape system has only 
one USR function, all the USR calls 
have to go to the same address. To en- 
sure the correct USR function is execut- 
ed, I added a new assembly location, as 
defined by variable RO in line 180 of 
Listing 3 . Each USR call in Listing 1 has 
to be changed to use this location as 
follows: 

When a USR call in Listing 1 says 
X-USRz(A), replace it with POKE 
RO,z:X = USR(A), where z is the 
USR number used in the disk version 
of Listing 1. For example, you'd re- 
write X = USR4{A) as POKE 
R0,4:X = USR(A). 

As far as the Assembly program is 
concerned, the code in Listing 4 must re- 
place lines 10-60 of the code in Listing 2. 
Location ROUTIN is where the POKE 
RO,z will place the number of the USR 
you wish to execute. Again, make sure 
your Basic program has defined the vari- 
ables in lines 180-210 correctly. (Your 
Basic manual will tell you how under the 
section discussing the POKE.) 

Program Execution 

To run the programs, set memory 
size as determined by where you placed 
the Assembly code. If you have a disk 
system, just run the Basic program. If 
you are using a tape system, load the 
object code of the Assembly program, 
then the Basic program, and run. To 
hear the sound, I recommend the audio 
amplifier sold by Radio Shack. Plug the 
cassette port output jack into the ampli- 
fier input. 

Changing Your Tune 

Table 1 lists the parameters needed to 
generate the music. You can change the 
tune played by putting the hex value for 
the notes you want in the least- 
significant byte of a word. The note 
duration is in the most-significant byte 
of the same word. You calculate the 
duration by taking the frequency of the 
note in Hz and dividing that by the 
length in seconds of the duration 
desired. If you want to play an A above 
middle C for !4 second, divide its fre- 
quency (440 Hz) by 4, and place the 
resulting value in the high-order byte. 

To see how this is done, look at the 
tirst three notes (G, E, middle C) shown 
in lines 5980-6030 of Listing 2. The hex 
value for G (A6) is placed in the low- 
order byte of the first word in line 5980. 
The hex value for E (C6) is placed in the 
low-order byte of the third word in line 
6000. Finally the hex value of C (FE) is 



placed in the low-order byte of the fifth 
word in line 6020. The duration of each 
note is placed in the high-order bytes in 
lines 5980, 6000 and 6020. The data in 
lines 5990, 6010, and 6030 are short de- 
lays to separate the notes. 
Well, that's it. Try the program, and 



make whatever changes you want to the 
limits of difficulty or the tune the pro- 
gram plays. ■ 



David Haan can be reached at 4361 
S. EstesSt., Littleton, CO 80123. 



Program Listing I. Basic Program 



10 REM VARIABLE LO DEFINES ASSEMBLY LOCATION ' PNTLOC 
20 REM VARIABLE VA DEFINES ASSEMBLY LOCATION 'NUMBER' 
30 REM VARIABLE WI DEFINES ASSEMBLY LOCATION 'WINLOS' 



INITIALIZE BUFFER IN ASSEMBLY ROUTINE 

PRINTS "LEVEL=" AND "+-x/ =" 

CORRECT ANSWER ROUTINE 

PRINT "RIGHT" 

PRINTS A NUMBER OR CHARACTER OF THE CRT 



40 REM USR(0] 

50 REM USR(i) 

60 REM USR(2) 

70 REM USR(3) 

80 REM USR(4) 

90 REM 

10 REM ******************************************************** 

110 REM INITIALIZATION AND SETUP 

120 REM ******************************************************** 

13 REM 

140 CLS:DEFINT A,F,H , I ,L,N,0 ,P,Q,R, T,V,W,X ,Y, Z 

15 DEtUSR0=&HF207:DEFUSRl=SHF220 

16 DEFUSR2=&HF23D:DEFUSR3=SHF2DE 
170 DEi'USR4 = &HF2F0 

180 CMD"L",''PRESKOOL/CMD" 

190 LO=&HF201 

200 VA=&HF202 

210 WI=&HF200 

220 X=USR0(A) 

230 REM 

240 REM ******************************************************** 

250 REM DISPLAYS "LEVEL=" AND "+-x/ =" 

26 REM****** ************************************************** 

27 REM 

280 L=0:F=0:X=USR1{A) 

290 GOSUB 1870 

300 IF L>0 GOTO 340 

310 L =VAL{A$) 

320 IF L->1 AND L==<4 GOTO 330 ELSE L=0:GOTO 340 

330 POKE LO,0:POKE VA,L:X=USR4 (A) !GOTO340 

340 IF F>0 GOTO 410 

350 IF A$="+" OR AS=";" THEN F=l :O=10 : GOTO400 

360 IF AS="-" THEN F=2 :0=11 :GOTO400 

370 IF A$="X" OR AS="x" THEN F=3 :0=12 :GOTO4fl0 

380 IF A$="/" THEN F=4 :0=13 ;GOTO400 

390 GOTO 290 

400 POKE LO.lsPOKE VA,0:X=USR4 ( A) 

410 IF L=0 GOTO 290 

420 REM 

430 REM****** ************************************************** 

440 REM GENERATE AND DISPLAY PROBLEM 

4 50 REM****** ************************************************** 

460 REM 

470 ON L GOTO 480 ,490 ,500 ,510 

480 RV=11:G0T0 530 

490 RV=21:G0T0 530 

500 RV=51:G0T0 530 

510 RV=100 

52 RANDOM 

53 Rl=RND(RV) 

540 IF Rl=RV THEN R1=0 

550 R2=RND(RV) 

560 IF R2=RV THEN R2=0 

570 IF F>2 THEN Rl=INT (Rl/3) : R2=INT{R2/3) 

580 ON F GOTO 590 ,610 ,620 ,650 

590 IF L=l THEN Ll=10 ELSE Ll=999 

600 V=R1+R2:IF V>L1 GOTO 530 ELSE 690 

610 V=Rl-R2:IF V<0 GOTO 530 ELSE 690 

620 IF L^l THEN Ll=10 ELSE Ll=L*25-l 

630 IF L=4 THEN Ll=999 

640 V=R1*R2:IF V>Ll GOTO 530 ELSE 690 

650 IF L=l THEN Ll=10 ELSE L1=I,*25-1 

660 IF L-4 THEN Ll-99 

670 IF R2=0 GOTO 530 

680 V=R1*R2:IF V>Ll GOTO 530 ELSE Vl=Rl :N1=V: V=V1 : R1=N1 

690 Nl = INT(Rl/10) :POKE L0,2:IF NKl THEN POKE VA, 16 :X=USR4 (A) !N2 

=Rl:GOTO710 ELSE POKE VA,N1 : X=USR4 ( A) 

700 N2=R1-10*N1 

710 POKE L0,3:P0KE VA,N2 : X=USR4 ( A) 

720 POKE L0,4:0N F GOTO 730 ,740 ,750 ,760 

730 POKE VA,10:GOTO 770 

Lisiing I commuei 



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188 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



Evervbody]s making money 
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80 Micro, February 1983 • 189 

















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190 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



$99.95 



+ $1 50 Shipping, CA add 6% 
specify Mod i or Ml 



Space Frontier 



ACCEL3 compiles big 
programs, 30K +. This 
is by design; subset 
compilation and use of 
ROM routines keeps 
code growth low (and 
ensures the highest 
compatibility with the 
BASIC source program). 
Also, the NOEXPR 
option can limit 
compilation to the 
program flow opera- 
tions {GOTO, GOSUB. 
RETURN, FOR-NEXT, 
IF, ON) over part of your 
program, or in toto 
5.5K, all DOS. 




your 




P'ogr^ 



m 



^rnrt} 



'Hg. 



$2 



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'Pp 



"^^cZ'?P' CA 



ACCEL4, overlay version of AGCEL3, works witfi 
TRSDOS, LDOS only, no user memory requirements. 
Anyone for 40K + compilations? 

You owe it to your programs. 



^^■'yM: 



$4q 



oa I 



add 6' 



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Bo- 117^1 San Francisco CA 94101 



S H 



Southern Software's NEW relational database manager. A Af\ 
Integrated data dictionary, recursive command structure, more. $ I 4U 



Developed id England by Southern Software. TRS-80, TRSDOS, tm Radio Shack LDOS, tm Logical Systems 



^ 136 



.--See List 0/ Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 191 



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194 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



Put 64K CP/M 22 in your 

TRS-80 Model III and tap into 

2.000 Inisiness ptogtams. 



Now you can run programs such 
as WordStar, dBASE II. 
SuperCalc, MailMerge and vir- 
tually thousands of other CP/M- 
based programs on your TRS-80 
Model ill. 

CP/M 2.2 is the industry stan- 
dard operating system that gives 
you access right now to over 
2,000 off-the-shelf business pro- 
grams. 

Our plug-in Shuffleboard III 
comes with 16K of RAM, giving 
your Model ill the power of full 
64K CP/M 2.2 without inter- 
ference of the ROM or video 
memory, in fact, the Shuffleboard 
will appear transparent in the 
TRS-oO mode and will not inter- 
fere with any DOS operation. 

READ and WRITE Osborne, 
Xerox and IBM personal 
computer software plus many 
more popular formats. 

Unfortunately, there is no stan- 
dardized CP/M format for 5% " 
diskettes. But we have developed 
a way to READ/WRITE and RUM 
standard programs under the 
following single-sided formats: 
Osborne 1 S/D, Xerox 820 S/D, 
IBM PC* D/D for CP/M 86 only. 
Superbrain D/D, Kapro II D/D, HP 
125 D/D and TeleVideo D/D. 

•Will Read and Write Only. 

Easy plug-in installation. 

It's so simple. The Shuffleboard 
111 plugs into two existing soci^ets 
inside your Model 111. There are no 
permanent modifications, no cut 
traces and no soldering. You'll be 
up and running 
in minutes. 




New Products. 

80 X 2A VIDEO BOARD Features 
dual intensity screen, programmable 
cursor control for block, underline & 
blink rate, on-board bell with audible 
keyclick. battery-operated real time 
calendar/clock, full ASCII character 
set plus 256 special character 
graphics, dual RS-232 outputs and 
composite video output. 

F-LOPPY DISK COriTROLLER: Mow 
you can access 5% " and 8" floppy 
disk drives in any combination up to 
4 drives of S/D density. S/D sided. 
Tap into a wealth of CP/M software 
which comes on 8" IBM 3740 format 
or Pickles & Trout CP/M for the Model 
II. 

son WARE; Additional CP/M soft- 
ware programs are available. Call or 
write for details. 




OEM and DEALER inquiries 

invited, 



Introductory price of 




The Shuffleboard ill comes fully 
burned-in and tested complete 
with 64K CP/M 2.2 and MBASIC 
80 interpreter, plus software 
manuals and a first class user's 
manual — with a 1-year limited 
warranty and 15-day no-risk free 
trial — for only $299. 

See the Shuffleboard III at 
your dealer's now. 

Once you see what the Shuffle- 
board can do for your Model III 
you'll want one at once. If your 
dealer does not yet stock the 
Shuffleboard have him give us a 
call. Or send check, money order, 
VISA or MASTERCARD number 
(sorry, no COD's) plus S5 shipping 
per board ($17 outside the USA & 
Canada)* directly to the address 
below. Cal. residents please add 
sales tax. Credit card purchases 
can be phoned in directly and 
we'll ship from stock. 
(415) 483-1008 

•Air mail shipments to Canada & all other 

countries. 



m 



TM 



mcmorv 
merchant 



14666 Dooliltle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 
(415)483-1008 



WordStar & MailMerge are Iradematks of MicroPro, 
SuperCak is a Irademark ot SORCIM. 



dBASE II is a trademark of AshtonTate. 
CP/H is a trademark of Digilat Researcfi. 



TRS80 is a trademaik of Tandy Corporaiion, 
IBM IS a irademark of IBM Corporation, 



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196 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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80 Micro, February 1983 • 197 



REVIEW 




e Intersoft 




by Rowland Archer 



A 



Ithough the C language is an interesting and 
useful programming tool, this package requires 
additional software and knowledge of Assembly. 



• 1/2 

Intersoft C 

Intersoft Unlimited 

Box 383, Station C 

Kitchener- Waterloo, Ontario 

N2G 3Y9, Canada 

$75 

$15 manual only (can be applied 

towards purchase) 

The Intersoft C compiler is available 
for the Model I and 111 as well as Digital 
Research Corporation 's CP/M and 
Technical Systems Consultants' Flex 
system for the 6809. 1 did most of my 
testing on a Model I, although I did 
manage to get some limited test time in 
under LDOS on a Model III. 

The C language was developed at Beil 
Labs by Dennis Ritchie. Although C 
was developed on the UNIX operating 
system, and in turn most of UNIX was 
rewritten in C, it is not necessary to have 
UNIX in order to develop and run C 
programs. 

C is usually classified as a medium- 
level language, meaning that it is a high- 
er level than Assembly language, but 
lower than languages such as PL/I and 
Pascal. Functions written in C can per- 
form many operations that are built in- 
to other languages, such as conversion 
between data types and reading and 
writing to files. This keeps the core of C 
simple and uncluttered, yet functions 

198 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



are available to do most of the things 
that you can do with higher-level 
languages. 

The Program Listing shows a simple 
C program thai accepts a line of text, 
reverses it, and prints it back out. To 
me, C feels more like Pascal assembly. 
The example program is explained in 
more detail in the sidebar. 

Intersoft C is not a complete imple- 
mentation of the C language. Although 
there is no standard for C, the de facto 
standard is described in Brian W. Kerni- 
ghan and Dennis M. Ritchie's book The 
C Programming Language (Prentice- 
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978). In- 
tersoft C is derived from Ron Cain's 
Small C, which is a subset of the full C 
language. 

Intersoft C is supplied on a TRS-80- 
formatted data disk with no operating 
system. You will need to copy these files 
onto a DOS disk. If you have only one 
disk drive, you will need a DOS with a 
single-drive file-copy function. There is 
an elaborate alternative procedure, de- 
scribed in the manual, that lets you copy 
the files to a DOS disk on a single-drive 
system using a text editor, a disk-based 
editor/assembler, and the DOS Load 
and Dump commands. If you use this 
approach, don't waste time looking for 
the table of program load addresses 
mentioned in the manual — the ad- 
dresses you need are printed on the disk 
labels. 



Using Intersoft C 

The Intersoft C package, as deliv- 
ered, is not sufficient by itself for devel- 
oping and running C programs. In or- 
der to use the system, you must own or 
purchase a disk-based, line-numberless 
text editor and a Z80 assembler pro- 
gram. To create C programs, you need 
an editor and an assembler because the 
C compiler's output is Z80 Assembly 
code, which must be assembled before it 
can be run. 

Before you can use the package, you 
must edit, compile, or assemble the sup- 
port libraries: CSUPP/C and Z80LIB 
/MAC or Z80LIB/ASM, depending on 
your own version. The editing involves 
deleting some lines in the CSUPP/C file 
to make it work with your machine and 
assembler. I think this should be done 
by Intersoft since they are already sup- 
plying different versions of the system 
depending on the machine and assem- 
bler you own. 

Before it can be compiled, a C pro- 
gram has to be typed into a file. I was 
surprised to find that the manual never 
describes the format of a C program 
source file, and it only hints at how you 
can create one. The first appendix casu- 
ally mentions that you can use whatever 
text processing system you have avail- 
able. It appears that you can use any 
text editor that creates plain ASCII files 
without line numbers. I used Radio 
Shack's Scripsit word processor. You 
cannot use the TRS-80's Basic text edi- 
tor or EDTASM's editor because they 
generate line numbers, which the C 
compiler does not tolerate. 

The recommended assemblers are 
either a disk conversion of Radio 
Shack's EDTASM, such as the one 
provided by Apparat with their NEW- 



DOS80, or Microsoft's M80 macro 
assembler. Any disk-based assembler 
that is file-compatible with either of 
these should work, too. 

Depending on which text editor, as- 
sembler, and operating system you use, 
life with the Intersoft C compiler can be 
either fairly smooth or downright tedi- 
ous. Figure 1 shows the steps required 
to create, compile, and run a program 
under what I consider to be the best en- 
vironment. Figure 2 shows the steps re- 
quired under the least favorable 
environment. 

In Fig. 1 , your text editor allows di- 
rect entry of these special characters re- 
quired by C: 

• Braces, { }, used to delimit com- 
pound statements in C (like Begin . . . 
End in Pascal); 

• Brackets, [ ], used with array vari- 
ables to delimit the array index; 

• Vertical bar, |, the logical "or" 
operator; 

• Tilde, ~, the "one's complement" 
operator; and 

• Caret,'^, the logical "exclusive or" 
operator. 

Although the TRS-80 does not in- 
clude these special characters on its key- 
board, there are several text editors 
available, such as Apparat's Flextext (a 
patch to Scripsit), that allow you to en- 
ter them directly. 

The next step in Figure 1 is to run the 
C compiler, which produces Z80 assem- 
bler source-code statements from your 
C program. The compiler gives you the 
option of having the C program source 
text appear in the output file along with 
the assembler statements. This lets you 
determine which assembler lines came 
from each C program statement. 

When you run the compiler, you 
must decide whether to define glo- 
bals— allocate memory for global vari- 
ables. This topic is a bit confusing, and 
the need to answer this question every 
time you run the compiler is an unusual 
requirement. Standard C handles this 
issue with the EXTERN declaration, 
which Intersoft C does not support. 

Next, using Microsoft's M80 assem- 
bler, assemble the file that was generat- 
ed by the compiler to create a standard 
"/REL" (relocatable object code) file. 
Finally, run L80, the linking loader, to 
combine the /REL file just produced 
with one or more other /REL files that 
contain C run-time support programs 
and library functions. This last step cre- 
ates an executable code file (a TRSDOS 
"/CMD" file) which can be run directly 
from the DOS READY prompt. 

Except for the extra step of running 
the assembler, this involves no more 



work than running most compilers. 
Generating and storing the intermediate 
assembler source file takes a little more 
time and disk space. The whole process 
of compiling, assembling, and loading a 
C program is made easier if your DOS 
allows you to create a file of keyboard 



commands and then run that file. Most 
TRS-80 DOSes call this feature the 
"DO file" or "chaining." 

Now we come to Fig. 2. You would 
have to want to write C programs pretty 
badly to use this setup. The whole pur- 
pose of writing in a language like C is to 





LOiUiniici U'l paiie 


202 


Demo C program to read a line of text from 


} 




the keyboard (STDIN) and write the reverse 






of that line to the CRT (STDOUT) 


main(argc, argv) 




#include stdio/h 


int argc, argv[]; 

{ 

char Iine[strlenglh] , rline[strlenglh]; 




#define strlength 64 




revstr(str, rstr) 
char slr[], rstr[l; 


puts("Typea line: "); 
putchar(EOL); 




{ 


gets(line); 




int iJ; 


revstr(line, rline); 




i = strlen{str)-l; 


puis("The reverse of what you typed is: 


"); 


j = 0; 

while (i > = 0) 
rstr[j+ +]=str[i ]; 


putchar(EOL); 
puts(rline); 

} 




rstr[j] = EOS; 






Program Listing 


Sainp/e C Program 





1. 


Use a text editor that allows typing of special 


C Program 




characters (see text) to produce: 


Source 


2. 


Use the M80 version of the C compiler to produce: 


Z80 Assembler Source, 
M80 ibrmat 


3. 


Use the M80 macro assembler to produce: 


Relocatable Object 
Code (/REL file) 


4. 


Use the L80 loader to combine the above file with 


Executable Object 




run-lime libraries to produce: 


Code (/CMD file) 


Fig. 


/. Steps required to create, compile, and assemble a C program using a text editor that al- 


lows 


ihe entry of C 's special characters, and the M80 macro assembler. 



1. Use a text editor that does not allow the entry of 


C Program 


special characters to produce: 


Source 


2. Use the preprocessor to translate escape sequences to 


Prep recessed C 


special characters: 


Program Source 


3. Use the EDTASM version of the C compiler to 


Z80 Assembler 


produce: 


Source, EDTASM 




format, no line #'s 


4. Use the postprocessor to add line numbers to the 


Z80 Assembler 


above: 


Source, EDTASM 




format, w/line #'s 


5. Use EDTASM to combine the above file with run-time 


Executable Object 


libraries to produce: 


Code {/CMD file) 


Fig. 2. Steps required to create, compile, and assemble a C program 


using a text editor that does 


not allow the entry of C's special characters and the EDTASM assembler. 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 199 



A Closer Look at the Listing 



The program Listing is a C pro- 
gram which accepts a line typed at 
the keyboard, reverses it and prints 
it out on the CRT. This program 
demonstrates only a tiny fraction of 
C's potential, but it may give you a 
feeling for the C language. 

The first statement past the title 
comment is a compiler directive to 
"include" the file "stdio/h" at this 
point in the program. This causes 
the compiler to open stdio/h and 
compile its contents. Stdio/h con- 
tains "^define" statements for 
some implementation-dependent 
constants such as EOL and EOS, 
described below. 

The ";i!'define" statement is an- 
other compiler directive. As used 
here, it tells the compiler to replace 
the identifier "strlength" every- 
where it occurs with the value 64. 
Using ^define statements to estab- 
lish symbolic constants makes it 
easier to change the value of a con- 
stant that is used in several places in 
a program. 

A C program is a collection of 
functions, similar to the way a Pas- 
cal program is a collection of func- 
tions and procedures. Functions can 
be called from other functions and 
they can return values, just as 
SIN(X) returns the sine of X in Ba- 
sic. They can also change the value 
of the variables passed as argu- 
ments, as you will see in a moment. 

The first function defined in the 
listing is named "revstr". It reverses 
what is in "str" and stores the result 
in "rstr". The header line gives the 
name of the function and its formal 
arguments or parameters: rstr and 
str. The header is followed by a dec- 
laration that tells the data type of 
the function's arguments. The dec- 
laration "char str[ ], rstrf ];" says 
that str and rstr are character ar- 
rays. Using two brackets [ ] with no 
number in between says that these 
arrays can be of whatever size the 
calling function uses. 

C uses { } like Pascal uses Begin 
and End, to delimit a compound 
statement. Right after its opening {, 
revstr declares two local integer 
variables, i and j. Memory is allo- 



cated for local variables when a 
function is invoked at run time, and 
deallocated when the function is ex- 
ited. C has only local and global 
variables; it is not a block-struc- 
tured language. (Block structure 
means that you can nest one proce- 
dure inside another; each procedure 
can reference variables in itself and 
all the procedures that enclose it). 

The character arrays "str" and 
"rstr" are used to hold variable 
length text strings. C builds variable 
length strings by storing consecutive 
characters in adjacent elements of 
an array. An ASCII null (0) charac- 
ter is stored as a terminator after the 
last character in the string. This ter- 
minator is symbolically referred to 
as EOS— the End-Of-String 
character. EOS is one of the con- 
stants defined in the "included" 
file, stdio/h. 



'A C program 

is a 
collection of 
functions." 



The first statement of the func- 
tion revstr assigns the value 
"strlen(str)- 1" to the variable i. 
This initializes i to be the index of 
the last character (before EOS) in 
str. "Strlen" is a C library function 
which returns the length of its string 
argument. It counts all the charac- 
ters up to, but not including, EOS. 

The variable j is initialized to zero 
in the next statement. This makes j 
the index of the first character of rstr. 

The "while" loop is where the 
bulk of the work is done. It says to 
execute the loop body as long as i is 
greater than or equal to zero. In this 
case, the loop body is only a single 
statement. A compound statement, 
delimited by { }'s, can also be used. 

The loop body statement, "rstr[j 

-I- -t-j = strfi ];", copies the 

"ith" element of str to the "jth" el- 



ement of rstr. The notation "i " 

says to subtract 1 from i after using 
it as an index to str. Similarly, 
" j -F -I- " says to increment j after 
using it as an index to rstr. If the 

" " or " -f + " appear before a 

variable, e.g. " j", it means to 

decrement or increment the variable 
before using it. 

When i is decremented below 
zero, the loop is done and the string 
in str has been copied backwards in- 
to rstr. An EOS character is then 
stored at "rstr|j]" to terminate rstr. 
The "}" character marks the end of 
the function. 

Every C program must include a 
function called "Main"; this is where 
execution begins when the program is 
run. "Main" always has two argu- 
ments, "argc" and "argv[ ]." 
"Argc" tells how many arguments 
are on the command line which in- 
voked the program; "argv[ ]" is an 
array containing addresses of the 
command line arguments themselves. 

The example C program's main 
function defines two character ar- 
rays "line" and "rline", both di- 
mensioned to have "strlength" 
characters. "Puts" is another C H- 
brary function, standing for "put 
string." it writes its argument to 
STDOUT, normally the CRT 
screen. Here it prompts the user to 
"Type a line: ". The argument to 
"puts" is a hteral string enclosed 
with double quote marks. The com- 
piler stores the string and terminates 
it with an EOS byte. 

The next call is to the function 
"putchar," which writes a single 
character to STDOUT. In this case, 
the EOL or End-Of-Line character 
is written, forcing the cursor to 
move to the next line on the screen. 
EOL is defined in stdio/h. 

The "gets" function is called to 
get a string from STDIN. The re- 
sulting string is stored in the vari- 
able "line." This is followed by a 
call to revstr to reverse the string in 
line and store the result in rline. 

Finally, "puts" and "putchar" 
are called again to type the closing 
message and rline, the reversed 
string. ■ 



200 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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80 Micro. February 1983 • 201 



Ci'Miniivil fnjiii I!. 199 

make program development and main- 
tenance easier. When the hassle of com- 
piling a program outweighs the benefits 
of using the language, why bother? 

You must do the first extra step in 
Fig. 2 because the text editor, Scripsit 
for example, doesn't allow you to type 
in C's special characters. You can have 
this problem whether you are using ED- 
TASM or M80. Intersoft supplies a pre- 
processor that translates two-character 
"escape sequences" into the "special" 
characters. For example, "(." and ".)" 
are converted into "[" and "]", respec- 
tively. The preprocessor executes quick- 
ly (it is written in C and compiled to ma- 
chine language) but it adds an extra step 
to every compilation. Intersoft has in- 
formed me that the next version of their 
compiler will directly recognize the es- 
cape sequences as alternates for the spe- 
cial characters, eliminating the prepro- 
cessor step. 

The next inconvenience comes when 
you run the compiler. You must supply 
a "starting number for labels." The 
compiler generates assembler source 
code labels of the form "CCxxxx", 
where "xxxx" is a sequence number 
starting with the one you specify. If 
your program contains separately com- 



piled modules, the burden is on you to 
make sure that there are no duplicate la- 
bels in the separate modules that must 
be assembled all together. There are no 
guidelines given for how far apart the 
starting numbers should be. It is totally 
dependent upon how many labels the 
compiler has to generate to compile a 
particular program. 

The compiler generates a Z80 source 
code file that is not yet in EDTASM- 
compatible format, strange considering 
this is supposedly the EDTASM-com- 
patible version of the compiler. You 
must run a postprocessor which adds 
line numbers and some header and trail- 
er information that EDTASM expects. 
The postprocessor step takes about as 
long as compilation. It also produces an 
output file that is larger than the already 
big assembler source file. Running it on 
the 19. 5K byte C run-time support li- 
brary creates an output file of 26. 5K 
bytes. I use two 40-track double- density 
disks that fit well. A user with one 
35-track single-density drive would real- 
ly be cramped. 

The next step is to run EDTASM 
and load the assembler source code 
files produced by your separately 
compiled modules. In the original re- 



lease of the compiler, you had to load 
the sources for the C run-time support 
library into EDTASM's buffer, too. 
With a 48K byte machine, I only had 
4K bytes of free space left in ED- 
TASM after loading all the sources to 
assemble the short sample program in 
the listing. The compiler generates sev- 
eral consecutive blanks in each line of 
assembler source code it produces. By 
replacing consecutive blanks with single 
blanks, I squeezed out an extra 4K bytes 
of free space. 

An update notice to the system de- 
scribes a procedure that helps alleviate 
this memory crunch. You make a few 
minor changes to the support library 
source code, then compile and assemble 
the result, producing a core image file 
containing the executable version of the 
run-time library. You must also create a 
file of assembler EQU (equates) state- 
ments that associate a symbol with a 
hexadecimal address — one statement 
for each of 36 entry points in the run- 
time library. 

When you compile a C program, you 
load the compiler output together with 
the EQU file into EDTASM and assem- 
ble it. The output of EDTASM is com- 
bined with the executable version of the 



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202 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



support library by loading everything 
into memory and dumping it back out 
as a single file using TRSDOS's Dump 
command. This allows you to write 
somewhat larger C programs, but still 
not nearly as large as with M80. 

The manual suggests a tedious, un- 
necessary method of combining assem- 
bler source-code files in EDTASM's 
buffer: Load a file, write down the 
highest Hne number, then load previous 
files and renumber them to avoid line 
number conflicts, reload the first file, 
and so on. EDTASM lets you combine 
files that have conflicting line numbers, 
as long as you issue the N (renumber) 
command immediately after loading 
such a file. This command renumbers 
the whole file into one with nonconflict- 
ing line numbers. 

There is a possibility of having multi- 
ple End and ORG statements in your 
file, since one is produced for each sepa- 
rately compiled module. Intersoft sug- 
gests searching the entire file using the F 
(find) command and deleting all but the 
first ORG and the last End statement. 
After doing this, you can finally use 
EDTASM's A command to create an 
executable code file on disk. 

There is considerably more work to 



do in Fig. 2 than the diagram suggests. 
Much of the additional work is manual 
and tedious. You are limited to compil- 
ing much smaller programs if you use 
EDTASM, and there is a bigger de- 
mand on disk space. Keep in mind that 
you have to go through all these steps 
every time you have to recompile to cor- 
rect a bug, or add a feature. I consider 
the compiler and EDTASM to be a very 
poor match. 

I also take issue with the claim in In- 
tersoft' s advertising that no knowledge 
of Assembly is required. Using the as- 
sembler is an integral part of compiling 
a C program. Only partial instructions 
are given for using either M80 or ED- 
TASM. At one point, the manual 
states: "You may find odd errors ap- 
pearing when you attempt to assemble. 
A careful examination of the source 
code in memory will usually reveal the 
nature of the problem. . ." How can 
you examine assembler source code to 
find a problem if you don't understand 
Assembly? 

On the positive side, no royalty pay- 
ments are required if you are interested 
in selling the software you develop with 
Intersoft C. 



Language Features 

As I mentioned, Intersoft C is not a 
complete implementation of the C 
language. If you are familiar with how 
Radio Shack's Tiny Pascal compares 
to full Pascal, you will have some idea 
of how Intersoft C compares to full C. 
Intersoft C is ahead of Tiny Pascal in 
several areas; it supports disk I/O, 
separately compiled modules, and in- 
tegrated Assembly code. 

Specifically, version 2.0 of Intersoft 
C does not provide: 

• Long (32-bit) integers or floating- 
point numbers (the only data types sup- 
ported are characters and 16-bit in- 
tegers); 

• Multi-dimensional arrays (only one- 
dimensional arrays are allowed); 

• Structures, unions, typedefs, and 
storage classes; 

• The "sizeof" operator; 

• *'Casts" (explicit data type conver- 
sions); 

• The GOTO statement; and 

• Compile-time initialization of exter- 
nal variables. 

Intersoft says that version 2.5, not 
available at the time of this writing, 



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80 Micro, February 1983 • 203 



does have the following features, which 
were not in 2.0: 

• The comma operator; 

• Assignment operators (you must say 
X = X+1 instead of X+=l, X = X*2 
instead of X* = 2, and so on); 

• Conditional assignment — you must 
say: 

if(x>0) 

y=i 

else 
y = 2 

instead of fuU C's conditional expression: 

y = {x>0)? 1 :2 

• The "&&" and "||" logical AND 
and OR operators, "&" and "|", C's 
bitwise AND and OR operators, are 
provided; in practice, this usually 
means that you have to use more 
parentheses, e.g.: 

((x==0)&(y==0)) 

instead of full C's: 

(x==0&&y==O) 

On the plus side, the compiler does 
support: 



• All the standard C control structures 
except GOTO: for, while, if. ..else, 
do... while, switch, break, continue, 
and return; 

• Pointers to characters and integers 
and full pwinter arithmetic; 

• Functions being passed as arguments 
to other functions; 

• Hexadecimal and octal constants 
entered in a C program; 

• #include <file>, a directive to the 
compiler that can be placed anywhere in 
a program, telling the compiler to read 
the specified file, compile its contents, 
and then resxmie the original file from 
the next statement. (#include does not 
work under TRSDOS on the Model I. 
Intersoft says this is due to a TRSDOS 
bug, but I have other compilers that 
provide an include feature that does 
work under TRSDOS); 

• #define <constant> <value>, allow- 
ing definition of a constant at compile 
time; and 

• '*#asm" and "#endasm", directives 
to the compiler that the code in between 
these two statements should be passed 
through unchanged to the assembler. 
This lets you "drop into" Assembly at 
any point in a C program. The manual 



tells how to pass data between a C state- 
ment and Assembly code. 

The C compiler distinguishes identifi- 
ers as long as they are unique in the first 
nine characters. External identifiers are 
limited by whatever your assembler 
allows (in most cases six characters). 

The compiler flags errors as it finds 
them in a C program and writes English 
error messages to the output file togeth- 
er with the offending C statement. It 
seems to do a good job of recovering 
from detection of an error and continu- 
ing compilation, although sometimes 
one C program error can result in sever- 
al error messages. 

Although there is no cross-reference 
facility built into the compiler, if you 
use the M80 assembler, you can use Mi- 
crosoft's CREF^O cross-reference pro- 
gram. There are no special debugging 
aids. You can use Put statements to 
write messages at strategic points in a 
program, or use an Assembly-language 
debugger together with the Assembly 
source-code output produced by the 
compiler. There is no built-in way to 
pause a running C program, such as the 
shift-® convention of TRS-80 Basic. 




204 • 80 Micro. February 1983 



File Handling 

Intersoft C provides some nice fea- 
tures borrowed from UNIX's com- 
mand-line interpreter. If your program 
uses the standard C library routines to 
read and write characters, you can redi- 
rect I/O to a file or files at run-time. 
The standard input for C programs, 
called STDIN, defaults to the key- 
board. The standard output for C pro- 
grams, called STDOUT, defaults to the 
CRT screen. You can redirect STDIN 
to a file by including "<file name" on 
the command line; you can redirect 
STDOUT with ">rile name". 

To illustrate this feature, a simple C 
program called CPY is provided. All 
CPY does is copy data from STDIN to 
STDOUT, but command line redirec- 
tion of STDIN and STDOUT makes 
CPY very versatile. If you run it by typ- 
ing "CPY" from the DOS ready 
prompt, everything you type at the key- 
board is echoed on the screen. 

"CPY <testfile" lists the contents of 
"testfile" on your screen, just Hke the 
TRSDOS List command. 

"CPY <testfile>backup" copies 
"testfile" to "backup". If "backup" 
does not exist, it is created. 



*'CPY >newfile" puts everything 
you type at the keyboard into newfile; 
this is an easy way to create a short 
text file. 

This is not all; by using "»rile 
name' ' instead of ' '>file name' ' , output 
will be appended to the file rather than 
overwriting it. The append function 
does not work properly in TRSDOS 2.3 
due to a DOS bug, but it does work with 
most alternate TRS-80 DOSes. 

I was favorably impresssed at first by 
the way Intersoft C lets you open files 
from within a program without requir- 
ing you to specify in advance how many 
files your program will be using. Then I 
looked more carefully at the code for 
file opening and discovered a potential 
hazard. Memory is allocated for a file 
buffer and FCB (file control block) 
when a file is opened, but this memory 
is not released when the file is closed. 

This means that every time you open 
and close a file, you have eaten away at 
free memory to the tune of 288 bytes. 
Intersoft says that version 2.5 of the 
system will have a dynamic memory al- 
location and deallocation scheme that 
will avoid this problem. 

Although Intersoft C allows you to 



open a file in a random-access mode, 
there is no language support for reading 
and writing random file records. Se- 
quential input and output to files Is 
supported. 

Performance 

The C compiler is reasonably fast; It 
reads its source from disk and writes its 
output back to disk as it compiles. Run- 
ning under LDOS and putting my input 
and output files on separate disk drives, 
a 360-line program took three minutes 
to compile, a rate of 120 lines per min- 
ute. It took another three minutes to 
run M80 and L80 to complete the pro- 
cess, totaling six minutes, or 60 lines per 
minute. This includes the time required 
to load the compiler, M80, and L80 
from disk and type in the responses to 
the prompts. 

It took two minutes to compile, as- 
semble, and load Program Listing 1. 
The executable /CMD file produced 
was 4,500 bytes long. This is pretty 
compact for a file that can be run by it- 
self, compared to what some micro- 
computer compilers produce. 

The run-time speed of Intersoft C 
programs is impressive. A benchmark 



MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS 3 
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o LC Generates Z-80 EDAS-IV 

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IN/LIB accesses graphics 

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80 Micro, February 1983 • 205 



program I ran that computes prime 
numbers using the Eratosthenes sieve 
algorithm ran in 123 seconds on In- 
tersoft C, compared to 4470 seconds 
on Disk Basic! This is certainly a big 
improvement. All the C programs I 
ran seemed to be snappy, much closer 
to Assembly than to Basic programs 
in speed. 

Documentation 

The documentation for Intersoft C 
earns a grade of C. The manual says it's 
not trying to be a tutorial, but I didn't 
fmd it to be very successful as a refer- 
ence manual, either. 

It's hard to be harsh on a manual that 
is written in a friendly, easy-going style, 
but in my opinion its omissions are un- 
conscionable. For example, even 
though the manual is 94 pages long, 
there is no complete description of the 
Intersoft C language. If you are expect- 
ed to own or purchase a book in order 
to use a product, the advertisement for 
that product should clearly state this. 
Unless you can write C programs in 
your sleep, you will absolutely need a 
book such as Kernighan's (referenced 
earlier) to use Intersoft C. 

About half the manual consists of 



source-code listings of the various sup- 
port libraries and functions provided 
with the package. However, there are 
no instructions on how to use these 
functions. There are some comments in 
the Ustings, but you need Kernighan's 
book to discover how to open a file, use 
the string functions, and read and write 
characters. 

There is no index and only a very 
brief table of contents — it's not par- 
ticularly helpful to know the section 
number corresponding to each of the 
five appendices without knowing 
what's in them! 

Enough information is provided for 
the technically minded to determine 
how to interface Assembly routines 
with C programs. Restrictions and en- 
hancements to full C are explained. 

Conclusions 

Despite its shortcomings, Intersoft 
C is a useful product. It allows you to 
build libraries of functions that you 
can combine to create new programs 
with relative ease. I have used the 
package frequently and I have yet to 
find anything that does not work as 
documented. 

Based on the manual, the folks at In- 



tersoft sound sincerely interested in sup- 
porting and improving their product. In 
several places they ask users to send sug- 
gestions and notify them of any bugs. 
They say that updates will be available 
but no specific update policy is de- 
scribed. Intersoft has stated that a $15 
charge will allow the EDTASM version 
owner to upgrade to the M80 version of 
the product. 

I feel that Intersoft C is somewhat 
overpriced considering the other soft- 
ware you must own to use the package, 
and comparing what you get to what 
some other TRS-80 compiler packages 
offer in its price range. If you already 
have the M80 assembler and linking 
loader, plus a text editor that lets you 
enter C's special characters, I can rec- 
ommend Intersoft C with the reserva- 
tions noted in this article. I personally 
consider the combination of Intersoft C 
and EDTASM to be unacceptable. ■ 



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EDUCATION 



Michael's Game 

by Nancy Modney 



Y 



our children don't have to grow up afraid of 
micros. Start them off early with this game 
program that teaches letters and numbers. 



Skeptical friends and family mem- 
bers often ask me what in the world I 
use a home computer for. I have at least 
one answer — it helps my child learn. 

From the time David and I brought 
our son home from the hospital, his hfe 
has been filled with the sights and 
sounds of our TRS-80. The spare bed- 
room of our apartment had been the of- 
ficial computer workshop. When I dis- 
covered my pregnancy, a small crib and 
changing table were shpped into one 
corner. My hopes of a frilly pastel nur- 
sery were quickly dashed. Michael's 
bedroom was decorated in shades of 
software! 

When Michael was an infant, David 
would prop him up near the computer 
to watch. It was no wonder that Mi- 
chael developed an intense interest in 
the TRS-80. As my son grew older, he 
was no longer content to remain pas- 
sive. Michael wanted to play with his 
father's toy too! 

"Why don't you write a program Mi- 
chael can use?" I suggested to my hus- 
band. So he did. 

The program is called Hear and See 
numbers, and the only instructions on 
the screen display is "Push any Key." 
Each time Michael pushes a numeric 
key, that number is shown on the 

208 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



screen. Then that many boxes appear, 
one by one. Each rectangular box is ac- 
companied by a beep through an ampli- 
fier connected to the cassette-out jack. 
(This is optional^the program can run 
without sound.) For example, Michael 
presses the 5 key. A number 5 appears 
on the screen, and five boxes are drawn, 
one at a time (with beeps). When he 
presses the key, no boxes appear. 

Of course, our little boy doesn't press 
only numeric keys. When Michael 
pushes a letter key he sees that letter. 

How the Program Works 

Lines 10-50 are remark statements. 
Lines 60-90 set up the constants. Line 
110 puts the computer into enhanced 
mode so the letters will be in large type 
for easy reading. Lines 120-140 name 
the program Hear and See Numbers, 
and print the instructions on the screen. 

The program then drops through to 
line 290, beginning the first major rou- 
tine, which determines if any key is 
pressed and analyzes what it is. Line 290 
strobes the keyboard, looking for a key 
stroke. Notice that in line 300 there is no 
space between the quotation marks. If 
A$ has no value, then no key has been 
pushed and the program returns to line 
290. Until a key is pushed, the program 



continues in this loop between hues 290 
and 300. 

If a key is pushed, the program then 
goes to hne 310 to check if the key is a 
number greater than zero. If a letter or 
zero key was pushed, the computer goes 
to hne 320, prints the letter on the 
screen, and returns to line 290. 

If the key pressed was a number, the 
program goes to hne 160 for the second 
major routine. Line 180 prints the num- 
ber on the screen. Line 200 determines 
the number of boxes needed. Line 220 
makes a buzz for each box counted. The 
program loops through this box-and- 
buzz routine enough times to equal the 
value (number) printed. The program 
then returns to line 290 to await another 
keystroke. 

For Technical Buffs 

Here is a more technical description 
of how the program makes sound. 
Lines 70 to 90 set up the constants P = 
255, U = 9, and D = 10. P is used as a 
port number. In this case, port number 
255 is the cassette port. U and D are 
numbers sent to port number 255. The 
number U sends the cassette port output 
high (up). The number D sends the cas- 



The Key Box 

Model I or HI 

16KRAM 

Cassette or Disk Basic 

Cassette jack amplifier optional 



sette port output low (down). If the cas- 
sette output is sent low and high in rapid 
succession, the result is a square wave. 
When this square wave is amphfied, a 
buzzing sound is created. Line number 
220 sets up a sequence of 31 rapid 
low/highs sent to the cassette port. This 
occurs for each box counted on the 
screen. Line 220 is composed of multi- 
ple Basic statements (separated by col- 
ons) to help speed up the low/high buzz 
operation. Lines 230 and 240 provide a 
small time delay between boxes. 

Conclusion 

The buzzing is optional, but Michael 
lost interest more quickly when the 
sound was turned off. The audio is ex- 
cellent feedback for a young child. If 
you don't have an amphfier, Radio 
Shack offers one for $11.95 (catalog 
#277-1008). 

Not only does Michael (age IVi) like 
this program, but his cousin (age 5) en- 
joys using it too. It's a big hit when 
children come to visit. ■ 

Nancy Modney, and her son Mi- 
chael, can be reached at 4144 N. Via 
Villas, Tucson, A Z 85719. 



REM 



HEAR AND SEE NUMBERS 



FOR TRS-80 MODELS 1 @ND 3 ** 



1( 

20 REM ** NANCY MODNEY, 4144 N. VIA VILLAS, TUCSON AZ 85719 ** 

30 REM ** WRITTEN BY HUSBAND DAVID FOR SON MICHAEL D. MODNEY ** 

40 REM ** AUDIO AMPLIFIER IS OPTIONAL ** 

50 REM ** HOOK UP AUDIO AMPLIFIER TO GRAY CASSETTE OUT JACK ** 

60 DEFINT B-Z 

70 P=255 

80 U=9 

90 D=10 

100 CLS 

110 PRINT CHR$(23) 

120 PRINT "HEAR AND SEE NUMBERS" 

130 PRINT 

140 PRINT "PUSH ANY KEY" 

150 GOTO 270 

160 CLS 

170 PRINT CHRS(23) ; 

180 PRINT VAL(A$) 

190 PRINT 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 



FOR X = 1 TO VAL(AS) 
PRINT CHR$(191) ■ 



FOR Y = TO 3 4 

FOR Y = TO 100 

NEXT Y 
250 NEXT X 
260 PRINT 
270 PRINT 
280 PRINT 
290 AS = INKEY? 
300 IF AS = "" THEN GOTO 290 
310 IF VAL{A$) > THEN GOTO 160 
320 PRINT AS" "; 
330 GOTO 290 



:OUT P,U :OUT P,D :NEXT Y 



Program Listing 



^o^S-^fl^. 












m 



JtR^' 



^^<^ 



.a 



•1^ Finally, a comprehensive, 

simple-to-understand book that 
teaches you how to lise SCRIPSIT, the 
most powerful, easiest to use word processing 
program for its pnce, GSIISG SCRIPSIT shows you ocactty how to 
use SCRIPSIT witfi your TRS-80 Model 111 or Model 1 (separate explanations 
are provided for each model). Each procedure is broken down into simple-to-follow 
numbered steps. Exercises, examples, "Common Mistakes" sections, and boxed-off notes to readers all help 
you learn by doing. 

Using ScripsU has an easy-to-use, 4-part format; 

I. For flrst time users. Chapters 1—8 move you through the fundamentals of setting up your TRS-80, 
using a disk, writing on the video screen, using editing commands, and printing a document. By the time you 
reachChapter 8, Chapter2 will seem like child's play D. For the experienced user, Chapters 9-15 
explain SCRIPSIT techniques you'll use again and again — advanced editing methods, block moves, search 
techniques, hyphenation, creative formatting, filing documents on disks, and using DOS commands, 
ni. Beyond standard uses i Chapters 16—19 reveal SCRIPSIT's special capabilities— how to merge 
VISICALC with SCRIPSIT, send text by phone, use SCRIPSIT to control a typesetter, create personalized form 
letters, write programs in BASIC, and print special formats. IV. Appendices help you with troubleshooting, 
define tecfinical jargon, and provide sources of additional information. 

Thorougfily tested, each procedure in USING SCRIPSIT was tried repeatedly by the author and tested by a 
group of first-time users. If a procedure didn't work, it wasn t included, Tfie consensus? USING SCRIPSIT 
makes using SCRIPSIT child's play! 

WAD8WORTH ELECTRONIC PUBUSHING COnPANY 

Slatler Office Building ■ 20 Park Pla2a ■ Boston, MA 021 16 

TOLL FREE 1-800-322-2208 ..- 



ALL ORDERS MOST BE PREPAID AND SHOULX) 
BE SEMT TO; WADSWORTH ELECTRONIC 
PUBLISHING COMPANY, Statler Office Building, 
20 Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116. Postage and 
fiandling will be paid by the publisher. 



-copies of USING SCRIPSIT 



Please send me 
(a 521,95 

Residents of Massacliusetts please add 

sales lax S . 

TOTAL S . 



n Enclosed is my check. 

G Please charge my ID VISA C MasterCard 



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For credit card orders you can also call 

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Using ScripsU is also available 
at your local computer dealer. 
If not, have them contact 
Wadsworth Electronic 
Publishing Company. M 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 



80 Micro, February 1983 • 209 



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^26 



HARDWARE 



Refrigerator Controller 



by Doug Biedenweg 



G 



ot an old refrigerator lying around? This 
unit will let you control its lighting and 
temperature for all sorts of science projects. 



Researchers need to simulate the 
temperature and light of various natur- 
al environments to properly study the 
lives of plants and animals. This 
micro-controlled incubator provides a 
means to do so. 

First, you need to build a tempera- 
ture and light-controUing input/output 
device . This interfaces a TRS-80 Model 
I to a standard home refrigerator. The 
I/O device regulates a heater-fan 
module and a bank of fluorescent 
lights. 

This system has many possible uses. 
For instance, botanists can produce the 
oscillations in temperature that many 
seeds require to germinate, and can 
study plant growth under various 
temperature and light conditions. Bac- 
teriologists and mycologists can study 



The Key Box 

Model I 
16KRAM 
Level II Basic 
Incubator 



microbial colonies in situations close to 
those found in nature. This is particu- 
larly useful when studying food 
spoilage. Herpetologists can control 
body temperature cycles in snakes or 
lizards, and measure the effects these 
cycles have on digestive rates. 

At home, the system will produce 
optimal conditions for terrarium. If 
connected to a small floor heater, it 
can save electricity during the winter 
months. 

Materials and Methods 

You'll need 16K and Level II Basic. 
Fig. 1 shows the schematic for the in- 
terface device. Table 1 is a parts Ust. 

The device uses a 4047 as an astable 
multivibrator, with a thermistor in the 
RC circuit, to produce an output fre- 
quency that is a function of tempera- 
ture. This output of the 4047 feeds into 
the computer via the cassette port. The 
thermistor must be calibrated in the 
circuit, so that the circuit's output fre- 
quency can be converted to a 
temperature. 

The cassette auxiliary line is the out- 
put line from the computer to the 
heater circuit. The program {Program 



Listing 1) will make this Hue go high or 
low. When V-0 or 1, OUT 255,V 
makes the output V dc. When V -4 
or 5, OUT 255, V gives 0.85 V. When 
the output is high (0.85 V), the plus in- 
put voltage on the 741 rises above the 
0.6 V set by the forward biased diode 
at the minus input. This causes the out- 
put of the 741 to go high, which closes 
the heater relay. 

I used a double-relay system to the 
heater in our incubator to prevent the 
incubator from becoming too hot if the 
computer malfunctioned. The second 
relay was in series with the computer- 
controlled relay and its state (opened 
or closed) was determined by a bime- 
talhc thermoregulator housed in the 
heater/fan assembly. The bimetallic 
thermoregulator was adjusted so that 
the relay would open and the heater 
turn off at temperatures above 40 °C. 
The heater and fan ran independently. 
The fan ran continuously. 

The ouput line from the computer to 
the light circuit (Fig. 1) is run from the 
computer cassette relay. The cassette 
relay can be closed under program con- 
trol. When the relay is closed, enough 
current flows into the base of transistor 
Q3 to power the closure of the R; relay, 
which will remain on until the cassette 
relay is opened. 

Programming the Computer 

The computer reads the temperature 
of the thermistor by measuring the per- 
iod of the astable multivibrator using 



212 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



the "ear" port to input the signal. A 
machine-language program (Program 
Listing 2) allows the computer to deter- 
mine the period of oscillation. The 
machine-language program is called 
from the Basic program (Listing 1), 
which also controls the incubator. Pro- 
gram Listing 3 is a Basic program that 
POKEs the machine-language pro- 
gram into high memory, where it is 




SOOOpF 

POWER SUPPLr 




Fi^. I. Schematic of I/O Device thai Interfaces 
the Computer to the Incubator 



>^o^\ 



U 






< COMPUTER 
1 RECORDER 



6xo„ 



> 



'Ai 



TIME OF oav 

Fig. 2. Comparison of Specified Incubator 
Temperatures to those Measured by the Com- 
puter as an Independent Recorder 

^See List of Advertisers on Page 387 




PRESERVE 

micro 

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* DATA COMPRESSION: Over twice as 
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For TRS-HO' Models I, II, III, & 16 - 350.00 
CP/M+ - 295.00 

Ash your Dealer or Write: ^ -^^^ 
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t T.M. Digital Research 



'T.M. Tandy Corp. 



™TRS80 color 

From the January 1981 issue of the CSHA Compulef 
Club newsletter: 



There was some amusemenl at the Novem- 
ber nieeling when the Raflio Shack lepre- 
sentaiives staled thai the software in the , 
ROM cartridges could riot be copied This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported Ihey had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month Never 
tell a hobbyist something cant be done! This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical mlormations on the TRS-80 color 
computer'" Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now, S8 Micro Journal 
plans to include the THS-BO 6B09 unit 
iutufe issues ^ 



To get the MOST from your 6809 CPU - This is the 
BEST SOURCEi The ONLY Magazine foi the 8809 
Computer Months Ahead o* All Otheisi 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Rd. 
Hixson, TN 37343 

USA 

1 Y( — S24 50 2 Vr —iAZ 50 3 Vr —S6A 50 

■Foreign Surface Add $12 Vr lo USA Pnce 

Foreign Air Mai! Add 135 Vr to USA Price 

'Canada S Mp.iro A<)d S5 50 Yr :<) USA Pr.c: '^'^ 



80 Micro, February 1983 •213 



used by Program Listing 1 . You 
reserve space in memory for the 
machine-language program by enter- 
ing 32511 when the computer requests 
the memory size. You then load and 
run the machine-language subroutine 
and the main program. 

Program Listing 1 produces a sinu- 
soidal temperature pattern (range 
10-35 °C) with 16 hours of light and 
eight hours of darkness. Line 20 is the 
start of a one-minute loop that counts 
to 1,440 minutes, the number of min- 
utes in a day. Lines 22 and 24 are a 
loop that just wastes time, allowing the 



loop that starts in line 20 to equal a 
minute in duration. Line 30 POKEs the 
address of the machine -language sub- 
routine into the memory for use by the 
USR command. Line 40 calls the 
machine-language subroutine, which 
tells the Basic program the frequency 
of the output of the oscillator, X, and 
allows the computer to convert this 
output to a temperature in line 100. 

The equation in line 100 is simply a 
polynomial curve fit of the thermis- 
tor/oscillator -pulse-output-(X)-ver- 
sus-temperature (°C) curve. The con- 
stants in this equation must be ob- 



5 CLS 

10 V=0 

20 FORS=l TO 1440 

22 FOR J = 1 TO 19883 

24 NEXT J 

30 POKE 16526,0: POKE 16527,127 

40 X = USR(V) 

90 TI = 12.5*SIN(l/720*3. 14159*3-3.1459/2) + 22.5 

100 TM = 5128.69-6.37239*X + 2.96413E-3*Xt2-6.12687E-7*Xt3+4.76548E-n*Xt4 

110 1FTM< = T1 ANDS>960THEN V=4 

120 1FTM< = T1 ANDS<960THEN V = 5 

1 30 IF TM> = Tl AND S>960 THEN V - 

140 IF TM>-TI AND S<960 THEN V = 1 ■ , 

160 OUT 255, V 

170 PRINT S,TM,T1 

180 NEXTS 

190 GOTO 20 

Program Listing I. Basic Program for Control of Temperature and Light Cycles in the 
Incubator 



Hem 


Quantity 


Description 


Capacitors 


2 


2000(jf 16 Vdc electrolytic 
O.Olt^f ceramic 
0.05;jf polystyrene 


Diodes 


6 


1N4003 
lN914(for741) 


Transistors 




2N2222 NPN 


Resistors 




47000Q 
lOOOS? 
4700Q 
100,000Q 


Relays 


2 


lOOQ 12 Vdc W88 CPX:6 


Transformers 




Triad F203U Pri 110 Vac Sec 27 Vac-CT 


!C chips 




CD 4047 Monostable/astable multivibrator 
741 CP General-purpose operational amplifier 


Sockets 


2 


14 pin IC 
8 pin IC 
wall 


Thermistor 




I MQ @ 25 °C glass probe 


Heater/fan assembly 




Cenco refrigerating incubator — Model 46042 330 W 
(measured) 


Jacks 


2 


subminiature 'At" phone plug 


Grounded wall plug 






Mounting board 






Box 




9"x6"x5" 




Table I. 


Parts List for Interface Device 



tained to fit the particular thermistor 
used. Line 90 defines the 24-hour tem- 
perature cycle that you desire in the in- 
cubator. In this program, TI, as a 
function of time, is sinusoidal and os- 
cillates between 10 and 35 °C. The 
equations in Unes 110-140 control the 
heater and lights in the incubator. If 
TM is less than or equal to TI, then the 
heater turns on. If S is less than 960 
then the lights turn on. Following log- 
ically from this, when lines 1 10-140 set 
V to equal five, both the lights and the 
heater will turn on; when V equals 
four, the heater will be on while the 
lights are off; when V equals zero, both 
the lights and the heater will be off; 
and when V equals one, the lights will 
be on and the heater off. This is the in- 
formation conveyed to the interface via 
the OUT statement given in line 160. 

To modify the temperature cycle in 
the incubator, you simply change the 
equation in line 90. If you modify any 
part of the program, however, change 
the time-wasting loop in lines 22 and 24 
to set the period of the loop that begins 
in line 20 equal to one minute. If your 
heater is more powerful than the one 
used here, or you want to control 
temperature more precisely, the loop 
that starts in line 20 can be sped up and 
TM can be assessed and compared to 
TI more frequently. The heater will 
then stay on (and off) for shorter peri- 
ods of time and temperature fluctua- 
tions within the incubator will be 
smaller. If the loop, which starts at 20, 
is sped up, obviously you'll have to 
modify all facets of the program in- 
volving S to maintain a 24-hour cycle. 

You can create a variety of special 
effects with the computer. You can 
simulate sun flecks by throwing ran- 
dom components into the main pro- 
gram that will turn the lights off for 
brief periods during the day. A ran- 
dom component to the temperature 
variation can also be simulated, or ac- 
tual outdoor temperature can be read 
from a tape and used for control levels. 
You can also program the computer so 
that the photoperiod within the incu- 
bator will change over time to simulate 
fluctuations in day length. The number 
and types of photo and temperature 
cycles that the computer can set up and 
control is only limited by the imagina- 
tion of the programmer. 

Results and Discussion 

Figure 2 compares setpoint tempera- 
ture (TI), the temperature measured by 
the computer (TM), and the tempera- 
ture measured by a thermistor operat- 
ing independently inside the incubator. 



214 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



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CALL 0A7FH;GET USR PARAMETER 
START: DI;DISABLE INTERRUPT 

LD{STAT),HL;STORE USR PARAMETER 

PUSH BC;SAVE REGISTERS 

PUSH AF 

CALL RESET;RESET CASSETTE LATCH 

LD HL,1000H;LOAD TIMER COUNTER 
GBl : DEC HL;DECREMENT COUNTER 

LD A,H 

OR L;CHECK FOR ZERO 

JR Z,REST;IF NO PULSE, QUIT 

IN A,255);INPUT FROM PORT 

RLA;GET HI BIT 

JR NC,GBI;TRY AGAIN IF NO PULSE 
Dl: LDB,10H;WAIT 

DJNZS 

CALL RESET;RESET LATCH 

LD HL,iOOOH;LOAD TIMER COUNTER 
D2: DEC HL;DECREMENT COUNTER' 

LD A,H;CHECK FOR 

OR L;ZERO 

JR Z,REST;FINISHED IF ZERO 

IN A, (255); INPUT FROM PORT 

RLA;GETHIBIT 

JR NC,D2;TRY AGAIN IF ZERO 

LD B,H;SAVE REST OF COUNT 

LDC,L;INB,C 
D3: DEC BC:THIS LOOP IS JUT 

LD A,B;TO WASTE TIME 

OR C;EOUAL TO THE PORT 

JR Z, REST; INPUT TIME UNTIL 

IN A,(255);I000H COUNTS ARE 

RLA;FINISHED 

JR NZ,D3 
REST: POP AF;RESTORE REGISTERS 

POPBC 

JP 0A9AH;RETURN TEMP TO USR 
RESET: LD A,(STAT);GET USR PARAMETER 

OUT (255},A;OUTPUT IT 

RET 
STAT: DW OH 

END 

Program Listing 2. Machine-language Subroutine to Measure incubator Temperature 





10 


FOR I = 32512 TO 32581 




20 


READ A 




30 


POKE I,A 




50 


NEXT 




60 


DATA205,127,10,243,34,68,127,!97,245,205 




70 


DATA 62,127,33,0,16,43,124,181,40,37 




80 


DATA 219,255,23,48,246,6,16,16,254,205 




90 


DATA 62,127,33,0,16,43,124,181,40,17 




100 


DATA 219,255,23,48,246,68,77, 11 , 120, 177 




110 


DATA 40,5,219,255,23.32,246,241,193,195 




120 


DATA 154,10,58,68,127,211,255,201,0,0 


Program Listing 3. 


Basic Program for POKEing Machine-language Subroutine into High 


Memory 







216 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



EDUCATION 



Son of Pilot 



by Randy Hawkins 



Son of Pilot is a rewrite of "Pilot— 
The Language of Computer-Aided In- 
struction," which appeared in the July 
1981 issue of 80 Micro. The original 
version was only usable on a cassette- 
based Model I. Son of Pilot should 
work on any TRS-80 system— any 
model, any memory size, and either cas- 
sette or disk based. 

Pilot (Programmed Inquiry, Learn- 
ing, or Teaching) is a simple, easy-to- 
learn language that is useful in educa- 
tion. Pilot lets you construct lessons 
that present information to students on 
the computer video display, ask ques- 
tions to test for comprehension, and 
jump forward or backward in the les- 
son. Dr. John Starkweather developed 
Pilot's structure around 1970, and it has 
been implemented on many small com- 
puter systems. 

The Basic Program Listing 1 POKEs 
the Pilot interpreter into high memory 
of any TRS-80. This program takes the 
place of the System tape created in the 
earlier article. To use Pilot, type in the 
program. Before you run the program, 
CSAVE it to tape or save it to disk, be- 
cause any error in the program could 
cause your computer to return to the 
memory-size or cassette prompts or re- 
boot the disk. 

A method of checksums is used, so if 
you make a typing error, you are noti- 
fied which line contains the error. Al- 
though the program POKEs numbers 
into high memory, you need not worry 
about setting the memory size, because 
it is handled automatically. As the pro- 
gram runs, you can see the line numbers 
advancing with the on-screen message. 
The program deletes itself in line 390 
when completed. 

The Pilot interpreter in Listing 1 is 

218 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



If you've wanted to 
use Pilot, but it did 
not work on your system, 
try this altered version. 



similar to the one from the earlier arti- 
cle — only the method of entry has 
changed. If you are successfully using 
the original version, you don't need to 
discard it and switch to this one. Both 
interpreters function exactly the same. 

If all goes well as you type in the pro- 
gram, what has been accomplished? 
When you load a Basic program into 
memory and type run, the Basic inter- 
preter located in ROM examines your 
program and acts on the individual 
commands. Basic is an interpreter that 
translates keywords like Print, For... 
Next, and If.. .Then into actions. Sim- 
ilarly, the short machine-language Pilot 
interpreter located in high memory also 
translates your Pilot programs into ac- 
tions. Since Run is already used as the 
Basic go signal. Pilot uses the Name 
command as the signal to begin execu- 
tion. Name is a Basic keyword that is 
not used for any important function. 

Although the Pilot commands are ex- 
plained in the original article, Program 
Listing 2 illustrates them and presents a 
sample program. Type in the program 
using the standard Level II input and 
editing features. When the listing is cor- 
rect, type "NAME" and execute the 
program. 

Each Pilot statement is numbered. 
The numbers can be any value from - 
32767, and the gaps between statements 
need not be regular. The numbers serve 



two purposes — to put the commands in 
order from first to last and to serve as 
reference points when a jump is made 
from one point to another. Following 
each number is a letter and a quotation 
mark. The letter identifies the type of 
statement, and the quotation mark 
isolates it from the rest of the line. 
(Some versions of Pilot use a colon 
rather than the quote; if you wish to use 
Pilot programs written for other sys- 
tems, simply substitute the quote for the 
colon.) 

The C command means "clear the 
screen and print the message that fol- 
lows." The A command stands for 
"ask the question that follows." When 
the A command is found, the question 
is printed on the screen, a question 
mark is added, and the computer waits 
for the student to type in his answer and 
press enter. The student's answer is 
stored in a special temporary memory 
of the TRS-80. It can be reprinted on 
the screen by using the @ symbol in any 
other message. The W command means 
"clear the screen, and print the follow- 
ing message in wide letters." 

The sample program gets the 
student's name in line 20, the screen is 
cleared and switched to wide letters in 
line 30, and the name is reprinted as ' 'Hi 
Bobby!" using the @ symbol in the 
same line. The T command means 
"type the following message on 
screen. " Following a question in an Ask 
command, you'll usudly want to match 
the answer with the correct value. This 
is done in lines 70, 90, and 1 10. Line 70 
illustrates that when several acceptable 
answers exist, they can be listed in the 
match statement separated by slashes; if 
any one answer is correct, then the 
match is successful. 



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The program can jump forward or 
backward with the J command. As 
shown in line 150, the J is followed by 
the line number that you want to jump 
to. An E command signals the end of 
the program. 

When a match is made with the M 
command, the TRS-80 asks itself, in ef- 
fect, "Does the student's response 
match the correct values listed here in 
the M statement?" If the answer is yes, 
then any command preceded by the let- 
ter Y is performed; any preceded by an 
N for no will be ignored. Conversely, if 
the match gives a no answer, the N com- 
mands are performed. So, if the student 
answers 2, line 100 will be typed. Any 
command can be preceded by a Y or N. 
When they are preceded with the yes/no 
conditional, the answer to the most re- 
cent match statement is used as the basis 
for skipping or executing that statement. 

Pilot is easy to learn. Because it has a 
simple structure, you don't need to 
worry about the mechanics of program- 
ming. Instead, you can concentrate on 
the lesson. 

Many teachers and parents use Pilot 
to teach students a wide variety of sub- 
jects. However, many students also use 
Pilot to learn about computer program- 
ming. Pilot is an excellent first language 
for children. Since they are not over- 
whelmed by a large number of com- 
mands and rules, they can begin writing 
their own programs in less than an 
hour. Pilot teaches them to break a pro- 
gram idea into a series of smaller steps. 

Any time you want to use Pilot to 
write a new program or to execute an 
old one, the procedure is the same. 
First, load the Basic program of Listing 
I and run it. This provides the TRS-80 
with the special information it needs to 
translate Pilot programs into action. 
Next, load the desired program or type 
in a new one. Use the Name command 
to begin Pilot execution. You do not 



need to reload the interpreter of Listing 
I unless you return to the memory-size 
or cassette prompts, or turn off the 
power. You can even switch over to 
Basic and run several programs. Unless 
these programs alter high memory by 
POKEing into that area, Pilot will still 
be available for execution with the 
Name command. 

Here are some tips for creating your 
own Pilot programs. Remember, when 
another user loads and runs your pro- 



gram, he might answer every question 
in lowercase, uppercase, or a combina- 
tion of letters. Try to anticipate these 
combinations in your match state- 
ments. For example, even a simple yes 
or no question might look like this: 
100 M"YES/yes/Yes/Y/y 

If your program is too long to com- 
plete in one session, provide the option 
to skip over lesson units at the begin- 
ning of the program. If units 1,2, and 3 
begin at hnes 1000, 2000, and 3000, then 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

101 

111 

12( 

131 

14( 

151 

161 

171 

181 

19( 

201 

211 

22( 

231 

24t 

25t 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 



Ml^PEEK (16561) +256*PEEK( 16562) -350 :MS=Ml+65536* (Ml >32767) 
P0KE16561,[HSAND255) : POKE16562 , INT {Ml/256 ) :CLEAR50 
H1-PEEK(16561)+256*PEEK(1656 2) : MS=HH-65536 * (Ml >32767) 
S1=M1+4 5:SS=S1+65535*(S1>327 67) 

P0KE167 83,(SSAND25 5) : POKE167 84 , INT( Sl/256 ) : t1S=MS + 2 : LI-=11 
CLS:PRINT@266, "Loading PILOT Interpreter ... please wait" 
LI=LI+10:READAS,CS:IFA$="END"THEN36 0ELSEFORI-1TOLEN(AS)STEP2 
MS=MS+65536*(MS>32767) :PRINT@403, "Poking DATA of line";LI 
Al$-MID$(AS,I,1) :Al=ASC(Al$)-48+7*(AlS>"@") 

A2$=MIDS( AS, 1+1,1) :A2=ASC(A2S)-48+7*[A2S>"@") :A3-A1*16+A2 

P0KEMS,A3 :X=X+A3 :MS=MS+1 :NEXTI : IFX<>CSTHEN400ELSEX=0 : GOTO70 

DATA CDC901187BCDC9013E17CD2A03,1296 

DATA 1871237EFE22205DE5C5237EFE,155 2 

DATA 280 3CDA7 28CDB31BFE012812,117 9 

DATA C1E1184C2AA4400E59D5D13A40,1435 

DATA 3BFE0 4 2003C3191A7EFE0 23 20,104 5 

DATA 57EPE0 028F223 5E2356D5237E,1291 

DATA FE592822FE4E281EFE542826FE,1489 

DATA 412 8BlFE4D2 85DFE4A286 4FE4 5,1537 

DATA 285 2FE57 2 8 97FE4328 8E183 8B9,14 22 

DATA 2 8D5 237EFE0 20FA2318B1237E,13 47 

DATA FE2220 26E5C5237EFE0 2815FE,1514 

DATA 402806CD2A03 2318FlE5 2AA7 40,il62 

DATA CDA72 8E12318E63E0DCD2A03C1,14 44 

DATA E118CB210000CDA728E1CD9A0A,1491 

DATA CDBD0FCDA72 8C3191A0E59237E,1331 

DATA FE222 0E5E51830237EFE222 0DC,1551 

DATA 23C5CD5A1E2AA4 4 07DB4281B4E,1277 

DATA 2346C5 237EBB2803E118F0237E,1343 

DATA BA2803E118E82B2B2BC1C11887 ,1384 

DATA C118ti2 23 ED5BA7 407 EFE2F2 810,14 84 

DATA FE0 2818EB46EBB820 4231318,1156 

DATA ED237EFE0 2806 FE2F28DE18F4, 1529 

DATA 0E4EE1 1887 455252 4F5 220 4 94E, 1053 

DATA 204C494E4500,328,END,0 

MS=HS-65536*(MS<0) : MS=MS-14 :M2^INT [HS/256 ) : M1=MS-M2*256 

Sl=Sl+130:POKE(Sl+65536*(Sl>32767) ) ,M1 

Sl=Sl+l:POKE(Sl+65536*(Sl>32767) ) ,M2 

CLS:PRINT"TRS-80 PILOT Interpreter Ready" :DELETE10-400 

PRINT: PRINT"ChecksuTn error in line" ;LI : STOP 

Program Listing I 



10 


C"This is 


a PILOT program. ■ 


20 


A"What is 


your name 


30 


W"Hi @! Welcome to PILOT! 


40 


T"What kind ot computer is this: 


50 


T"l-Apple 


2-Atari 3-TRS-80 


60 


A"What is 


your answer 


70 


M"l/One/one/ONE 


80 


YT"Nope, not an Apple! 


90 


M"2 




100 


YT"Sorry 


Atari is wrong! 


110 


M"3 




120 


yT"That's right! Very good! | 


130 


YJ"160 




140 


T"Please 


try again. . . 


150 


J" 40 




160 


E" 






Program Listing 2 



10 A"Which 


jnit (1, 2, or 3) would you like to begin 


with 


20 M"l 






30 YJ"1000 






40 H"2 






50 YJ"2000 






60 M"3 






70 YJ"3000 






80 T"Piease 


enter only the numbers 1 , 2 , or 3. 




90 J"10 






1000 T"This 


is unit 1. 




1010 E" 






2000 T"This 


is unit 2. 




2010 E" 






3000 T"This 


is unit 3. 




3010 E" 


Program Listing 3 





80 Micro, February 1983 • 221 



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include a section at the beginning of the 
program Hke the one shown in Listing 3 . 
Remember that you cannot selectively 
begin Pilot execution at a particular 
statement. So, when you are writing 
and debugging a new program, and 
have already tested the section from line 
10-1990, add a short line 1 J"2000 to 
jump past the debugged section and 
skip forward to the section of interest. 
Then, just before you save the new pro- 
gram to tape or disk, remove line 1. 

Because this version of Pilot has only 
the minimum set of commands, think 
of it as a tiny Pilot interpreter. If you 
find Pilot useful, consider investing in a 
more complete version. Several are 
available, including one from Radio 
Shack. They include graphics options, 
tape and disk input/output commands, 
and other advanced features. 

I would be glad to answer any ques- 
tions you may have, but please include a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope 
with your questions or comments. ■ 



Randy Hawkins is a chemical engi- 
neer. He can be reached at 6214 Hidden 
Cove, Corpus Christi, TX 78412. 



>♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 




PKACTICAl, PKRIPHt-RALS 

BUFFERED PARAl.LFI. INTERFACE 

FOR EPSON PRINTERS 



$159.95 

Plus Shipping 
And Applicable Tax 



The MBP-16K is an intelligent Centronics-compatibie paraiiel interface 
for ttie Epson IVIX-80, MX-80 FH, and MX-100 printers, withi 16,384 bytes of 
on-board RAM for data buffering. 

Tfie buffering capability of tfie MBP-16K increases your data processing 
efficiency by eliminating the wait normally experienced whiile printing. An 
Epson printer prints at 80 characters per second; at this speed it tal<es 
about five minutes to print a 16,000 character document. During most of 
this time the computer is waiting for the Epson to finish one line so it can 
send the next. The computer can't do anything else during this period 
because its's tied to the printer. By using the MBP-16K it takes the 
computer only four seconds to send a 16,000 character document. The net 
result is to eliminate the computer-waiting-for printer/printer-waiting-for- 
computer bottleneck, and keep both working. Any program that involves 
printed output will be speeded up by using the MBP-16K. 

The MBP-16K supports all standard Epson Commands, is compatible 
with GRAFTRAX-aO, and is plug compatible with the standard Epson cable. 
The MPB-16K does not require any user software for control. 

The MBP-16K is easy to install — it simply plugs into the existing 
auxiliary interface connector inside the Epson without modification of the 
printer. 



"VIZ. A. CON." 

A CONSOLIDATION SYSTEM FOR VISICALC USERS 

NEW PRODUCT ADDS 3-niMENSIONAE CAPABILH V FOR VISICAI.C MODELS. 

In the pasi, to do a consolidalion wilti VISiCALC, a user had lo replicate Ihe model in 
rremofy and laboriously build Itie formulas to sum Ihe cells. Ttie fifst thing one 
discovers using this approach is triat you quickly run out of memory. The second is thai 
recalculation lime gets much longer. The third is that you spend a lot of time operating 
and controlling the consolidation process. 

Now with the help of VIZ. A, CON. you can add a third dimension to your VISICALC 
models. You can combine multiple "pages" of VISICALC data from a model for 
hierarchical consolidations (eg. Deparlment, Division. Company, etc.) or for 
summations over periods of time (eg, Monih, Quarter, Year-To-Date, etc) 

VIZ. A, CON, creates data liles usable with VISICALC. You can use VISICALC for 
"what if" games at any level of your consolidation. Then use VIZ, A, CON to find out 
*hat happened al olher levels, 

VIZ. A. CON. gives you the ability lo set up special formulas (e,g, rations, 
percentages) that can be recalculated alter a consolidation process. You can customize 
titles, row and column headings, tootnotes, etc, for each report created by VIZ. A, CON. 
Reports can be automatically saved in standard ASCII form that can be used with a 
word processor. VISICALC precision is maintained for all data, 

TRS-80 Model I/Ill Disk S89.95 

TRS-eO Model II 64K S119.95 

IBM PC 64K and above $119.95 



ASSET MANAGER 

"ASSET SYSTEM" is a completely computerized asset depreciation system, 
particularly designed tor the 48K TRS 80 Model III, DOSPLUS 3.4, and dot matrix printer. 
The system: 

1) assigns control numbers to each asset, 

2) accumulates assets according to General Ledger codes, 

3) computes depreciation expense on each asset. 

The "ASSET SYSTEM" is comprised of six primary programs: 

1) Asset System Menu 4) Asset sort 

2) Property 5) Search 

3) Reports 6) Delete 

The "SYSTEM" is configured lo handle 500 asset numbers. Counters are displayed on 
the screen as the data is being entered. This enables you to monitor your progress as 
data IS entered. 

TRS80 MOD III Disk only $79.95 

Also available: 

General Ledger Program Disk Model III $125.00 



MICRO SOLUTIONS, INC. Software Center 



Master Charge & Visa 
9949 Harwin, Houston, Texas 77036 



(7 1 3) 789 5443 or 1 -800-231 -6667 



222 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



SOFTWARE 



Its m OKEffl 





50,000 Word Dictionary and Spelling Correction for TRS-SO Model I & ///. 
Electric Pencil 2.0z' Integrated Word Processing System! 



Dateline: January 1983. 

UG has done it again. 

First, I.IG brought the world the 
Electric Pencil 2.0z Word Processing System. 
The easy to learn, easy to use word 
processing system considered by many to be 
one of the finest available. 

Now, IJG brings to the Klectric 
Pencil system . . . 

Blue Pencil, the Expandable 
50,000 Word Dictionary. 

That's right. A 50,000 word 
expandable dictionary that becomes an 
integral part of your Electric Pencil. 

A virtually unlimited number of 
new words can be added to your Blue Pencil, 
making Blue Pencil especially useful for 
proper names, acronyms and professional 
terms. 

No need to exit the operating 
system or run any other programs, just a 
simple two key command and Blue Pencil is 
quickly checking your text. 



It's so simple. 

Spelling and corrections are then 
easily accomplished by using Electric 
Pencil's search-and-replace feature. Or, if 
you would Hke your system to do all the 
work, there also is . . . 

Red Pencil, Easy 
Spelling Correction. 

Red Pencil brings together all the 
features of Electric Pencil and Blue Pencil, 
with a flexible spelling correction program 
that makes copy proofing a breeze. 

Instead of dropping you off to edit 
and correct your own text, your enhanced 
Pencil will now go down the list of misspelled 
words with you, word by word, and offer you 
several options from a menu. 

You can type in the correct 
spelling, leave the word alone, display the 
word in the sentence and then make your 
correction, display the dictionary at the 
nearest location and scroll up or down to find 
the correct spelling, or add or delete the 
word in the dictionary. 



Then Red Pencil returns you to 
your Electric Pencil file with all your 
corrections present in the text, and your new 
file saved under a special name on the data 
disk. Your original file is untouched. 

Fast and Easy Proofing. 

Both Red Pencil and Blue Pencil 
are available (disk only) for $89.95 each at 
computer stores, B. Dalton Booksellers and 
independent book dealers around the world. 

Along with the Electric Pencil 2.0z 
Word Processing System for $89.95 (disk 
version). 

If IJG products are not available 
from your local dealer, order direct from IJG. 

Include $4.00 for shipping and 
handling. Foreign residents add $11.00 plus 
purchase price. U.S. funds only please. 



IJG, Inc. 1953 West 11th Street 
Upland, California 91786 
Phone: 714/946-5805 



Helping You Help Yourself. 




Electric Pencil Trademark Michael Shrayer TRS-80 Trademark TANDY Corp 
I'See List ot Advertisers on Page 387 



£ IJG. Inc. 1982 

80 Micro, February 1983 • 223 



TECHNIQUE 



Cassette Index 



by Andrew Sensicle 



w 



ith some reconstructed cassettes and this 
index, you can shorten your Color Computer's 
loading time to less than 20 seconds. 



Apart from providing a convenient 
way to organize your programs on cas- 
sette, this article explains how to use the 
cassette more efficiently for program 
and data storage. Perhaps it will even 
help you resist buying that disk drive for 
another few months. 

First, since you have only a few 
usable kilobytes of RAM use short 
tapes. I always buy the most inexpen- 
sive cassettes that are held together with 
screws. I take them apart and throw 
away the tape, saving the hubs. From a 
supply of good quality tape, I run two 
minutes worth of tape onto one hub, 
cut the tape, fasten it to the other hub, 
and reassemble the cassette. This yields 
a 16K-per-side "shorty" cassette that 
rewinds in 10 seconds, yet holds several 
short programs or a few long ones on 
each side. 

Even with these diminutive tapes, one 
of my cassettes contains 12 programs 
and requires an index for rapid loading. 

The essence of an index is speed. If an 
index forces y6u to wait to see what is 
on the tape, then forget it! I want to 
load a short program and about one 
screenful of characters in less than 20 
seconds. The standard technique using 
PRINT#-1 saves or loads 500 bytes in 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
16KRAM 
Extended Color Basic 



9-25 seconds, depending on how the 
data is presented, because the data is 
first loaded into a buffer and then 
dumped to tape in a block. Each block 
has a leader train of sync bytes as well as 
a pause to let the drive get up to speed. 

This system has some definite advan- 
tages, but speed is not the greatest 
of them. The block can contain up to 
254 bytes. However, the buffer often 
dumps when it is less than full. For large 
amounts of data the cumulative pauses 
and sync trains can add up to a signifi- 
cant amount of time. Anyway, I was al- 
ready over my target. 

You must record data in a block, but 
you can make a direct memory dump or 
core image of any specified size. This is 
the normal technique for recording ma- 
chine-language programs, and it can be 
borrowed for the data storage as long as 
you know where the data is. 

The program is in two parts. The 
first, Program Listing 1, is a general- 
purpose routine that sets up a string ar- 
ray of the desired size and pads it with 
space characters. It then obtains the 
memory locations of the array. With 
this house-keeping done, it loads data 
into memory or saves it from memory 
as if it is a machine-language program. 

To do this reliably, set up the array in 
a predictable and immovable manner. 
Locate the setup routine before the 
main program, so the Clear statement 
won't affect other operations and also 
enable the placement of the array at the 
top of RAM. By defining the maximum 
number of records (MX) up front, you 



can easily make changes to accommo- 
date more data. The POKE/PEEK in 
lines 110 and 130 let the value of MX 
survive the Clear statement. Predefine 
any variables used in obtaining the data 
address, since their subsequent creation 
changes the VARPTR value. 

Strings are saved in memory from the 
top downward, so the lowest memory 
address is that of the highest element in 
the array. VARPTR for this element 
(line 1 80) then points to a location con- 
taining the length of that string element. 
The third and fourth bytes point to the 
actual location of the beginning of the 
string. All you have to do is PEEK those 
locations, calculate the two-byte ad- 
dress Gine 190), then get the end-of- 
Basic-RAM address that is given in lo- 
cations 39 and 40 decimal. If the main 
program makes USR calls to RAM rou- 
tines or requires protected memory for 
other reasons, then the required address 
should be included in the Clear state- 
ment on line 120, as shown in the Color 
Computer manual. 

The two parts of the program are 
shown together in Program Listing 2. In 
hne 220, the data file INDAT is loaded 
for display and editing. The string data 
is modified using the MID$ statement 
(see line 320). The statement doesn't re- 
define the string but merely modifies it. 
It can't change in length, and it remains 
at the same memory location. 

A few words are needed on the ma- 
chine-language Save statement in line 
420. The Color Computer manual is al- 
most misleading in this respect. The 
only reference to CSAVEM is in the 
summary on page 192. It states correct- 
ly that CSAVEM has four parameters, 
but it incorrectly indicates that the first 
is a numeric variable and others are hex- 
adecimal constants. In fact, the first pa- 
rameter is the filespec and must be a 
string variable or a string literal en- 



224 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



AND SERVICE 
TOO GOOD TO 



GOOD TO PASS UP! 



GAMES for M 


ode 


I/Ill 




tape 


disk 


Galaxy Invasion, Super Nova 


12-75 


15.95 


Attack Force, Meteor Mission 2 


12.75 


15.95 


Cosmic Fighter, Rotxit Attack 


12.75 


15.95 


Weerd (Niv from Big Five) 


15.95 


15.95 


Forbidden Planet, Forbidden City 


n/3 


29.95 


Hyperligtit Patrol 


n/a 


15.50 


Defiance 


n/a 


19.50 


Panik 


15.50 


19.50 


Caterpillar, Alien Defense 


13.95 


17.25 


Scarfman, BounceoitJs 


13.95 


17.25 


Penitrator 


21.75 


21.75 


Eliminator, Sea Dragon 


15.95 


19.95 


Rear Guard. Armoured Patrol 


15.95 


19.95 


Adv. International Adventures 






Tripacl-3, 4-6. 7-9, or 10-12 


n/a 


31.75 


COLOR COMPUTER 


Colof Scarfman 


17.25 


n/a 


Typing Tutor 


17.25 


n/a 


Bugout (Monitor) 


16.95 


n/a 


Adv. Int1 Games #1 


15.95 


n/a 


Deatfiplanet: Tfie Dogstar Adv. 


15.95 


n/a 


Mean Craps Mactiinc 


15.95 


n/a 


Ghost Gobbler 


17.50 


20.50 


Color Cosmic Invaders 


17.50 


20.50 


CCthello 


12.75 


14.95 


Oracle (Graphic Monitor) 


n/a 


22.95 



STICK BO 
JOYSTICK 

From Adventure International, this 
joystick is fully compatible with 
any level II TRS-80 Model I or III 
system. Assembled & tested, it 
simply plugs into your present 
system. Experience true arcade pizzazz and feel from 
your TRS-80. (Specify Model I or III), List S39.95. 

$31.75 




SUPPLIES 

Mailing Labels, 1 up, 5,000 quantity 15.95 

2 up, 10,000 quantity 31.60 

3 up, 15,000 quantity 47.25 
MX-80 Ribbon Cartridges 7.95 
MX-100 Ribbon Cartridges 12.95 
Verbatim Diskettes, 5%" SS/DD 25.50 



LOOS® 

A disk operating system so good that Radio Shack has 
started selling them. A must for every Model I/Ill owner 
even if you have other advanced operating systems. 
Features full keyboard type-ahead, a true print spooler, 
hard disk support, data transportability between the 
Model I and 111, Job Control Language, communications 
utility, 400 page manual, customer service number, and 
so much morel! Tfiis is the one. List price $129.00. 

$114.95 



The quality word prxes- 
sor that makes others 
obsolete. Lazy Writer pro- 
vides ill the features in- 
cluding page breaks befoce 
printing, disk directory 
without going to DOS, 
user definable function 
keys, and much, much 
more. True proportional 
spacing, automatic decimal alignment, automatic math 
calculations, and graphics are optional extras. List 

'"'■"'■ $149.99 



Lozg 
Uriter 



OMNITERM 

TTie best "smart" terminal package available for the 
Model I/Ill. It's menu driven and includes a text editor, 
four conversion utilities, and setting files to access all of 
the popular data bases such as CompuServe, the Source, 
Dow Jones, etc. User defined keys and automatic 
reformatting of data to the size of your screen are only 
two of many extra features. The 76-page manual also 
has been called the "best in the industry". List S95.00. 

$79.95 



MODEL I. Ill 
SOFTWARE 

Newdos/80 SI 34.95 

Electric Webster -I- Correction 137.95 

Electric Webster 84.95 

Newscript 99.95 

Newscript with Labels 1 14.95 

Newscript Labels 27.75 
Micro Clinic (memory/disk diagnostics) 

Model I 24.50 

Model III 28.50 



MAXI SERIES 

The M»l Siriii from The Business Division offers 
maximum versatility and ease of operation that is 
unmatched. Maxi programs are compatible with each 
other and, where appropriate, will interface with major 
word processing and spreadsheet programs. A telephone 
support line is available for technical assistance, i( 
needed. 



Maxi Manager 

A data base management system for your most demand- 
ing business applications. Six different relational search 
techniques, 20 user-defineij fields of 40 characters, 
record length up to 800 characters, calculated equation 
fields, and works with any major word processor. Price 
includes Hixl UIillt)f. Requires 1 drive. List £149,95. 

$119.50 

Maxi Mail 

The ultimate in low-cost, high performance, mail list 
management. Menu driven with unlimited storage capa- 
city (each disk holds about 1 ,000 names and addresses 
and you can have as many disks as needed). Almost un- 
limited coding capabilities, up to 1 3 fields for each record. 
Use with major word processors to generate form letters. 
Model III only, 2 disk drives required. List price S99.95. 

$79.95 

Maxi Cras 

A Chick Riglttgr AccHitlig Syttin featuring 223 
income/expense accounts, with no limit to the number of 
transactions. Will print statements showing activity in 
one or more accounts over a specified period of time, 
check registers, income and expense sub-totals, and an 
account distribution statement. If you have been disap- 
pointed with other money management systems, it's 
time to get the best. Requires 2 drives. List S99.95. 

$79.95 

Maxi Stat 

A complete statistical package for the TRS-80 that is 
similar to the well-known SPSS program used on large 
mainframes. Mixi Strt is the most useful statistical 
analysis package available for the TRS-60. Requires 2 
drives. UslS199.95. 

$169.95 



24-Hour Shipping for Items in Stock 
Defective or Unusabie items Promptly 

Replaced (and we pay shipping) 

Large Selectiot>-Caii for Items Not Listed 



Toii Free Order Line ; 

Free Shipping on Orders over $1 00 1 

(S2,00 charge on orders under SI 00) ; 

Friendly, Honest, Reiiable Service ; 



Visa, MasterCard, check, cash, money orders: COD 
orders up to S350.00 are accepted. 

Free UPS standard shipping in the U.S. on orders over 
SI 00. Add S2.00 for shipping and handling on all orders 
under SIOO. All GOD orders will be charged S3.00 plus 
actual carrier charges and require cash or certified check 
on delivery. 

When ordering by mail, include your telephone number, 
credit card number and expiration date, computer model, 
amount of memory, and number of disk drives. Colorado 
residents add appropriate sales tax (6'/2% in Denver). 

Prices are subject to change without notice. 



I Applied Microsystems, Inc. 

I 612 Washington, Denver, CO 80203 



^--390 



Z^IT 1 -800-468-4474 

IN COLORADO CALL 861-9250 



LDOS is a trademark of Logical Systems, Inc. 



TRS-BD and Radio Shack are trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



•••••••••*• 









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^130 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 



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closed in quotes. The remaining param- 
eters can be eitlier numeric variables or 
decimal constants separated by com- 
mas. They define the start, end, and ex- 
ecute addresses respectively. None of 
the parameters are optional, although 
the filespec can be a null string. For 
data, the execute address is meaning- 
less; I use 350 {15EH), which contains a 
return, in case it gets executed by 
mistake. 

Program Operation 

After saving a file, as shown in line 
600, CLOAD and run the program. 



Fourteen lines of index are displayed. 
Press any key to produce any additional 
lines. The "Enter Line No." prompt 
then appears. 

If you need to add or change a line, 
type its number and press enter. If no 
number is given, the program exits. If 
additions or changes have been made, 
the program exits through a cassette 
save routine. ■ 



Andrew Sensicle can be reached a! 
119 Frost Drive, Whitby, Ontario, 
Canada UP IGl. 



100 

no 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
800 



MX=13 'MAX RECORDS -1 

POKE 500,MX 

CLEAR MX*28+ 100 

MX = PEEK(500) 

P=0: ST = 0; EN = 0' PREDEFINE POINTER AND ADDRESS VARIABLES 

DIM NX$(MX) 

FOR X = TO MX ' FILL ARRAY 

NX$(X) = STRING$(27,46):NEXT 

P = VARPTR(NX$(MX)) ' GET POINTER 

ST = PEEK{P + 2)*256 + PEEK(P + 3) * GET START ADDRESS OF ARRAY 

EN = PEEK(39)*256 + PEEK(40) ' GET END ADDRESS OF ARRAY 

END OF PREPARATION ROUTINE NOW SAVE OR LOAD AS REQUIRED. 

CSAyEM"FILESPEC",ST,EN,350 



CLO ADM " FILESPEC" 



P¥^am Listing I 



10 ' "COCODEX" - CASSETTE INDEX A. SENSICLE 

2 ' ************************* DEC 1931 

100 MX=13 'MAX RECORDS -1 

110 POKE 50 0,r4X 

120 CLEAR HX*28+100 

130 MX=PEEK(500) 

140 P=0:ST=0:EN=0 ' PREDEFINE POINTER AND ADDRESS VARIABLES 

150 DIM NXSiMXl 

160 FOR X=0 TO MX 'FILL ARRAY 

170 NX$(X)=STRING$(27,46) :NEXT 

180 P=VARPTR(NX${MX) ) 'GET POINTER 

190 ST=PEEK(P+2) *256+PEEKCP+3) ' GET START ADDRESS OF ARRAY 

200 EN=PEEK(39) *256+PEEK(40) ' GET END ADDRESS OF ARRAY 

210 CLS; PRINTia232, "LOADING INDEX"; 

220 CLOADM"INDAT" 

230 CLSiFOR X=0 TO MX 

240 PRINT STRS (X+1) ;TAB!4) ;NX${X) 

260 IF{X+1)/14-INT( (X+l)/14)=0 THEN A$=INKEYS : IFA$='"'THEN260I EL 

SE IF ASC(A5) =9THEN280ELSEIFX<HX THEN CLS 

270 NEXT 

280 INPUT" ENTER LINE NO. " ; X 

290 IFX=0 THEN 340 

300 F=l 'SET SAVE FLAG GET NEW LINE 

310 PRINTTAB(3) ; ">"; iLINE INPUT NXS 

320 MID$(NXS{X-1) ,1) =NXS 'SUBSTITUE NEW FOR OLD 

330 CLS: GOTO 230 

340 IFF=0 THEN 430 

350 CLS: PRINT" REWIND TAPE AND PUT CASSETTE" 

360 PRINTTAB{10) ;"0N RECORD." 

370 PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE"; 

380 AS=INKEYS:IFA$=""THEN380 

390 CLS:PRINT@232, "SAVING PROGRAM"; 

400 CSAVE"C0C0DEX" 

410 PRINT@232, "SAVING INDEX 

420 CSAVEH"INDAT",ST,EN,350 

430 CLS 

Program Listing 2 



226 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



^*:.e^ 




You could spend hours 
typing in your programs^ 

Or you 
could get 




Witii LOAD 80 

you'll avoid all the hassles 

while enjoying all the benefits 



ALL THE MAJOR 

PROGRAM LISTINGS 

FROM EACH MONTH 

OF 80 MICRO ON 
CASSETTE OR DISK 

'FOR SPECIAL ANNIVERSARY 

ISSUE CASSETTE SEE AD 

ELSEWHERE IN ISSUE. 

For information about 
Color Load 80 see page 



361. 



What exactly is LOAD 80? Simply put, it is a monthly dump of 
the major program listings in each issue of 80 MICRO. Since it 
was introduced in April of 1981, hundreds of TRS-80* users like 
yourself have discovered the advantages and benefits of LOAD 
80. This comes as no surprise to Wayne Green, the innovative 
publisher viho created LOAD 80. He knew from experience how 
frustrating and tinne consuming it was to keyboard and debug 
even a single published program, let alone all the major pro- 
gram listings in an issue of 80 MICRO. He was sure that a great 
many people were just as frustrated as he was and would jump 
at the opportunity to have those programs available in "ready- 
to-load" form. 

Wayne couldn't have been more right. LOAD 80 has been a 
boom to TRS-80 users, allowing them to spend more time ac- 
tually using their computers, while at the same time saving 
them a lot of aggravation and a good deal of money. 



And now you can enjoy all the benefits of the major program 
listings in 80 MICRO without the aggravation of keyboarding 
and debugging them. Start your subscription to LOAD 80 with 
this month's issue and save close to 30% on the monthly price. 
And with a year's subscription, your cost per month {for an 
average of 10 programs per cassette or disk) is about what it 
would cost you to purchase one program at retail prices. Plus 
you get the extra added advantage of having the complete 
documentation for the major programs in that month's issue of 
80 MICRO, so loading your cassette or booting up your disk 
should present no problem at all. 

To order your LOAD 80 subscription, or this month's issue 
only, simply fill in the attached card or the coupon below (a pho- 
tocopy is acceptable) and send it to: LOAD 80, 80 Pine Street, 
Peterborough, NH 03458, or call our toll free number: 
1-800-258-5473. You can also order back issues of LOAD 80. For 
complete details, look for the LOAD 80 back issues advertise- 
ment in this magazine, or see your local deafer. 



LOAD80disksareTRSDOS2.3forrnatted, single density and floppy-sided. They will not contain an operating syslem. Single drive users need a copy ulility; Model I II users 
need the TRS-DOS 1.2/1.3 Convert utility. Source code tiles may not be useable on the Model III. LOAD 80 cassettes run only on the Model I and Model ill computers. 



Yes, I want February LOAD 80 



CYES. I want this month's LOAD 80 on disk for $19,97 
each (plus $1.50 per disk tor postage and handling). 

□ YES, I want to save money. I'll subscribe to LOAD 80 on 
disk beginning with this month's issue. , ,$199,97 



D Visa D Am. Ex G MasterCard 
G Check/Money order 



□ YES, I want a cassette of this month's LOAD 80 for $9,97 
each {plus $1,50 per tape tor postage and handling], 

□ YES, \ want to save money. Sign me up for a year of 
LOAD 80 beginning with this month's cassette , , . $99.97 
tor 12 Issues. 



Name: 

Address: 

City: 

Signature: 

LOAD 80 is manufactured by Instant Software, a subsidiary of WAYNE GREEN INU., dU Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458, There is no warranty 5 
expressedor implied that LOAD80 will do anytfiing other than save you typing, Foreion air mail Diease inoulre 



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*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 
80 Micro, February 1983 • 227 



REVIEW 



The Model 16 



by Jim Hawkes 



Radio Shack's 16-bit 
entry, the Model 16, is a 
significant computer de- 
sign. Although the labels 
micro, mini, and main- 
frame overlap in today's 
marketplace, it is safe to 
say the Model 16 is a mini- 
computer. The machine 
has the potential to place 
the company squarely ir 
competition with IBM, DEC 
Burroughs, Wang, Data General, 
and others in the lucrative low-end 
minicomputer market. 

Radio Shack has approached this 
market slowly, incorporating more intel- 
ligent (or programmable) microproces- 
sors in their designs. Radio Shack's first 
computer, the Model 1, contained only 
two programmable devices, the disk con- 
troller and the CPU. The Model II added 
keyboard, video, and other I/O control- 
lers. The latest design, the Model 16, in- 
corporates what many consider to be the 
most powerful of the 16-bit microproces- 
sors, the Motorola MC68000. 

It appears that Radio Shack's selec- 
tion of the MC68000 may be as fortuitous 
as their selection of the Z80 for the Model 
I. The parallels of the CPU design deci- 
sions between the Model 1 and Model 16 
is striking. When the Model 1 was in the 
design stages, the Z80 was just beginning 
to enter full production. Though there 
was very little software compared to its 
cousin the Intel 8080, the Z80 was 
thought to be a substantial improvement. 

The same can be said with respect 

228 • 80 Micro, February 1983 




8086 family of 16-bit 

CPUs and the MC68000. The 8086 was 
released much earlier than the 
MC68000 and therefore had a substan- 
tial lead in software development. 
However, the Motorola microprocessor 
is thought to be superior — although it 
has very little software support. 

Motorola was later than its principal 
competitors, Zilog and Intel, in entering 
the 16-bit market. By waiting, they were 
able to complete a design that contains 
over 68,000 transistors as compared to 
29,000 in Intel's 8086. 

Radio Shack refers to the MC68000 
in the Model 16 as "advanced 16/32 bit 
technology." What defines a 16-bit 
machine remains a moot point. A sim- 
plistic view would label any processor 
that simultaneously reads or writes 16 
bits to memory as a 16-bit processor; us- 
ing this definition the MC68000 (68K) 
qualifies. 

A more careful definition considers 



register widths and types 
as well as the instruc- 
tion set of the micro- 
processor. Using this 
definition, the 68K 
may qualify as a 32-bit 
machine, since it 
contains 16 32- 
bit registers 
as well as a 
powerful in- 
„„uction set. The 
Mt 'i8020 CPU is the true 32- 
„.i J~ . i~~, ..aving 32-bit data and ad- 
dress buses to complement its 32-bit in- 
ternal registers. 

In addition to processing four times 
as many bytes as 8-bit devices, the 68K 
prefetches instructions to the CPU be- 
fore they need to be executed. When the 
CPU is ready to perform the next in- 
struction, it is fetched from memory 
(called a cache) contained within the mi- 
croprocessor. This type of look-ahead 
processing is called pipelining and re- 
sults in faster operation since instruc- 
tion fetch cycles do not interrupt in- 
struction execution. 

Another characteristic that distin- 
guishes the microprocessor is a signifi- 
cantly broader range of instructions 
than its 8-bit counterparts. In particu- 
lar, it performs hardware multiply and 
divide, tasks that require subroutines on 
most 8-bit CPUs. In addition, several 
instructions have been added to ease the 
manipulation of data structures. 

Not only does the 68K operate on 
more bits with more instructions, it also 



PROGRAMMING TOOLS FOR YOUR 
TRS-80® MODEL I AND MODEL III 



INSTANT ASSEMBLER 

The INSTANT ASSEMBLER is a powerful disk or tape-based assembler and debugger for 
the TRS-80. Now you can assemble directly to memory and immediately debug your 
program with the built in single stepping debugger Quickly switch from assembler to 
debugger and back again without losing the source code. This feature makes INSTANT 
ASSEMBLER an excellent learning tool for assembly language programming, 
INSTANT ASSEMBLER is absolutely unique among tape based assemblers in that it 
produces relocatable code modules that can be linked with the separate LINKING LOADER. 
which is supplied in two versions for loading programs into either high or low RAM, This lets 
you build long programs with small modules, INSTANT ASSEMBLER also features im- 
mediate detection of errors as the source code is entered, a compactly coded source format 
that uses 1/3 as much memory as standard source, and many operational features including 
single stroke entry of DEFB and DEFW, pinpoint control of listings, alphabetic bsting ol 
symbol table, separate commands for listing error lines or the symbol table, block move 
function, and verification of source tapes, 

INSTANT ASSEMBLER'S debugger provides single stepping with full register displays, 
decimal or hex entry of addresses, forward or backward memory displays, disassembly of 
object code in memory, memory display in ASCII format, and hex- to- decimal or decimal- 
to-hex conversion. The single-stepperwill step one instruction ata time or at a fast rate to any 
deiined address, 

INSTANT ASSEMBLER occupies less than S400 bytes of memory. In a :6K machine this 
will leave you enough memory to write assembly language programs of around 2000 bytes. 
This and its module -linking feature make INSTANT ASSEMBLER Ideal for users with only 
16K machines. The instruction manual may be purchased separately for $5, which will apply 
towards the purchase of the INSTANT ASSEMBLER, In addition to disk 1/0, the disk version 
includes a stand-alone version of the debugger program MICROMIND. 

Specify Model I or Model III. TAPE INTASM $29.95 on tape 

Specify Model I or Model III. DISK INTASM $35.95 on disk 

INSIDE LEVEL 11 

The Programmers Guide to the TRS-80 ROMS 

INSIDE LEVEL II is a comprehensive reference guide to the Model 1 and Model III ROMs 
which allows the machine language or Basic programmer to easily utilize the sophisticated 
routines they contain. Concisely explains set-ups, calling sequences, and variable passage 
lor number conversion, arithmetic operations, and mathematical (unctions, as well as 
keyboard, tape, and video routines. Part II presents an entirely new composite program 
structure which loads under the SYSTEM command and executesin both Basic and machine 
code with the speed and efficiency of a compiler. In addition, the 18 chapters include a large 
body of other information useful to the programmer including tape formats, RAM useage, 
relocation of Basic programs, USR call expansion, creating SYSTEM tapes ol your own 
programs, interfacing of Basic variables directly with machine code, and special precautions 
lot disk systems. INSIDE LEVEL II was reviewed in the April 1982 issue of 80 Micro which 
said "The book has no flaws: it is a perfect gem." Byte Magazine said "I recommend this book 
to serious machine language programmers." 
Includes updates for Model III. INSIDE LEVEL 11 $15.95 

SINGLE STEP THROUGH RAM OR ROM 

STEP80 allows you to step through any machine language program one instruction ata time, 
and see the address, hexadecimal value, Zilog mnemonic, register contents, and step count 
for each instruction. The top 14 lines of the video screen are left unaltered so that the "target 
program' may perform its display (unctions unobstructed, STEP80 will follow program flow 
right into the ROMs, and is an invaluable aid in learning how the ROM routines function. 
Commands include step [trace), disassemble, run instep mode at variable step rate, display 
or alter memory or CPU registers, jump to memory location, execute a CALL, set break- 
points in RAM or ROM, write SYSTEM tapes, and relocate to any page in RAM. The display 
may also be routed to your line printer through the device control block so custom print 
dnvers are automatically supported. 
Specify Model I or Model III. STEP80 $16,95 on tape, $2L95 on disk 

DUPLICATE SYSTEM TAPES WITH CLONE 

Make duplicate copies of alinost any tape including Basic, SYSTEM, data lists, assembler 
source, or 'custom loaders". The file name, load address, entry point, and every byte (in 
ASCII format) are displayed on the video screen. Model III version allows changing tape 
speed so you can make 1500 baud copies of 500 baud programs like SCRIPSIT 
Specify Model I or Model ill. CLONE $16.95 on tape, $21.95 on disk 

RESTORE DAMAGED TAPES WITH RESQ2 

RESQ2 will repair cassette tapes that can no longer be loaded because of "crashed"' data. It 
can restore BASIC, SYSTEM, ASSEMBLER, and DATA tapes, RESQ2 compares two copies 
of the damaged tape to attempt a restoration, though restoration can often be accomplished 
with only one copy. Alter the damaged data is corrected in memory, a new tape may be 
recorded and verified which does not contain any errors. The success rate of RESQ2 ujill 
depend on the severity and quantity of errors, RESQ2 comes with a comprehensive user 
manual and examples of two types of 'crashed" programs to practice on. 
Specify Model I or Model III, RESQZ $19,95 on tape 



DISK INDEX VERSION 3 

Our excellent disk indexing program has now been entirely rewritten in machine language, 
DISK INDEX will assemble a master index of your entire program library by automatically 
reading the program names and free space from each disk. The index may then be 
alphabetized or searched for any disk, program, or extension. It will alphabetize 2400 
programs in less than 50 seconds and will find any program out of 2400 in less than 3 
seconds. Disks or programs may be added or deleted manually, and the whole index or any 
selected part may be printed on paper in several different formats. The index itself may also 
be stored on disk for future access and update. A 48K machine will hold up to 255 disks and 
over 2400 programs in each index, and you may build as many indexes as you need. There is 
nolimittothenumberof filenames it can read on any one disk. It will run on either a Model I 
or Model III and catalog disks for either machine regardless of which one is running it, though 
Model 1 owners must have double density to catalog Model III disks. It will automatically 
recognize any DOS and disk density. DISK INDEX works with any operating system written 
for the Model I or Model 111 except CP/M, and is extremely fast and easy to use 
Specify Model I or Model 111. DISK INDEX VERSION 3 $29.95 on disk 

TELCOM II 

Our popular smart terminal program has just gotten a lot smarter Alter two years of 
experience with TELCOM and many requests from customers, we have created TELCOM II 
for the most demanding telecommunications applications. TELCOM H maintains the same 
ease of operation and all the features of our original program (see below), and includes many 
enhancements. The terminal mode now has a help menu, a large spooler for simultaneous 
printer output at high baud rates, acknowledges receipt of all commands, and displays 
control characters. You can now load disk files into the memory buffer from within the 
terminal mode, transmit the buffer with a single command, and send files a line at a time. You 
can even view the buffer or data that has already scrolled off the screen, TELCOM II has 10 
diflerent 40 character programmable messages that can each be sent with asingle command, 
and the messages can now include control codes and delays. It also has 5 different character 
translation tables for compatibility with different systems. One of the most substantial 
additions to TELCOM is a full protocol file transfer mode which is compatible with the LYNC 
program available on CP/M systems and the IBM PC TELCOM II will exchange disk files 
with any computer running this protocol (including another TRS-80 running TELCOM 11), 
and will automatically correct errors in transmission! Files can be sent to or fetched from an 
unattended computer with ZERO errors. The extreme ease of use TELCOMis known for has 
not been compromised. Reconfiguration of the programmable (eatures is done internally 
from clear menus for fast, easy operation. TELCOM II comes with a comprehensive 
Instruction manual which is available separately for $5 (which will apply to subsequent 
purchase of the program). You won't find a smarter or easier to use terrninal program at any 
price. 
Specify Model I or Model III. TELCOM II $69.95 on disk 

TELCOM I 

Our original and popular smart terminal program has most of the features needed to 
communicate with time share systems or for high speed file transfers between two disk- based 
micros over modems or direct wire. It is menu driven and extremely simple to use. Functions 
include terminal mode, save RAM buffer on disk, transmit a disk file, receive a disk file, 
examine and modify UART parameters, 8 programmable log-on messages, automatic 
checksum verification ol accurate transmission and reception, and many more user conveni- 
ences. Supports line printers, lowercase characters, Xon/Xoff protocol, programmable 
character keys, and even saves itself on disk in different configurations. It will also exchange 
binary files without conversion to ASCII. 
Specify Model I or Model III. TELCOM I $39.95 on disk 

RAM SPOOLER AND PRINT FORMATTER 

This program is a full feature print formatting package featuring user defineablc line and page 
length (with line feeds inserted between words or after punctuation), indentation, screen 
dump, and printer pause. In addifion, printing is done from a 4K expandable buffer area so 
that the LPRINT or LLIST command returns conteol to the user while printing is being done. 
Works with cassette or disk systems. Allows printing and processing to run concurrently 
Output may be directed to either the parallel port, serial port, or the video screen, 80 Micro 
said "1 can only give my highest recommendation of Spooler and Mumford Micro Systems " 
Specify Model I or Model IIL SPOOLER $16,95 on tape, $21.95 on disk 

4 SPEEDS FOR YOUR MODEL I 

The SK- 2 clock modification alkiws CPU speeds to be switched between normal, an increase 
o( ,S0%, or a 50% reduction; selectable at anytime without interrupting execution or crashing 
the program. Instructions are also given for a 100% increase to 3,54 MHi, The SK-2 may be 
configured by the user to change speed with a toggle sv/itch or on software command. It will 
automatically return to normal speed any time a disk is active, requires no change to the 
operating system, and has provisions for adding an LED toindicate when the computer is not 
at normal speed. It mounts inside the keyboard unit with only 4necessan^ connections for the 
switch option (switch not included), and is easily removed if the computer ever needs service. 
The SK-2 comes lully assembled with socketed !C*s and illustrated instructions. 
Model I only, SK-2 $24,95 



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MICRO 
SYSTEMS .e 



ORDERING: Complete satisfaction is guaranteeid or a full refund will be made. Include $2,00 
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Box 400-E Summerland, California 93067 (805) 969-4557 

Quality software since 1978 



-See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, February 1983 • 229 



operates with more speed. The 68K, as 
it is implemented on the Model 16, op- 
erates at 6 megahertz compared to the 
4-megahertz operation of the Z80 in the 
Model II and 16. These higher clock 
speeds translate into the execution of 
more instructions per second. The exact 
number of instructions executed at a 
time depends upon the application, 
since some instructions execute more 
rapidly than others. However, as many 
as 1.5 million instructions per second 
can be executed at the current clock set- 
ting on the Model 16. 

Anyone following hardware develop- 
ments will notice that the 68K runs 
faster in other manufacturers' prod- 
ucts. In fact, you might feel slightly 
swindled by the slower performance 
from the CPU. To be fair, however, 
some consideration must be given to the 
time frame of the Model 16's design and 
the supporting ICs built into it. After 
all, one and a half million instructions 
per second is quite significant. (Inciden- 
tally, the 68K has been run under special 
conditions at speeds over 16 megahertz.) 

Although speed and word size are im- 
portant characteristics, perhaps the 
most important feature is the magni- 
tude of addressable memory area. The 



"As many as 

1.5 million instructions 

per second 

can be executed at 

the current clock setting 

on the Model 16. '' 



MC68000 is capable of addressing 16 
megabytes (million bytes) of memory. 
Since Radio Shack did not implement 
all the address Hnes, only 524,288 bytes 
(5 12K) are available. For most users this 
should be sufficient, particularly con- 
sidering the fact that many large multi- 
user systems have operated on substan- 
tially less memory. 

Two Systems in One 

Essentially, the Model 16 is two com- 
puter systems in one. The 68K is aug- 
mented with a Z80A, the same micro- 
processor used by the Model II as the 
CPU. By designing the system so that 



the Z80 could be used as a stand-alone 
CPU, the Model 16 can duplicate the 
functions of a Model II. When not be- 
ing used in the Model II mode, the Z80 
serves as a slave processor to the 68K, 
relieving the 16-bit CPU from time-con- 
suming I/O tasks. 

The use of the Z80 in this manner is 
very important in the initial success of 
the Model 16, since it permits the use of 
existing Radio Shack software. This 
software makes the machine useful 
while 68K software support is being de- 
veloped. Without the Z80, the Model 16 
would not currently be a marketable 
product, since there is very little soft- 
ware available that uses the 68K. 

External Storage 

The disk storage system is substan- 
tially different in capacity, physical size, 
and operation than the Model II. The 
first thing you will notice is that the 
disks are inserted in a completely dif- 
ferent manner than in the Model II — 
namely, upside down. The second no- 
ticeable operational aspect is the reduc- 
tion in system noise. 

One of the most unattractive features 
of the Model II is the incessant noise 
produced by the constant whine of the 



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^33 



230 • 80 Micro, February 1983 



disk drives and cooling fan. If a Model 
II is installed in a very quiet location, 
the noise it creates is frequently more 
than unpleasant. The Model 16 has 
solved this problem. Once a drive has 
been activated it remains rotating for 
only 30 seconds; if there have been no 
I/O operations to the drives during this 
period, then they are turned off. The 
cooling fan, however, still remains a 
burden to the eardrum and connecting 
neural passages. Surely there must have 
been a quieter fan or better mounting 
method. 

The floppy-disk drives used in the 
system are thinline double-sided, dou- 
ble-density, permitting approximately 
1.25 million bytes of storage per drive. 
Since the drives are physically much 
smaller than the Model II units, two can 
be placed in the same space as the single 
drive, enabling 2.5 million bytes of stor- 
age in the confines of the Model 16 en- 
closure. Two additional floppy drives 
can be added, supplying a total capacity 
of approximately 5 megabytes. 

The Model 16 also accepts the Radio 
Shack hard disk, which provides almost 
9 million bytes of storage capacity per 
drive. Up to four drives can be added 
providing a total of 33 million bytes of 



''The lack of 

sufficient serial I/O ports 

is the most serious 

design flaw 
in the Model 16/' 



hard-disk storage. 

I/O Ports 

The lack of sufficient serial 1/0 ports 
is the most serious design flaw in the 
Model 16. The input/ouput devices are 
exactly the same as the Model II. Name- 
ly, two RS-232 serial ports and one 
parallel port — woefully inadequate for 
a system designed as a multi-user sys- 
tem. With only two serial ports the sys- 
tem loses one third of its usefulness if a 
serial printer is utilized, and with two se- 
rial devices attached (such as a printer 
and a plotter), there is no room for ter- 
minals. (Radio Shack markets separate- 



ly an RS-232C selector switch that lets 
you connect three peripherals to a single 
serial output port. Also, the DT-1 data 
terminals designed to work with the 
Model 16 in a multi-user configuration 
have their own serial and parallel print- 
er ports.) 

Internal Expansion 

The Model 16 has space for only two 
additional cards on the system bus. This 
limits the number of options available 
to the user. For example, expanding to 
1/2 megabyte of internal memory and 
adding a hard-disk controller would 
completely fill the system bus. This 
means the hi-resolution graphics board 
or ARCNET could not be installed 
when or if it becomes available. (Inci- 
dentally, ARCNET was not mentioned 
in the new September catalog.) (Radio 
Shack Computer Centers are claiming 
that ARCNET will be available 
"aroundthefirst of theyear." This con- 
trasts with Radio Shack's original release 
date of "second quarter of '82.") 

Other Features 

The Model 16 possesses two features 
that must have been the byproduct of 
good market research. No longer will 



y^^^ 



Readable TRS-8a Books 



32 BASIC Programs for 
the TRS-80® Computer 
Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman 

Here are 32 fully docu- 
mented programs that are 
guaranteed to run if entered 
exactly as shown. Included 
are practical applications, 
educational uses, games 
and graphics. You can type 
the programs in yourself, or 
buy a diskette for the 
TRS-80 model I or model III 
computers with the pro- 
grams on it. 

Book: ISBN 0-918398-27-4 
304 pages S 1 9.95 
Book & Diskette: 

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Model III $29.95 



The Tenderfoot's Guide 
to Word Processing 

Barbara Chirlian 

Are you curious about 
word processing and